A. B. Fallahkhair, K. S. Li, T. E. Murphy, "Vector finite difference modesolver for anisotropic
dielectric waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1423-1431 (2008).

G. Ren, P. Shum, X. Yu, J. Hu, G. Wang, Y. Gong, "Polarization dependent guiding in liquid crystal
filled photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Commun. 281, 1598-1606 (2008).

T. T. Alkeskjold, A. Bjarklev, "Electrically controlled broadband liquid crystal
photonic bandgap fiber polarimeter," Opt. Lett. 32, 1707-1709 (2007).

T. R. Wolinski, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Domanski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, J. Wojcik, "Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3061-3069 (2007).

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, J. Wojcik, "Influence of temperature and electrical fields on
propagation properties of photonic liquid crystal fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985-991 (2006).

D. C. Zografopoulos, E. E. Kriezis, T. D. Tsiboukis, "Photonic crystal-liquid crystal fibers for
single-polarization or high-birefringence guidance," Opt. Exp. 14, 914-925 (2006).

J. Xiao, X. Sun, "A modified full-vectorial finite-difference beam
propagation method based on H-fields for optical waveguides with
step-index profiles," Opt. Commun. 266, 505-511 (2006).

L. Scolari, T. Alkeskjold, J. Riishede, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, A. Anawati, M. Nielsen, P. Bassi, "Continuously tunable devices based on electrical
control of dual-frequency liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap
fibers," Opt. Exp. 13, 7483-7496 (2005).

J. Li, ST. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, S. Faetti, "Infrared refractive indexes of liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 073501-1-073501-5 (2005).

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, "Selective filling of photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L13-L20 (2005).

L. Xiao, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, H. L. Ho, Y. L. Hoo, C. Zhao, "Fabrication of selective injection microstructured
optical fibers with a conventional fusion splicer," Opt. Exp. 13, 9014-9022 (2005).

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, A. Bjarklev, "Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a
liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 819-821 (2005).

D. Fang, Q. L. Yan, T. W. Shin, "Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal
fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2181-2183 (2004).

X. Feng, A. K. Mairaj, D. W. Hewak, T. M. Monro, "Towards high-indexglass based monomode holey fibre
with large-mode-area," Electron. Lett. 40, 167-169 (2004).

Y. Huang, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, "Fabrication of functional microstructured optical
fibers through a selective-filling technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5182-5184 (2004).

S. Campbell, R. C. McPhedran, C. Martijn de Sterke, L. C. Botten, "Differential multipole method for microstructured
optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 21, 1919-1928 (2004).

S. S. A. Obayya, N. Somasiri, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, "Full vectorial finite element modeling of novel
polarization rotators," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 297-312 (2003).

P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Frampton, R. C. Moore, D. J. Richardson, "Highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive lead
silicate glass holey fibres," Opt. Exp. 11, 3568-3573 (2003).

V. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, "Tellurite photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Exp. 11, 2641-2645 (2003).

K. M. Kiang, K. Frampton, T. M. Monro, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. W. Hewak, D. J. Richardson, H. N. Rutt, "Extruded single-mode nonsilica glass holey optical
fibres," Electron. Lett. 38, 546-547 (2002).

B. R. Acharya, K. W. Baldwin, J. A. Rogers, C. C. Huang, R. Pindak, "In-fiber nematic liquid crystal optical modulator
based on in-plane switching with microsecond response time," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5243-5245 (2002).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Full vectorial finite-element-based imaginary distance
beam propagation solution of complex modes in optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1054-1060 (2002).

B. M. A. Rahman, S. S. A. Obayya, N. Somasiri, M. Rajarajan, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Design and characterisation of compact single-section
passive polarization rotator," IEEE J Lightw. Technol. 19, 512-519 (2001).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Improved design of a polarization converter based on
semicondutor optical waveguide bends," Appl. Opt. 40, 5395-5401 (2001).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Full vectorial finite-element-based imaginary distance
beam propagation solution of complex modes in optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1054-1060 (2001).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Beam propagation modelling of polarization rotation in
deeply etched semiconductor bent waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 681-683 (2001).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, H. A. El-Mikati, "New full vectorial numerically efficient propagation
algorithm based on the finite element method," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 409-415 (2000).

I. Morita, K. Tanka, N. Edagawa, M. Suzuki, "40 Gb/s single-channel soliton transmission over
transoceanic distances by reducing Gordon-Haus timing jitter and
soliton-soliton interaction," J. Lightw. Technol. 2, 2506-2511 (1999).

E. Montanari, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, M. Zoboli, "Finite element full vectorial propagation analysis for
three dimensional z-varying optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 703-714 (1998).

S. Fujino, H. Ijiri, F. Shimizu, K. Morinaga, "Measurement of viscosity of multi-component glasses in
the wide range for fibre drawing," J. Jpn. Inst. Met. 62, 106-110 (1998).

W. C. Chew, J. M. Jin, E. Michielssen, "Complex coordinate stretching as a generalized
absorbing boundary condition," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 15, 363-369 (1997).

F. Heismann, R. W. Smith, "High-speed polarization scrambler with adjustable
phase chirp," IEEE Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 311-318 (1994).

W. P. Huang, C. L. Xu, "Simulation of three-dimensional optical waveguides by
a full-vector beam propagation method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2639-2649 (1993).

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, "Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded
rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1278-1280 (1991).

L. Wei, L. Eskildsen, J. Weirich, L. Scolari, T. Alkeskjold, A. Bjarklev, "Continuously tunable all-in-fiber devices based on
thermal and electrical control of negative dielectric anisotropy
liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers," Appl. Opt. 48, 497-503 (2009).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Improved design of a polarization converter based on
semicondutor optical waveguide bends," Appl. Opt. 40, 5395-5401 (2001).

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, "Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded
rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1278-1280 (1991).

B. R. Acharya, K. W. Baldwin, J. A. Rogers, C. C. Huang, R. Pindak, "In-fiber nematic liquid crystal optical modulator
based on in-plane switching with microsecond response time," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5243-5245 (2002).

D. Fang, Q. L. Yan, T. W. Shin, "Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal
fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2181-2183 (2004).

Y. Huang, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, "Fabrication of functional microstructured optical
fibers through a selective-filling technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5182-5184 (2004).

K. M. Kiang, K. Frampton, T. M. Monro, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. W. Hewak, D. J. Richardson, H. N. Rutt, "Extruded single-mode nonsilica glass holey optical
fibres," Electron. Lett. 38, 546-547 (2002).

X. Feng, A. K. Mairaj, D. W. Hewak, T. M. Monro, "Towards high-indexglass based monomode holey fibre
with large-mode-area," Electron. Lett. 40, 167-169 (2004).

B. M. A. Rahman, S. S. A. Obayya, N. Somasiri, M. Rajarajan, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Design and characterisation of compact single-section
passive polarization rotator," IEEE J Lightw. Technol. 19, 512-519 (2001).

W. P. Huang, C. L. Xu, "Simulation of three-dimensional optical waveguides by
a full-vector beam propagation method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2639-2649 (1993).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Beam propagation modelling of polarization rotation in
deeply etched semiconductor bent waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 681-683 (2001).

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, A. Bjarklev, "Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a
liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 819-821 (2005).

F. Heismann, R. W. Smith, "High-speed polarization scrambler with adjustable
phase chirp," IEEE Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 311-318 (1994).

J. Li, ST. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, S. Faetti, "Infrared refractive indexes of liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 073501-1-073501-5 (2005).

S. Fujino, H. Ijiri, F. Shimizu, K. Morinaga, "Measurement of viscosity of multi-component glasses in
the wide range for fibre drawing," J. Jpn. Inst. Met. 62, 106-110 (1998).

I. Morita, K. Tanka, N. Edagawa, M. Suzuki, "40 Gb/s single-channel soliton transmission over
transoceanic distances by reducing Gordon-Haus timing jitter and
soliton-soliton interaction," J. Lightw. Technol. 2, 2506-2511 (1999).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Full vectorial finite-element-based imaginary distance
beam propagation solution of complex modes in optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1054-1060 (2001).

A. B. Fallahkhair, K. S. Li, T. E. Murphy, "Vector finite difference modesolver for anisotropic
dielectric waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1423-1431 (2008).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Full vectorial finite-element-based imaginary distance
beam propagation solution of complex modes in optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1054-1060 (2002).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, H. A. El-Mikati, "New full vectorial numerically efficient propagation
algorithm based on the finite element method," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 409-415 (2000).

E. Montanari, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, M. Zoboli, "Finite element full vectorial propagation analysis for
three dimensional z-varying optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 703-714 (1998).

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, "Selective filling of photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L13-L20 (2005).

S. Campbell, R. C. McPhedran, C. Martijn de Sterke, L. C. Botten, "Differential multipole method for microstructured
optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 21, 1919-1928 (2004).

T. R. Wolinski, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Domanski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, J. Wojcik, "Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3061-3069 (2007).

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, J. Wojcik, "Influence of temperature and electrical fields on
propagation properties of photonic liquid crystal fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985-991 (2006).

W. C. Chew, J. M. Jin, E. Michielssen, "Complex coordinate stretching as a generalized
absorbing boundary condition," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 15, 363-369 (1997).

J. Xiao, X. Sun, "A modified full-vectorial finite-difference beam
propagation method based on H-fields for optical waveguides with
step-index profiles," Opt. Commun. 266, 505-511 (2006).

G. Ren, P. Shum, X. Yu, J. Hu, G. Wang, Y. Gong, "Polarization dependent guiding in liquid crystal
filled photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Commun. 281, 1598-1606 (2008).

L. Scolari, T. Alkeskjold, J. Riishede, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, A. Anawati, M. Nielsen, P. Bassi, "Continuously tunable devices based on electrical
control of dual-frequency liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap
fibers," Opt. Exp. 13, 7483-7496 (2005).

L. Xiao, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, H. L. Ho, Y. L. Hoo, C. Zhao, "Fabrication of selective injection microstructured
optical fibers with a conventional fusion splicer," Opt. Exp. 13, 9014-9022 (2005).

V. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, "Tellurite photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Exp. 11, 2641-2645 (2003).

D. C. Zografopoulos, E. E. Kriezis, T. D. Tsiboukis, "Photonic crystal-liquid crystal fibers for
single-polarization or high-birefringence guidance," Opt. Exp. 14, 914-925 (2006).

P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Frampton, R. C. Moore, D. J. Richardson, "Highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive lead
silicate glass holey fibres," Opt. Exp. 11, 3568-3573 (2003).

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode fiber with photonic crystal
cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).

T. T. Alkeskjold, A. Bjarklev, "Electrically controlled broadband liquid crystal
photonic bandgap fiber polarimeter," Opt. Lett. 32, 1707-1709 (2007).

S. S. A. Obayya, N. Somasiri, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, "Full vectorial finite element modeling of novel
polarization rotators," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 297-312 (2003).

A. Mori, K. Shikano, K. Enbutsu, K. Oikawa, K. Naganuma, M. Kato, S. Aozasa, "1.5 $\mu$m band zero-dispersion shifted tellurite photonic crystal
fibre with a nonlinear coefficient of 675 W-1km-1," ECOC 2004, 30th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication StockholmSweden Paper Th3.3.6.

J. Y. Y. Leong, Fabrication and applications of lead-silicate glass holey
fibre for 1–1.5 microns: Nonlinearity and dispersion trade
offs Ph.D. dissertation Faculty of Engineering, Science and Mathematics
Optoelectronics Research Centre Univ. SouthamptonSouthamptonU.K. (2007).