Abstract

We present a demonstration of two error-correction coding schemes that can successfully operate on a free-space optical (FSO) communication channel subject to atmospheric turbulence. The codes (a puntured Low-density parity-check code and a Raptor code) operate by continuously adapting the information rate to accommodate the varying channel conditions. Because these coding schemes require the use of a feedback channel, we evaluate the bandwidth cost incurred. The evaluation of the codes is performed offline and uses experimental optical signals recorded from an FSO link. We analyze the temporal characteristics of the experimental channels and compare the performance of the codes for different bit rates to asses the effect of temporal correlation and imperfect channel state information.

© 2010 IEEE

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2009 (3)

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, M. Uysal, "Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8, 951-957 (2009).

F. Xu, A. Khalighi, P. Causs, S. Bourennane, "Channel coding and time-diversity for optical wireless links," Opt. Exp. 17, 872-887 (2009).

F. Khozeimeh, S. Hranilovic, "Dynamic spot diffusing configuration for indoor optical wireless access," IEEE Trans. Commun. 57, 1765-1775 (2009).

2008 (2)

N. Letzepis, I. Holland, W. Cowley, "The Gaussian free space optical MIMO channel with Q-ary pulse position modulation," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7, 1744-1753 (2008).

N. Cvijetic, S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, "Performance bounds for free-space optical MIMO systems with APD receivers in atmospheric turbulence," J. Sel. Areas Commun. 26, 3-12 (2008).

2007 (5)

J. Li, J. Q. Liu, D. P. Taylor, "Optical communication using subcarrier PSK intensity modulation through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 55, 1598-1606 (2007).

N. Cvijetic, S. G. Wilson, R. Zarubica, "Performance evaluation of a novel converged architecture for digital-video transmission over optical wireless channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3366-3373 (2007).

A. Peleg, J. V. Moloney, "Scintillation reduction by use of multiple gaussian laser beams with different wavelengths," Photon. Techn. Lett. 19, 883-885 (2007).

F. S. Vetelino, C. Young, L. Andrews, J. Recolons, "Aperture averaging effects on the probability density of irradiance fluctuations in moderate-to-strong turbulence," Appl. Opt. 46, 2099-2108 (2007).

J. A. Anguita, M. A. Neifeld, B. V. Vasic, "Spatial correlation and irradiance statistics in a multiple-beam terrestrial free-space optical communication link," Appl. Opt. 46, 6561-6571 (2007).

2006 (5)

I. Pastirk, X. Zhu, R. M. Martin, M. Dantus, "Remote characterization and dispersion compensation of amplified shaped femtosecond pulses using MIIPS," Opt. Exp. 14, 8885-8889 (2006).

T. Mizuochi, "Recent progress in forward error correction and its interplay with transmission impairment," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 12, 544-554 (2006).

H. Henniger, A. González, "Transmission scheme and error protection for simplex long-distance atmospheric FSO systems," Mediterr. J. Electr. Commun. 2, 118-126 (2006).

A. Shokrollahi, "Raptor codes," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 2551-2567 (2006).

J. Castura, Y. Mao, "Rateless coding over fading channels," Commun. Lett. 10, 46-48 (2006).

2005 (5)

U. Ketprom, S. Jaruwatanadilok, Y. Kuga, A. Ishimaru, J. Ritcey, "Channel modeling for optical wireless communication through dense fog," J. Opt. Netw. 4, 291-299 (2005).

H. Yuksel, S. Milner, C. Davis, "Aperture averaging for optimizing receiver design and system performance on free-space optical communication links," J. Opt. Netw. 4, 462-475 (2005).

V. Vilnrotter, C.-W. Lau, M. Srinivasan, K. Andrews, R. Mukai, "Optical array receiver for communication through atmospheric turbulence," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1664-1675 (2005).

M. Razavi, J. H. Shapiro, "Wireless optical communications via diversity reception and optical amplification," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 4, 975-983 (2005).

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, M. Baedke, "Optical repetition MIMO transmission with multipulse PPM," J. Sel. A. Commun. 23, 1901-1910 (2005).

2004 (3)

O. Korotkova, L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, "Model for a partially coherent Gaussian beam in atmospheric turbulence with application in Lasercom," Opt. Eng. 43, 330-341 (2004).

J. Ha, J. Kim, S. W. McLaughlin, "Rate-compatible puncturing of low-density parity-check codes," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 50, 2824-2836 (2004).

B. Vasic, O. Milenkovic, "Combinatorial constructions of low density parity-check codes for iterative decoding," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 50, 1156-1176 (2004).

2003 (2)

B. Vasic, I. B. Djordjevic, R. K. Kostuk, "Low-density parity check codes and iterative decoding for long-haul optical communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 438-446 (2003).

J. C. Ricklin, F. M. Davidson, "Atmospheric optical communication with a Gaussian Schell beam," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 20, 856-866 (2003).

2002 (3)

X. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, "Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1293-1300 (2002).

B. Vasic, I. B. Djordjevic, "Iteratively decodable block codes in long-haul optical transmission systems," J. Opt. Commun. 23, 182-186 (2002).

J. C. Ricklin, F. M. Davidson, "Atmospheric turbulence effects on a partially coherent Gaussian beam: Implications for free-space laser communication," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 19, 1794-1802 (2002).

2001 (2)

F. R. Kschischang, B. J. Frey, H.-A. Loeliger, "Factor graphs and the sum-product algorithm," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 47, 498-519 (2001).

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, "Mathematical model for the irradiance probability density function of a laser beam propagating through turbulent media," Opt. Eng. 40, 1554-1562 (2001).

2000 (1)

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, C. Y. Hopen, "Aperture averaging of optical scintillations: Power fluctuations and the temporal spectrum," Waves Random Media 10, 53-70 (2000).

1999 (1)

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, C. Y. Hopen, M. A. Al-Habash, "Theory of optical scintillation," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 16, 1417-1429 (1999).

1997 (1)

1991 (1)

1967 (1)

Appl. Opt. (5)

Commun. Lett. (1)

J. Castura, Y. Mao, "Rateless coding over fading channels," Commun. Lett. 10, 46-48 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. (1)

T. Mizuochi, "Recent progress in forward error correction and its interplay with transmission impairment," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quant. Electron. 12, 544-554 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (3)

F. Khozeimeh, S. Hranilovic, "Dynamic spot diffusing configuration for indoor optical wireless access," IEEE Trans. Commun. 57, 1765-1775 (2009).

J. Li, J. Q. Liu, D. P. Taylor, "Optical communication using subcarrier PSK intensity modulation through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 55, 1598-1606 (2007).

X. Zhu, J. M. Kahn, "Free-space optical communication through atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Commun. 50, 1293-1300 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (4)

A. Shokrollahi, "Raptor codes," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 52, 2551-2567 (2006).

J. Ha, J. Kim, S. W. McLaughlin, "Rate-compatible puncturing of low-density parity-check codes," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 50, 2824-2836 (2004).

B. Vasic, O. Milenkovic, "Combinatorial constructions of low density parity-check codes for iterative decoding," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 50, 1156-1176 (2004).

F. R. Kschischang, B. J. Frey, H.-A. Loeliger, "Factor graphs and the sum-product algorithm," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 47, 498-519 (2001).

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. (3)

N. Letzepis, I. Holland, W. Cowley, "The Gaussian free space optical MIMO channel with Q-ary pulse position modulation," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7, 1744-1753 (2008).

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, M. Uysal, "Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8, 951-957 (2009).

M. Razavi, J. H. Shapiro, "Wireless optical communications via diversity reception and optical amplification," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 4, 975-983 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

V. Vilnrotter, C.-W. Lau, M. Srinivasan, K. Andrews, R. Mukai, "Optical array receiver for communication through atmospheric turbulence," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 1664-1675 (2005).

N. Cvijetic, S. G. Wilson, R. Zarubica, "Performance evaluation of a novel converged architecture for digital-video transmission over optical wireless channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3366-3373 (2007).

B. Vasic, I. B. Djordjevic, R. K. Kostuk, "Low-density parity check codes and iterative decoding for long-haul optical communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 438-446 (2003).

J. Opt. Commun. (1)

B. Vasic, I. B. Djordjevic, "Iteratively decodable block codes in long-haul optical transmission systems," J. Opt. Commun. 23, 182-186 (2002).

J. Opt. Netw. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A (3)

J. C. Ricklin, F. M. Davidson, "Atmospheric turbulence effects on a partially coherent Gaussian beam: Implications for free-space laser communication," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 19, 1794-1802 (2002).

J. C. Ricklin, F. M. Davidson, "Atmospheric optical communication with a Gaussian Schell beam," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 20, 856-866 (2003).

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, C. Y. Hopen, M. A. Al-Habash, "Theory of optical scintillation," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. A 16, 1417-1429 (1999).

J. Sel. A. Commun. (1)

S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, Q. Cao, M. Baedke, "Optical repetition MIMO transmission with multipulse PPM," J. Sel. A. Commun. 23, 1901-1910 (2005).

J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

N. Cvijetic, S. G. Wilson, M. Brandt-Pearce, "Performance bounds for free-space optical MIMO systems with APD receivers in atmospheric turbulence," J. Sel. Areas Commun. 26, 3-12 (2008).

Mediterr. J. Electr. Commun. (1)

H. Henniger, A. González, "Transmission scheme and error protection for simplex long-distance atmospheric FSO systems," Mediterr. J. Electr. Commun. 2, 118-126 (2006).

Opt. Eng. (2)

O. Korotkova, L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, "Model for a partially coherent Gaussian beam in atmospheric turbulence with application in Lasercom," Opt. Eng. 43, 330-341 (2004).

M. A. Al-Habash, L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, "Mathematical model for the irradiance probability density function of a laser beam propagating through turbulent media," Opt. Eng. 40, 1554-1562 (2001).

Opt. Exp. (2)

F. Xu, A. Khalighi, P. Causs, S. Bourennane, "Channel coding and time-diversity for optical wireless links," Opt. Exp. 17, 872-887 (2009).

I. Pastirk, X. Zhu, R. M. Martin, M. Dantus, "Remote characterization and dispersion compensation of amplified shaped femtosecond pulses using MIIPS," Opt. Exp. 14, 8885-8889 (2006).

Photon. Techn. Lett. (1)

A. Peleg, J. V. Moloney, "Scintillation reduction by use of multiple gaussian laser beams with different wavelengths," Photon. Techn. Lett. 19, 883-885 (2007).

Waves Random Media (1)

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, C. Y. Hopen, "Aperture averaging of optical scintillations: Power fluctuations and the temporal spectrum," Waves Random Media 10, 53-70 (2000).

Other (12)

D. J. C. MacKay, Encyclopedia of sparse graph codes, (2010) http://www.inference.phy.cam.ac.uk/mackay/codes/data.html.

A. Hashmi, A. Eftekhar, S. Yegnanarayanan, A. Adibi, "Analysis of optimal adaptive optics system for hybrid Rf-wireless optical communication for maximum efficiency and reliability," Proc. ICET (4th Int. Conf. Emerg. Technol.) (2008) pp. 62-67.

I. Kim, P. Adhikari, E. Korevaar, A. Majumdar, "Scintillation reduction using multiple transmitters," Proc. SPIE (1997) pp. 102-.

P. T. Ryan, W. H. Lowrey, I. A. De La Rue, R. Q. Fugatea, "Scintillation characterization for multiple beams," Proc. SPIE (1999) pp. 210.

M. Luby, "LT codes," Proc. IEEE Symp. Found. Comput. Sci. (FOCSi2002) pp. 271-280.

R. Palanki, J. Yedidia, "Rateless codes on noisy channels," Proc. Inf. Theory (ISIT) (2004) pp. 37.

H. Jenkač, T. Mayer, T. Stockhammer, W. Xu, "Soft decoding of LT-codes for wireless broadcast," IST Summit 2005 DresdenGermany ().

S. Karp, R. Gagliardi, S. E. Moran, L. B. Stotts, Optical Channels (Plenum, 1988).

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (Academic, 1978).

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill, 2001).

F. M. Davidson, S. Bucaillea, C. Gilbreath, E. Ohb, "Scintillation measurements of broadband 980 nm laser light in clear air turbulence link," Proc. SPIE (2004) pp. 13-24.

L. C. Andrews, R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation Through Random Media (SPIE, 2005).

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