Abstract

In this paper, the performance of high-tunable polarization rotator (PR) based on nematic liquid crystal (NLC) photonic crystal fiber is reported. The tunability of the proposed PR results from the change of the optical properties of the NLC with the temperature and external electric field. The influence of the different structure geometrical parameters, rotation angle of the director of the NLC, temperature and operating wavelength on the PR performance is investigated. The numerical results reveal that the suggested PR can provide a strong polarization conversion ratio of 99.81% with a device length of 1072 $\mu$m. It is expected that over the 1.53–1.6 $\mu$m wavelength range, polarization conversion would be more than 99%. The simulation results are evaluated using the full-vectorial finite-difference method and confirmed by the full-vectorial finite-difference beam-propagation method.

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  7. S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Improved design of a polarization converter based on semicondutor optical waveguide bends," Appl. Opt. 40, 5395-5401 (2001).
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2009 (1)

2008 (2)

A. B. Fallahkhair, K. S. Li, T. E. Murphy, "Vector finite difference modesolver for anisotropic dielectric waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1423-1431 (2008).

G. Ren, P. Shum, X. Yu, J. Hu, G. Wang, Y. Gong, "Polarization dependent guiding in liquid crystal filled photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Commun. 281, 1598-1606 (2008).

2007 (2)

T. T. Alkeskjold, A. Bjarklev, "Electrically controlled broadband liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber polarimeter," Opt. Lett. 32, 1707-1709 (2007).

T. R. Wolinski, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Domanski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, J. Wojcik, "Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3061-3069 (2007).

2006 (3)

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, J. Wojcik, "Influence of temperature and electrical fields on propagation properties of photonic liquid crystal fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985-991 (2006).

D. C. Zografopoulos, E. E. Kriezis, T. D. Tsiboukis, "Photonic crystal-liquid crystal fibers for single-polarization or high-birefringence guidance," Opt. Exp. 14, 914-925 (2006).

J. Xiao, X. Sun, "A modified full-vectorial finite-difference beam propagation method based on H-fields for optical waveguides with step-index profiles," Opt. Commun. 266, 505-511 (2006).

2005 (5)

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, A. Bjarklev, "Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 819-821 (2005).

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, "Selective filling of photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L13-L20 (2005).

L. Xiao, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, H. L. Ho, Y. L. Hoo, C. Zhao, "Fabrication of selective injection microstructured optical fibers with a conventional fusion splicer," Opt. Exp. 13, 9014-9022 (2005).

J. Li, ST. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, S. Faetti, "Infrared refractive indexes of liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 073501-1-073501-5 (2005).

L. Scolari, T. Alkeskjold, J. Riishede, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, A. Anawati, M. Nielsen, P. Bassi, "Continuously tunable devices based on electrical control of dual-frequency liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 13, 7483-7496 (2005).

2004 (4)

Y. Huang, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, "Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5182-5184 (2004).

D. Fang, Q. L. Yan, T. W. Shin, "Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2181-2183 (2004).

X. Feng, A. K. Mairaj, D. W. Hewak, T. M. Monro, "Towards high-indexglass based monomode holey fibre with large-mode-area," Electron. Lett. 40, 167-169 (2004).

S. Campbell, R. C. McPhedran, C. Martijn de Sterke, L. C. Botten, "Differential multipole method for microstructured optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 21, 1919-1928 (2004).

2003 (3)

P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Frampton, R. C. Moore, D. J. Richardson, "Highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive lead silicate glass holey fibres," Opt. Exp. 11, 3568-3573 (2003).

V. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, "Tellurite photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Exp. 11, 2641-2645 (2003).

S. S. A. Obayya, N. Somasiri, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, "Full vectorial finite element modeling of novel polarization rotators," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 297-312 (2003).

2002 (3)

B. R. Acharya, K. W. Baldwin, J. A. Rogers, C. C. Huang, R. Pindak, "In-fiber nematic liquid crystal optical modulator based on in-plane switching with microsecond response time," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5243-5245 (2002).

K. M. Kiang, K. Frampton, T. M. Monro, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. W. Hewak, D. J. Richardson, H. N. Rutt, "Extruded single-mode nonsilica glass holey optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 38, 546-547 (2002).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Full vectorial finite-element-based imaginary distance beam propagation solution of complex modes in optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1054-1060 (2002).

2001 (4)

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Full vectorial finite-element-based imaginary distance beam propagation solution of complex modes in optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1054-1060 (2001).

B. M. A. Rahman, S. S. A. Obayya, N. Somasiri, M. Rajarajan, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Design and characterisation of compact single-section passive polarization rotator," IEEE J Lightw. Technol. 19, 512-519 (2001).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Improved design of a polarization converter based on semicondutor optical waveguide bends," Appl. Opt. 40, 5395-5401 (2001).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Beam propagation modelling of polarization rotation in deeply etched semiconductor bent waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 681-683 (2001).

2000 (1)

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, H. A. El-Mikati, "New full vectorial numerically efficient propagation algorithm based on the finite element method," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 409-415 (2000).

1999 (1)

I. Morita, K. Tanka, N. Edagawa, M. Suzuki, "40 Gb/s single-channel soliton transmission over transoceanic distances by reducing Gordon-Haus timing jitter and soliton-soliton interaction," J. Lightw. Technol. 2, 2506-2511 (1999).

1998 (2)

E. Montanari, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, M. Zoboli, "Finite element full vectorial propagation analysis for three dimensional z-varying optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 703-714 (1998).

S. Fujino, H. Ijiri, F. Shimizu, K. Morinaga, "Measurement of viscosity of multi-component glasses in the wide range for fibre drawing," J. Jpn. Inst. Met. 62, 106-110 (1998).

1997 (1)

W. C. Chew, J. M. Jin, E. Michielssen, "Complex coordinate stretching as a generalized absorbing boundary condition," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 15, 363-369 (1997).

1996 (1)

1994 (1)

F. Heismann, R. W. Smith, "High-speed polarization scrambler with adjustable phase chirp," IEEE Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 311-318 (1994).

1993 (1)

W. P. Huang, C. L. Xu, "Simulation of three-dimensional optical waveguides by a full-vector beam propagation method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2639-2649 (1993).

1991 (1)

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, "Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1278-1280 (1991).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Y. Huang, Y. Xu, A. Yariv, "Fabrication of functional microstructured optical fibers through a selective-filling technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 5182-5184 (2004).

Y. Shani, R. Alferness, T. Koch, U. Koren, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, M. G. Young, "Polarization rotation in asymmetric periodic loaded rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 1278-1280 (1991).

B. R. Acharya, K. W. Baldwin, J. A. Rogers, C. C. Huang, R. Pindak, "In-fiber nematic liquid crystal optical modulator based on in-plane switching with microsecond response time," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 5243-5245 (2002).

D. Fang, Q. L. Yan, T. W. Shin, "Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2181-2183 (2004).

Electron. Lett. (2)

X. Feng, A. K. Mairaj, D. W. Hewak, T. M. Monro, "Towards high-indexglass based monomode holey fibre with large-mode-area," Electron. Lett. 40, 167-169 (2004).

K. M. Kiang, K. Frampton, T. M. Monro, R. Moore, J. Tucknott, D. W. Hewak, D. J. Richardson, H. N. Rutt, "Extruded single-mode nonsilica glass holey optical fibres," Electron. Lett. 38, 546-547 (2002).

IEEE J Lightw. Technol. (1)

B. M. A. Rahman, S. S. A. Obayya, N. Somasiri, M. Rajarajan, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Design and characterisation of compact single-section passive polarization rotator," IEEE J Lightw. Technol. 19, 512-519 (2001).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. P. Huang, C. L. Xu, "Simulation of three-dimensional optical waveguides by a full-vector beam propagation method," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2639-2649 (1993).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, A. Bjarklev, "Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 819-821 (2005).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Beam propagation modelling of polarization rotation in deeply etched semiconductor bent waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 681-683 (2001).

IEEE Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Heismann, R. W. Smith, "High-speed polarization scrambler with adjustable phase chirp," IEEE Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 2, 311-318 (1994).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Li, ST. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, S. Faetti, "Infrared refractive indexes of liquid crystals," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 073501-1-073501-5 (2005).

J. Jpn. Inst. Met. (1)

S. Fujino, H. Ijiri, F. Shimizu, K. Morinaga, "Measurement of viscosity of multi-component glasses in the wide range for fibre drawing," J. Jpn. Inst. Met. 62, 106-110 (1998).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Full vectorial finite-element-based imaginary distance beam propagation solution of complex modes in optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1054-1060 (2001).

A. B. Fallahkhair, K. S. Li, T. E. Murphy, "Vector finite difference modesolver for anisotropic dielectric waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1423-1431 (2008).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, H. A. El-Mikati, "Full vectorial finite-element-based imaginary distance beam propagation solution of complex modes in optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1054-1060 (2002).

S. S. A. Obayya, B. M. A. Rahman, H. A. El-Mikati, "New full vectorial numerically efficient propagation algorithm based on the finite element method," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 409-415 (2000).

E. Montanari, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, M. Zoboli, "Finite element full vectorial propagation analysis for three dimensional z-varying optical waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 703-714 (1998).

I. Morita, K. Tanka, N. Edagawa, M. Suzuki, "40 Gb/s single-channel soliton transmission over transoceanic distances by reducing Gordon-Haus timing jitter and soliton-soliton interaction," J. Lightw. Technol. 2, 2506-2511 (1999).

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, T. P. Hansen, "Selective filling of photonic crystal fibers," J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L13-L20 (2005).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. (1)

S. Campbell, R. C. McPhedran, C. Martijn de Sterke, L. C. Botten, "Differential multipole method for microstructured optical fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 21, 1919-1928 (2004).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

T. R. Wolinski, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Domanski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, J. Wojcik, "Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 18, 3061-3069 (2007).

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, J. Wojcik, "Influence of temperature and electrical fields on propagation properties of photonic liquid crystal fibers," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985-991 (2006).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. C. Chew, J. M. Jin, E. Michielssen, "Complex coordinate stretching as a generalized absorbing boundary condition," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 15, 363-369 (1997).

Opt. Commun. (2)

J. Xiao, X. Sun, "A modified full-vectorial finite-difference beam propagation method based on H-fields for optical waveguides with step-index profiles," Opt. Commun. 266, 505-511 (2006).

G. Ren, P. Shum, X. Yu, J. Hu, G. Wang, Y. Gong, "Polarization dependent guiding in liquid crystal filled photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Commun. 281, 1598-1606 (2008).

Opt. Exp. (5)

L. Xiao, W. Jin, M. S. Demokan, H. L. Ho, Y. L. Hoo, C. Zhao, "Fabrication of selective injection microstructured optical fibers with a conventional fusion splicer," Opt. Exp. 13, 9014-9022 (2005).

V. Kumar, A. K. George, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, "Tellurite photonic crystal fibre," Opt. Exp. 11, 2641-2645 (2003).

P. Petropoulos, T. M. Monro, H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem, K. Frampton, R. C. Moore, D. J. Richardson, "Highly nonlinear and anomalously dispersive lead silicate glass holey fibres," Opt. Exp. 11, 3568-3573 (2003).

D. C. Zografopoulos, E. E. Kriezis, T. D. Tsiboukis, "Photonic crystal-liquid crystal fibers for single-polarization or high-birefringence guidance," Opt. Exp. 14, 914-925 (2006).

L. Scolari, T. Alkeskjold, J. Riishede, A. Bjarklev, D. Hermann, A. Anawati, M. Nielsen, P. Bassi, "Continuously tunable devices based on electrical control of dual-frequency liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 13, 7483-7496 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. S. A. Obayya, N. Somasiri, B. M. A. Rahman, K. T. V. Grattan, "Full vectorial finite element modeling of novel polarization rotators," Opt. Quantum Electron. 35, 297-312 (2003).

Other (2)

J. Y. Y. Leong, Fabrication and applications of lead-silicate glass holey fibre for 1–1.5 microns: Nonlinearity and dispersion trade offs Ph.D. dissertation Faculty of Engineering, Science and Mathematics Optoelectronics Research Centre Univ. SouthamptonSouthamptonU.K. (2007).

A. Mori, K. Shikano, K. Enbutsu, K. Oikawa, K. Naganuma, M. Kato, S. Aozasa, "1.5 $\mu$m band zero-dispersion shifted tellurite photonic crystal fibre with a nonlinear coefficient of 675 W-1km-1," ECOC 2004, 30th Eur. Conf. Optical Communication StockholmSweden Paper Th3.3.6.

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