Abstract

Digital backpropagation (BP) is a universal method for jointly compensating dispersion and nonlinear impairments in optical fiber and is applicable to signals of any modulation format. In this paper, we compare single carrier (SC) versus orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) for polarization-multiplexed transmission. We show that at realistic data rates and transmission distances, polarization mode dispersion does not significantly degrade the performance of BP and can be mitigated by a post-BP linear equalizer. Dispersion unmanaged transmission can significantly reduce nonlinearity, and in this transmission regime, SC and OFDM have similar nonlinear tolerance. Multichannel BP is effective at mitigating interchannel nonlinearity for point-to-point links.

© 2010 IEEE

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2009 (5)

F. Yaman, G. Li, "Nonlinear impairment compensation for polarization-division multiplexed WDM transmission using digital backward propagation," IEEE Photon. J. 1, 144-152 (2009).

X. Liu, F. Buchali, R. W. Tkach, "Improving the nonlinear tolerance of polarization-division-multiplexed CO-OFDM in long-haul fiber transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3632-3640 (2009).

J. Armstrong, "OFDM for optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 189-204 (2009).

D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Optical modulator optimization for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2370-2378 (2009).

E. F. Mateo, G. Li, "Compensation of interchannel nonlinearities using enhanced coupled equations for digital backward propagation," J. Appl. Opt. 48, 6-10 (2009).

2008 (5)

D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Optimized dispersion compensation using orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2889-2898 (2008).

Q. Zhang, M. I. Hayee, "Symmetrized split-step Fourier scheme to control global simulation accuracy in fiber-optic communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 302-315 (2008).

E. Mateo, L. Zhu, G. Li, "Impact of XPM and FWM on the digital implementation of impairment compensation for WDM transmission using backward propagation," Opt. Exp. 16, 16124-16137 (2008).

X. Li, X. Chen, G. Goldfarb, E. Mateo, I. Kim, F. Yaman, G. Li, "Electronic post-compensation of WDM transmission impairments using coherent detection and digital signal processing," Opt. Expr. 16, 881-888 (2008).

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital backpropagation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3416-3425 (2008).

2007 (2)

A. J. Lowery, "Fiber nonlinearity mitigation in optical links that use OFDM for dispersion compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1556-1558 (2007).

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Digital equalization of chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2033-2043 (2007).

2006 (2)

K. Roberts, C. Li, L. Strawczynski, M. O'Sullivan, I. Hardcastle, "Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity," Photon. Technol. Lett. IEEE 18, 403-405 (2006).

R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, X. Q. Qang, W. Lee, C. A. White, E. C. Burrows, "Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1804-1806 (2006).

2005 (1)

R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, V. Mikhailov, M. Glick, P. Bayvel, "Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion using digital processing and a dual-drive Mach–Zehnder modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 714-716 (2005).

2004 (1)

K.-P. Ho, J. M. Kahn, "Electronic compensation technique to mitigate nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 779-783 (2004).

2003 (2)

J. H. Lee, M. S. Kim, Y. C. Chung, "Statistical PMD emulator using variable DGD elements," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 15, 54-56 (2003).

J. Leibrich, W. Rosenkranz, "Efficient numerical simulation of multichannel WDM transmission systems limited by XPM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 395-397 (2003).

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

J. P. Gordon, H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 97, 4541-4550 (2000).

1998 (1)

H. A. Haus, "The noise figure of optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 10, 1602-1604 (1998).

1997 (1)

D. Marcuse, C. R. Menyuk, P. K. A. Wai, "Applications of the Manakov-PMD equation to studies of signal propagation in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1735-1746 (1997).

1991 (2)

G. J. Foschini, C. D. Poole, "Statistical theory of polarization dispersion in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1439-1456 (1991).

P. K. A. Wai, C. R. Menyuk, H. H. Chen, "Stability of solitons in randomly varying birefringent fibers," Opt. Lett. 16, 1231-1233 (1991).

1990 (1)

1985 (1)

S. Qureshi, "Adaptive equalization," Proc. IEEE 73, 1349-1387 (1985).

IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. (2)

J. H. Lee, M. S. Kim, Y. C. Chung, "Statistical PMD emulator using variable DGD elements," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 15, 54-56 (2003).

H. A. Haus, "The noise figure of optical amplifiers," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 10, 1602-1604 (1998).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

F. Yaman, G. Li, "Nonlinear impairment compensation for polarization-division multiplexed WDM transmission using digital backward propagation," IEEE Photon. J. 1, 144-152 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

R.-J. Essiambre, P. J. Winzer, X. Q. Qang, W. Lee, C. A. White, E. C. Burrows, "Electronic predistortion and fiber nonlinearity," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1804-1806 (2006).

R. I. Killey, P. M. Watts, V. Mikhailov, M. Glick, P. Bayvel, "Electronic dispersion compensation by signal predistortion using digital processing and a dual-drive Mach–Zehnder modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 714-716 (2005).

A. J. Lowery, "Fiber nonlinearity mitigation in optical links that use OFDM for dispersion compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1556-1558 (2007).

J. Leibrich, W. Rosenkranz, "Efficient numerical simulation of multichannel WDM transmission systems limited by XPM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 395-397 (2003).

J. Appl. Opt. (1)

E. F. Mateo, G. Li, "Compensation of interchannel nonlinearities using enhanced coupled equations for digital backward propagation," J. Appl. Opt. 48, 6-10 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (10)

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Digital equalization of chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2033-2043 (2007).

D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Optimized dispersion compensation using orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2889-2898 (2008).

G. J. Foschini, C. D. Poole, "Statistical theory of polarization dispersion in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1439-1456 (1991).

D. Marcuse, C. R. Menyuk, P. K. A. Wai, "Applications of the Manakov-PMD equation to studies of signal propagation in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1735-1746 (1997).

Q. Zhang, M. I. Hayee, "Symmetrized split-step Fourier scheme to control global simulation accuracy in fiber-optic communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 302-315 (2008).

D. J. F. Barros, J. M. Kahn, "Optical modulator optimization for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2370-2378 (2009).

J. Armstrong, "OFDM for optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 189-204 (2009).

K.-P. Ho, J. M. Kahn, "Electronic compensation technique to mitigate nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 779-783 (2004).

E. Ip, J. M. Kahn, "Compensation of dispersion and nonlinear impairments using digital backpropagation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3416-3425 (2008).

X. Liu, F. Buchali, R. W. Tkach, "Improving the nonlinear tolerance of polarization-division-multiplexed CO-OFDM in long-haul fiber transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3632-3640 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (1)

E. Mateo, L. Zhu, G. Li, "Impact of XPM and FWM on the digital implementation of impairment compensation for WDM transmission using backward propagation," Opt. Exp. 16, 16124-16137 (2008).

Opt. Expr. (1)

X. Li, X. Chen, G. Goldfarb, E. Mateo, I. Kim, F. Yaman, G. Li, "Electronic post-compensation of WDM transmission impairments using coherent detection and digital signal processing," Opt. Expr. 16, 881-888 (2008).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Photon. Technol. Lett. IEEE (1)

K. Roberts, C. Li, L. Strawczynski, M. O'Sullivan, I. Hardcastle, "Electronic precompensation of optical nonlinearity," Photon. Technol. Lett. IEEE 18, 403-405 (2006).

Proc. IEEE (1)

S. Qureshi, "Adaptive equalization," Proc. IEEE 73, 1349-1387 (1985).

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (1)

J. P. Gordon, H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 97, 4541-4550 (2000).

Other (8)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 1995).

G. P. Agrawal, Applications of Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

H. Meyr, M. Moeneclaey, S. Fechtel, Digital Communication Receivers (Wiley, 1997).

K. Kikuchi, M. Fukase, S. Kim, "Electronic post-compensation for nonlinear phase noise in a 1000-km 20-Gb/s optical QPSK transmission system using the homodyne receiver with digital signal processing," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC 2007) Los AngelesCA Paper OTuA2.

G. Charlet, N. Maaref, J. Renaudier, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, S. Bigo, "Transmission of 40 Gb/s QPSK with coherent detection over ultra-long distance improved by nonlinearity mitigation," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2006) CannesFrance Paper Th4.3.4..

R.-J. Essiambre, G. J. Foschini, P. J. Winzer, G. Kramer, E. C. Burrows, "The capacity of fiber-optic communication systems," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC 2008) San DiegoCA Paper OTuE1.

X. Liu, S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, "Experimental demonstration of joint SPM compensation in 44-Gb/s PDM-OFDM transmission with 16-QAM subcarrier modulation," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2009) ViennaAustria Paper M2.3.4..

S. Oda, T. Tanimura, T. Hoshida, C. Ohshima, H. Nakashima, Z. Tao, J. C. Rasmussen, "112 Gb/s DP-QPSK transmission using a novel nonlinear compensator in digital coherent receiver," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC 2009) San DiegoCA Paper OThR6.

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