Abstract

We propose a novel design of integrated polarization splitter/combiner with ultra wide bandwidth. The proposed design utilizes the electro-optic (Pockels) effect in GaAs for splitting the polarizations. It also exploits the self imaging phenomenon in MMI couplers with a parabolic index distribution in the vertical direction to significantly increase the bandwidth. We also propose a novel approach for design optimization of the proposed structure. This approach is capable of extracting the propagation constants and their gradient with respect to all the design parameters. This allows for using gradient-based optimization. The computational time of this optimization procedure is only a fraction of that for other recently proposed approaches.

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  31. M. A. Swillam, R. H. Gohary, M. H. Bakr, X. Li, "Efficient approach for sensitivity analysis of lossy and leaky structures using FDTD," J. Progr. Electromagn. Res. (PIER) 94, 197-212 (2009).
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  40. K. Hennessy, C. Reese, A. Badolato, C. F. Wang, A. Imamoglu, P. M. Petroff, E. Hu, "Fabrication of high Q square-lattice photonic crystal microcavities," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B: Microelectron. Nanometer Structures 21, 2918-2921 (2003).
  41. K. A. Bertness, A. Roshko, S. E. Asher, C. L. Perkins, "Storage conditions for high-accuracy composition standards of AlGaAs," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 1267-1271 (2005).
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  51. B. M. A. Rahman, N. Somasiri, C. Themistos, K. T. V. Grattan, "Design of optical polarization splitters in a single-section deeply etched MMI waveguide," Appl. Phys. B 73, 613-618 (2001).

2009 (3)

M. A. Swillam, M. H. Bakr, X. Li, "Design optimization of compact wideband optical switch exploiting stair case index MMI," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 80-87 (2009).

M. A. Swillam, R. H. Gohary, M. H. Bakr, X. Li, "Efficient approach for sensitivity analysis of lossy and leaky structures using FDTD," J. Progr. Electromagn. Res. (PIER) 94, 197-212 (2009).

J. Ito, H. Tsuda, "Novel silica-based waveguide-type polarization beam splitters using trenches filled with low-refractive-index material," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5668-5674 (2009).

2008 (4)

M. A. Swillam, M. H. Bakr, X. Li, "Full wave sensitivity analysis of guided wave structures using FDTD," J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 22, 2135-2145 (2008).

T. Yamazaki, H. Aono, J. Yamauchi, H. Nakano, "Coupled waveguide polarization splitter with slightly different core widths," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3528-3533 (2008).

M. A. Swillam, M. H. Bakr, X. Li, "Efficient 3-D sensitivity analysis of surface plasmon waveguide structures," Opt. Exp. 16, 16371-16381 (2008).

M. A. Swillam, M. H. Bakr, X. Li, "Full vectorial 3-D sensitivity analysis and design optimization using BPM," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 528-536 (2008).

2007 (5)

J. Xiao, X. Liu, X. Sun, "Design of an ultracompact MMI wavelength demultiplexer in slot waveguide structures," Opt. Exp. 15, 8300-8308 (2007).

M. H. Ibrahim, S.-Y. Lee b, M.-K. Chin, N. Mohd Kassim, A. B. Mohammad, "Multimode interference wavelength multi/demultiplexer for 1310 and 1550 nm operation based on BCB 4024-40 photodefinable polymer," Opt. Commun. 273, 383-388 (2007).

L. M. Augustin, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, R. Hanfoug, W. J. M. de Laat, M. J. E. van de Moosdijk, P. W. L. van Dijk, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, "A single etch-step fabrication-tolerant polarization splitter," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 740-746 (2007).

W. Ye, D. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, P. Cheben, N. Tarr, "Passive broadband silicon-on-insulator polarization splitter," Opt. Lett. 32, 1492-1494 (2007).

L. M. Augustin, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, R. Hanfoug, W. J. M. de Laat, M. J. E. van de Moosdijk, P. W. L. van Dijk, Y. Oei, M. K. Smit, "A single etch-step fabrication-tolerant polarization splitter," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 740-746 (2007).

2006 (1)

F. Wang, J. Yang, L. Chen, X. Jiang, M. Wang, "Optical switch based on multimode interference coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 421-423 (2006).

2005 (4)

D. Lauvernier, S. Garidel, C. Legrand, J. Vilcot, "Realization of sub-micron patterns on GaAs using a HSQ etching mask," Microelectron. Eng. 77, 210-216 (2005).

S. Varoutsis, S. Laurent, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaître, L. Ferlazzo, C. Mériadec, G. Patriarche, I. Robert-Philip, I. Abram, "Reactive-ion etching of high-$Q$ and submicron-diameter GaAs/AlAs micropillar cavities," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2499-2503 (2005).

K. A. Bertness, A. Roshko, S. E. Asher, C. L. Perkins, "Storage conditions for high-accuracy composition standards of AlGaAs," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 1267-1271 (2005).

C. J. Kaalund, Z. Jin, "Novel multimode interference devices for low index contrast materials systems featuring deeply etched air trenches," Opt. Commun. 250, 292-296 (2005).

2004 (1)

S. L. Tsao, H. C. Guo, C. W. Tsai, "A novel 1$\,\times\,$2 single-mode 1300/1550nm wavelength division multiplexer with output facet-tilted MMI waveguide," Opt. Commun. 232, 371-379 (2004).

2003 (2)

G. L. Li, P. K. L. Yu, "Optical intensity modulators for digital and analog applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2010-2030 (2003).

K. Hennessy, C. Reese, A. Badolato, C. F. Wang, A. Imamoglu, P. M. Petroff, E. Hu, "Fabrication of high Q square-lattice photonic crystal microcavities," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B: Microelectron. Nanometer Structures 21, 2918-2921 (2003).

2002 (1)

S. Nagai, G. Morishima, H. Inayoshi, K. Utaka, "Multimode interference photonic switches (MIPS)," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 675-680 (2002).

2001 (2)

S. El-Sabban, I. Schanen, D. Khalil, P. Benech, "Fabrication and test of an integrated optical magic T on a glass substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 684-686 (2001).

B. M. A. Rahman, N. Somasiri, C. Themistos, K. T. V. Grattan, "Design of optical polarization splitters in a single-section deeply etched MMI waveguide," Appl. Phys. B 73, 613-618 (2001).

2000 (2)

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, H. Sigg, "The refractive index of Al$_{\rm x}$Ga$_{1 - {\rm x}}$ As below the band gap: Accurate determination and empirical modeling," J. Appl. Phy. 87, 7825-7837 (2000).

J. S. Rodgers, S. E. Ralph, R. P. Kenan, "Self-guiding multimode interference threshold switch," Opt. Lett. 25, 1717-1719 (2000).

1999 (1)

B. Li, G. Li, E. Liu, Z. Jiang, J. Qin, X. Wang, "Low-loss 1$\,\times\,$2 multimode interference wavelength demultiplexer in silicon-germanium alloy," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 575-577 (1999).

1998 (1)

H. El-Refaei, Di. Khalil, "Design of strip loaded weak guiding multimode interference structure for an optical route," IEEEJ. Quantum Electron. 34, 2286-2290 (1998).

1997 (3)

J. J. G. M. van der Tol, J. W. Pedersen, E. G. Metaal, J.-W. van Gaalen, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, "A short polarization splitter without metal overlays on InGaAsP-InP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 209-211 (1997).

M. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr."Tunable Mach–Zehnder polarization splitter using height-tapered y-branches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 773-775 (1997).

Z. R. Wasilewski, M. M. Dion, D. J. Lockwood, P. Poole, R. W. Streater, A. J. SpringThorpe, "Composition of AlGaAs," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1683-1694 (1997).

1996 (1)

K. C. Lin, W. Y. Lee, "Guided-wave 1.30/1.55 $\mu$m wavelength division multiplexer based on multimode interference," Electron. Lett. 32, 1259-1261 (1996).

1995 (3)

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multimode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 3, 615-627 (1995).

S. Benedetto, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, "Direct detection of optical digital transmission based on polarization shift keying modulation," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 10, 531-542 (1995).

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multimode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 3, 615-627 (1995).

1993 (3)

A. Ferreras, F. Rodriguez, E. Gomez-Salas, J. L. de Miguel, F. Hernandez-Gil, "Useful formulas for multimode interference power splitter/combiner design," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1224-1227 (1993).

H. Kawanishi, Y. Sugimoto, N. Tanaka, T. Ishikawa, "Sub-100 nm patterning of GaAs using in situe electron beam lithography," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 32, 4033-4037 (1993).

C. L. Xu, W. P. Huang, S. K. Chaudhuri, "Efficient and accurate vector mode calculations by beam propagation method," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1209-1215 (1993).

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

P. Albrecht, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffmann, H.-P. Nolting, C. M. Weinert, "TE/TM mode splitters on InGaAsP/InP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 114-115 (1990).

1988 (1)

S. Y. Wang, S. H. Lin, "High speed III-V electrooptic waveguide modulators at $\lambda =1.3\ \mu$m," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 758-771 (1988).

1987 (1)

B. Glance, "Polarization independent coherent optical receiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 5, 274-276 (1987).

1980 (1)

Y. Saad, "Variations on Arnoldi's method for computing eigenelements of large unsymmetric matrices," Linear Algebra Appl. 34, 269-295 (1980).

1961 (1)

S. Namba, "Electro-optical effect of Zincblende," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 76-79 (1961).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

B. M. A. Rahman, N. Somasiri, C. Themistos, K. T. V. Grattan, "Design of optical polarization splitters in a single-section deeply etched MMI waveguide," Appl. Phys. B 73, 613-618 (2001).

Electron. Lett. (1)

K. C. Lin, W. Y. Lee, "Guided-wave 1.30/1.55 $\mu$m wavelength division multiplexer based on multimode interference," Electron. Lett. 32, 1259-1261 (1996).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

S. Benedetto, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, "Direct detection of optical digital transmission based on polarization shift keying modulation," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 10, 531-542 (1995).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (7)

B. Li, G. Li, E. Liu, Z. Jiang, J. Qin, X. Wang, "Low-loss 1$\,\times\,$2 multimode interference wavelength demultiplexer in silicon-germanium alloy," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 575-577 (1999).

M. Hu, J. Z. Huang, R. Scarmozzino, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr."Tunable Mach–Zehnder polarization splitter using height-tapered y-branches," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 773-775 (1997).

P. Albrecht, M. Hamacher, H. Heidrich, D. Hoffmann, H.-P. Nolting, C. M. Weinert, "TE/TM mode splitters on InGaAsP/InP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2, 114-115 (1990).

J. J. G. M. van der Tol, J. W. Pedersen, E. G. Metaal, J.-W. van Gaalen, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, "A short polarization splitter without metal overlays on InGaAsP-InP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 209-211 (1997).

A. Ferreras, F. Rodriguez, E. Gomez-Salas, J. L. de Miguel, F. Hernandez-Gil, "Useful formulas for multimode interference power splitter/combiner design," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1224-1227 (1993).

S. El-Sabban, I. Schanen, D. Khalil, P. Benech, "Fabrication and test of an integrated optical magic T on a glass substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 684-686 (2001).

F. Wang, J. Yang, L. Chen, X. Jiang, M. Wang, "Optical switch based on multimode interference coupler," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 421-423 (2006).

IEEEJ. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. El-Refaei, Di. Khalil, "Design of strip loaded weak guiding multimode interference structure for an optical route," IEEEJ. Quantum Electron. 34, 2286-2290 (1998).

J. Appl. Phy. (1)

S. Gehrsitz, F. K. Reinhart, C. Gourgon, N. Herres, A. Vonlanthen, H. Sigg, "The refractive index of Al$_{\rm x}$Ga$_{1 - {\rm x}}$ As below the band gap: Accurate determination and empirical modeling," J. Appl. Phy. 87, 7825-7837 (2000).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Z. R. Wasilewski, M. M. Dion, D. J. Lockwood, P. Poole, R. W. Streater, A. J. SpringThorpe, "Composition of AlGaAs," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 1683-1694 (1997).

J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. (1)

M. A. Swillam, M. H. Bakr, X. Li, "Full wave sensitivity analysis of guided wave structures using FDTD," J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 22, 2135-2145 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (13)

C. L. Xu, W. P. Huang, S. K. Chaudhuri, "Efficient and accurate vector mode calculations by beam propagation method," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1209-1215 (1993).

M. A. Swillam, M. H. Bakr, X. Li, "Full vectorial 3-D sensitivity analysis and design optimization using BPM," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 528-536 (2008).

T. Yamazaki, H. Aono, J. Yamauchi, H. Nakano, "Coupled waveguide polarization splitter with slightly different core widths," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3528-3533 (2008).

S. Nagai, G. Morishima, H. Inayoshi, K. Utaka, "Multimode interference photonic switches (MIPS)," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 675-680 (2002).

M. A. Swillam, M. H. Bakr, X. Li, "Design optimization of compact wideband optical switch exploiting stair case index MMI," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 80-87 (2009).

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multimode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 3, 615-627 (1995).

B. Glance, "Polarization independent coherent optical receiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 5, 274-276 (1987).

L. M. Augustin, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, R. Hanfoug, W. J. M. de Laat, M. J. E. van de Moosdijk, P. W. L. van Dijk, Y. S. Oei, M. K. Smit, "A single etch-step fabrication-tolerant polarization splitter," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 740-746 (2007).

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multimode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 3, 615-627 (1995).

S. Y. Wang, S. H. Lin, "High speed III-V electrooptic waveguide modulators at $\lambda =1.3\ \mu$m," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 758-771 (1988).

G. L. Li, P. K. L. Yu, "Optical intensity modulators for digital and analog applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2010-2030 (2003).

L. M. Augustin, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, R. Hanfoug, W. J. M. de Laat, M. J. E. van de Moosdijk, P. W. L. van Dijk, Y. Oei, M. K. Smit, "A single etch-step fabrication-tolerant polarization splitter," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 740-746 (2007).

J. Ito, H. Tsuda, "Novel silica-based waveguide-type polarization beam splitters using trenches filled with low-refractive-index material," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5668-5674 (2009).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

S. Namba, "Electro-optical effect of Zincblende," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 51, 76-79 (1961).

J. Progr. Electromagn. Res. (PIER) (1)

M. A. Swillam, R. H. Gohary, M. H. Bakr, X. Li, "Efficient approach for sensitivity analysis of lossy and leaky structures using FDTD," J. Progr. Electromagn. Res. (PIER) 94, 197-212 (2009).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (2)

K. A. Bertness, A. Roshko, S. E. Asher, C. L. Perkins, "Storage conditions for high-accuracy composition standards of AlGaAs," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 1267-1271 (2005).

S. Varoutsis, S. Laurent, I. Sagnes, A. Lemaître, L. Ferlazzo, C. Mériadec, G. Patriarche, I. Robert-Philip, I. Abram, "Reactive-ion etching of high-$Q$ and submicron-diameter GaAs/AlAs micropillar cavities," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, 2499-2503 (2005).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B: Microelectron. Nanometer Structures (1)

K. Hennessy, C. Reese, A. Badolato, C. F. Wang, A. Imamoglu, P. M. Petroff, E. Hu, "Fabrication of high Q square-lattice photonic crystal microcavities," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B: Microelectron. Nanometer Structures 21, 2918-2921 (2003).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

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