Abstract

Power consumption is expected to become the main limiting factor for scaling the current network architectures to capabilities of hundreds of terabit or even petabits. The use of optical switching fabrics (SFs) could relax the limitations to some extent but large optical buffers occupy larger area and dissipate more power than electronic ones. In this paper, we evaluate the power consumption of bufferless optical packet switches (OPSs), using the wavelength conversion to solve the output packet contentions. Sophisticated analytical models are introduced to evaluate the power consumption of synchronous and asynchronous OPSs (SOPSs and AOPSs) versus the offered traffic, the main switch parameters, and the used device characteristics. The power consumption in SOPSs and AOPSs is compared when commercial semiconductor optical amplifiers are used to implement SFs and wavelength converters (WCs). The obtained results show that the high power consumption in synchronization stage makes SOPS less effective than AOPS in terms of power consumption. For instance, when the OPSs are dimensioned with a sufficient number of WCs and offered traffic is 0.8, SOPS consumes 140% of power more than does the AOPS. Finally, though power consumption due to cooling system is not considered in the proposed model, we observe that both SOPSs and AOPSs consume much less power per gigabit per second carried than commercial routers.

© 2010 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. C. Bianco, F. Cucchietti, G. Griffa, "Energy consumption trends in the next generation access network—A telco perspectivea," Proc. 29th Int. Telecommun. Energy Conf. (INTELEC) (2007) pp. 737-742.
  2. The Environment Telecom Italia, 2006 http://www.telecomitalia.it/sostenibilita2006/English/B05.html.
  3. BT Announces Major Wind Power Plans BT Press (2007) http://www.btplc.com/News/Articles/Showarticle.cfm?ArticleID =dd615e9c-71ad-4daa-951a-55651baae5bb.
  4. J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, S. Wright, "Power awareness in network design and routing," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM (2008) pp. 457-465.
  5. S. Nedevschi, L. Popa, G. Iannaccone, S. Ratnasamy, D. Wetherall, "Reducing network energy consumption via sleeping and rate-adaptation," Proc. 5th USENIX Symp. Netw. Syst. Des. Implementation (2008) pp. 323-336.
  6. D. Blumenthal, P. Prucnal, J. Sauer, "Photonic packet switches: Architectures and experimental implementations," Proc. IEEE 82, 84-94 (2000).
  7. S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixit, "Advances in photonic packet switching: An overview," IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 84-94 (2000).
  8. D. K. Hunter, I. Andonovic, "Approaches to optical internet packet switching," IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 116-122 (2000).
  9. D. Chiaroni, "Packet switching matrix: A key element for the backbone and the metro," IEEE J. Sel. Area Commun. 21, 1018-1025 (2003).
  10. S. Aleksic, "Analysis of power in future high capacity network nodes," IEEE/OSA J. Commun. Netw. 1, 245-258 (2009).
  11. S. Aleksic, "Power consumption issues in future high-performance switches and routers," Proc. ICTON (2008) pp. 194-198.
  12. R. S. Tucker, "The role of optics and electronics in high-capacity routers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4655-4673 (2006).
  13. J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, R. S. Tucker, "Photonic switching and the energy bottleneck," Proc. Photon. Switching (2007) pp. 125-126.
  14. R. S. Tucker, K. Hinton, G. Raskutti, "Energy consumption limits in high-speed optical and electronic signal processing," Electron. Lett. 43, 906-908 (2007).
  15. R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption in digital optical ICs with plasmon waveguide interconnects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2036-2038 (2007).
  16. V. Eramo, M. Listanti, "Power consumption in bufferless optical packet switches in SOA technology," IEEE/OSA J. Commun. Netw. 1, B15-B29 (2009).
  17. S. L. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkyaer, "Optical packet switched network layer without optical buffers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 896-898 (1998).
  18. V. Eramo, M. Listanti, "Packet loss in a bufferless WDM switch employing shared tuneable wavelength converters," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1818-1833 (2000).
  19. V. Eramo, M. Listanti, P. Pacifici, "A comparative study on the number on the number of wavelength converters needed in synchronous and asynchronous all-optical switching architectures," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 340-355 (2003).
  20. J. P. Mack, H. N. Poulsen, D. J. Blumental, "40 Gb/s autonomous optical packet synchronizer," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2008) pp. 1-3.
  21. J. P. Mack, H. N. Poulsen, D. J. Blumental, "Variable length optical packet synchronizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1252-1254 (2008).
  22. A. Stavdas, A. Salis, A. Dupas, D. Chiaroni, "All-optical packet synchronizer for slotted core/metropolitan networks," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 88-93 (2008).
  23. T. Sakamoto, A. Okada, M. Hirayama, Y. Sakai, O. Morikawi, I. Ogawa, R. Sato, K. Noguchi, M. Matsuoka, "Optical packet synchronizer using wavelength and space switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1360-1362 (2002).
  24. Z. Hu, J. Sun, L. Liu, J. Wanga, "All-optical tunable delay line based on wavelength conversion in semiconductor optical amplifier and dispersion in dispersion-compensating fiber," App. Phys. B. 91, 421-424 (2008).
  25. K. Hinton, G. Rakutti, P. Farrel, R. S. Tucker, "Switching energy and device size limits on digital photonic signal processing technologies," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 938-945 (2008).
  26. A. Detti, V. Eramo, M. Listanti, "Performance evaluation of a new technique for IP support in a WDM optical network: Optical composite burst switching (OCBS)," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 154-165 (2002).
  27. N. Akar, E. Karasan, G. Muretto, C. Raffaelli, "Fixed point analysis of limited range per node wavelength conversion in asynchronous optical packet switching systems," Photon. Netw. Commun. 18, 255-263 (2009) DOI 10.1007/s11107-009-0189-7.
  28. N. Akar, E. Karasan, G. Muretto, C. Raffaelli, "Performance analysis of an optical packet switch employing full/limited range share per node wavelength conversion," Proc. IEEE Globecom (2007) pp. 2369-2373.
  29. N. Akar, E. Karasan, K. Dogan, "Wavelength converter sharing in asynchronous optical packet/burst switching: An exact blocking analysis for markovian arrivals," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 24, 69-80 (2006).
  30. V. Eramo, M. Listanti, C. Nuzman, P. Whiting, "Optical switch dimensioning and the classical occupancy problem," Int. J. Commun. Syst. 15, 69-80 (2006).
  31. J. Sakaguchi, F. Salleras, K. Nishimura, Y. Ueno, "Frequency-dependent electric dc power consumption model including quantum-conversion efficiencies in ultrafast all-optical semiconductor gates around 160 Gb/s," Opt. Exp. 15, 14887-14900 (2007).
  32. Y. Ueno, J. Sakaguchi, R. Nakamoto, T. Nishida, "Ultrafast, low-energy-consumption, semiconductor-based, all-optical devices," presented at the 4th Asia-Pac. Photon. Conf. (APMP) BejingChina (2009).

2009

S. Aleksic, "Analysis of power in future high capacity network nodes," IEEE/OSA J. Commun. Netw. 1, 245-258 (2009).

V. Eramo, M. Listanti, "Power consumption in bufferless optical packet switches in SOA technology," IEEE/OSA J. Commun. Netw. 1, B15-B29 (2009).

N. Akar, E. Karasan, G. Muretto, C. Raffaelli, "Fixed point analysis of limited range per node wavelength conversion in asynchronous optical packet switching systems," Photon. Netw. Commun. 18, 255-263 (2009) DOI 10.1007/s11107-009-0189-7.

2008

Z. Hu, J. Sun, L. Liu, J. Wanga, "All-optical tunable delay line based on wavelength conversion in semiconductor optical amplifier and dispersion in dispersion-compensating fiber," App. Phys. B. 91, 421-424 (2008).

K. Hinton, G. Rakutti, P. Farrel, R. S. Tucker, "Switching energy and device size limits on digital photonic signal processing technologies," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 938-945 (2008).

J. P. Mack, H. N. Poulsen, D. J. Blumental, "Variable length optical packet synchronizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1252-1254 (2008).

A. Stavdas, A. Salis, A. Dupas, D. Chiaroni, "All-optical packet synchronizer for slotted core/metropolitan networks," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 88-93 (2008).

2007

J. Sakaguchi, F. Salleras, K. Nishimura, Y. Ueno, "Frequency-dependent electric dc power consumption model including quantum-conversion efficiencies in ultrafast all-optical semiconductor gates around 160 Gb/s," Opt. Exp. 15, 14887-14900 (2007).

R. S. Tucker, K. Hinton, G. Raskutti, "Energy consumption limits in high-speed optical and electronic signal processing," Electron. Lett. 43, 906-908 (2007).

R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption in digital optical ICs with plasmon waveguide interconnects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2036-2038 (2007).

2006

R. S. Tucker, "The role of optics and electronics in high-capacity routers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4655-4673 (2006).

N. Akar, E. Karasan, K. Dogan, "Wavelength converter sharing in asynchronous optical packet/burst switching: An exact blocking analysis for markovian arrivals," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 24, 69-80 (2006).

V. Eramo, M. Listanti, C. Nuzman, P. Whiting, "Optical switch dimensioning and the classical occupancy problem," Int. J. Commun. Syst. 15, 69-80 (2006).

2003

D. Chiaroni, "Packet switching matrix: A key element for the backbone and the metro," IEEE J. Sel. Area Commun. 21, 1018-1025 (2003).

V. Eramo, M. Listanti, P. Pacifici, "A comparative study on the number on the number of wavelength converters needed in synchronous and asynchronous all-optical switching architectures," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 340-355 (2003).

2002

T. Sakamoto, A. Okada, M. Hirayama, Y. Sakai, O. Morikawi, I. Ogawa, R. Sato, K. Noguchi, M. Matsuoka, "Optical packet synchronizer using wavelength and space switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1360-1362 (2002).

A. Detti, V. Eramo, M. Listanti, "Performance evaluation of a new technique for IP support in a WDM optical network: Optical composite burst switching (OCBS)," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 154-165 (2002).

2000

V. Eramo, M. Listanti, "Packet loss in a bufferless WDM switch employing shared tuneable wavelength converters," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1818-1833 (2000).

D. Blumenthal, P. Prucnal, J. Sauer, "Photonic packet switches: Architectures and experimental implementations," Proc. IEEE 82, 84-94 (2000).

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixit, "Advances in photonic packet switching: An overview," IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 84-94 (2000).

D. K. Hunter, I. Andonovic, "Approaches to optical internet packet switching," IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 116-122 (2000).

1998

S. L. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkyaer, "Optical packet switched network layer without optical buffers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 896-898 (1998).

App. Phys. B.

Z. Hu, J. Sun, L. Liu, J. Wanga, "All-optical tunable delay line based on wavelength conversion in semiconductor optical amplifier and dispersion in dispersion-compensating fiber," App. Phys. B. 91, 421-424 (2008).

Electron. Lett.

R. S. Tucker, K. Hinton, G. Raskutti, "Energy consumption limits in high-speed optical and electronic signal processing," Electron. Lett. 43, 906-908 (2007).

IEEE Commun. Mag.

S. Yao, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixit, "Advances in photonic packet switching: An overview," IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 84-94 (2000).

D. K. Hunter, I. Andonovic, "Approaches to optical internet packet switching," IEEE Commun. Mag. 38, 116-122 (2000).

IEEE J. Sel. Area Commun.

D. Chiaroni, "Packet switching matrix: A key element for the backbone and the metro," IEEE J. Sel. Area Commun. 21, 1018-1025 (2003).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

N. Akar, E. Karasan, K. Dogan, "Wavelength converter sharing in asynchronous optical packet/burst switching: An exact blocking analysis for markovian arrivals," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 24, 69-80 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

K. Hinton, G. Rakutti, P. Farrel, R. S. Tucker, "Switching energy and device size limits on digital photonic signal processing technologies," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 938-945 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. P. Mack, H. N. Poulsen, D. J. Blumental, "Variable length optical packet synchronizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1252-1254 (2008).

T. Sakamoto, A. Okada, M. Hirayama, Y. Sakai, O. Morikawi, I. Ogawa, R. Sato, K. Noguchi, M. Matsuoka, "Optical packet synchronizer using wavelength and space switching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1360-1362 (2002).

R. S. Tucker, "Energy consumption in digital optical ICs with plasmon waveguide interconnects," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2036-2038 (2007).

S. L. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, B. Mikkelsen, K. E. Stubkyaer, "Optical packet switched network layer without optical buffers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 896-898 (1998).

IEEE/OSA J. Commun. Netw.

V. Eramo, M. Listanti, "Power consumption in bufferless optical packet switches in SOA technology," IEEE/OSA J. Commun. Netw. 1, B15-B29 (2009).

S. Aleksic, "Analysis of power in future high capacity network nodes," IEEE/OSA J. Commun. Netw. 1, 245-258 (2009).

Int. J. Commun. Syst.

V. Eramo, M. Listanti, C. Nuzman, P. Whiting, "Optical switch dimensioning and the classical occupancy problem," Int. J. Commun. Syst. 15, 69-80 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol.

A. Detti, V. Eramo, M. Listanti, "Performance evaluation of a new technique for IP support in a WDM optical network: Optical composite burst switching (OCBS)," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 154-165 (2002).

R. S. Tucker, "The role of optics and electronics in high-capacity routers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4655-4673 (2006).

V. Eramo, M. Listanti, "Packet loss in a bufferless WDM switch employing shared tuneable wavelength converters," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1818-1833 (2000).

V. Eramo, M. Listanti, P. Pacifici, "A comparative study on the number on the number of wavelength converters needed in synchronous and asynchronous all-optical switching architectures," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 340-355 (2003).

J. Opt. Netw.

Opt. Exp.

J. Sakaguchi, F. Salleras, K. Nishimura, Y. Ueno, "Frequency-dependent electric dc power consumption model including quantum-conversion efficiencies in ultrafast all-optical semiconductor gates around 160 Gb/s," Opt. Exp. 15, 14887-14900 (2007).

Photon. Netw. Commun.

N. Akar, E. Karasan, G. Muretto, C. Raffaelli, "Fixed point analysis of limited range per node wavelength conversion in asynchronous optical packet switching systems," Photon. Netw. Commun. 18, 255-263 (2009) DOI 10.1007/s11107-009-0189-7.

Proc. IEEE

D. Blumenthal, P. Prucnal, J. Sauer, "Photonic packet switches: Architectures and experimental implementations," Proc. IEEE 82, 84-94 (2000).

Other

N. Akar, E. Karasan, G. Muretto, C. Raffaelli, "Performance analysis of an optical packet switch employing full/limited range share per node wavelength conversion," Proc. IEEE Globecom (2007) pp. 2369-2373.

Y. Ueno, J. Sakaguchi, R. Nakamoto, T. Nishida, "Ultrafast, low-energy-consumption, semiconductor-based, all-optical devices," presented at the 4th Asia-Pac. Photon. Conf. (APMP) BejingChina (2009).

J. P. Mack, H. N. Poulsen, D. J. Blumental, "40 Gb/s autonomous optical packet synchronizer," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2008) pp. 1-3.

J. Baliga, R. Ayre, K. Hinton, R. S. Tucker, "Photonic switching and the energy bottleneck," Proc. Photon. Switching (2007) pp. 125-126.

S. Aleksic, "Power consumption issues in future high-performance switches and routers," Proc. ICTON (2008) pp. 194-198.

C. Bianco, F. Cucchietti, G. Griffa, "Energy consumption trends in the next generation access network—A telco perspectivea," Proc. 29th Int. Telecommun. Energy Conf. (INTELEC) (2007) pp. 737-742.

The Environment Telecom Italia, 2006 http://www.telecomitalia.it/sostenibilita2006/English/B05.html.

BT Announces Major Wind Power Plans BT Press (2007) http://www.btplc.com/News/Articles/Showarticle.cfm?ArticleID =dd615e9c-71ad-4daa-951a-55651baae5bb.

J. Chabarek, J. Sommers, P. Barford, C. Estan, D. Tsiang, S. Wright, "Power awareness in network design and routing," Proc. IEEE INFOCOM (2008) pp. 457-465.

S. Nedevschi, L. Popa, G. Iannaccone, S. Ratnasamy, D. Wetherall, "Reducing network energy consumption via sleeping and rate-adaptation," Proc. 5th USENIX Symp. Netw. Syst. Des. Implementation (2008) pp. 323-336.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.