Abstract

We present a novel optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (O-OFDM) scheme, suitable for intensity-modulated direct-detection systems, where the modulation/demodulation processing takes advantage of the fast Hartley transform algorithm. Due to the properties of the discrete Hartley transform (DHT), the conventional transmission scheme can be streamlined. We demonstrate that asymmetrically clipping (AC) technique can also be applied to DHT-based OFDM; the signal can be transmitted without the need of a DC bias, resulting in a power-efficient system, not affected by clipping noise. Hermitian symmetry is not required for the input signal. Therefore, this technique supports the double of input symbols compared to both AC and DC-biased O-OFDM, based on standard Fourier processing. The analysis in an additive white Gaussian noise channel shows that the same performance can be achieved by replacing 4, 16, and 64 QAM (quadrature-amplitude modulation) AC optical-OFDM with a simpler system based on DHT, using binary phase-shift keying (BPSK), 4 and 8 PAM (pulse-amplitude modulation), respectively.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. A. J. Lowery, "Optical OFDM," Proc. CLEO/QELS 2008 () pp. 1-2.
  2. A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, J. Armstrong, "Performance of optical OFDM in ultralong-haul WDM lightwave systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 131-138 (2008).
  3. A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing for dispersion compensation of long haul optical systems," Opt. Exp. 14, 2079-2084 (2006).
  4. A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Dispersion compensation in long haul transmission systems—An orthogonal approach," Conf. Optical Internet 2007 MelbourneAustralia ().
  5. B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s direct-detection optical OFDM and 12 Gbit/s with a colorless transmitter," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. 2007 AnaheimCA () Paper PDP 18.
  6. B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Experimental demonstration of electronic dispersion compensation for long-haul transmission using direct-detection optical OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 196-203 (2008).
  7. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).
  8. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, D. van den Borne, H. Tanaka, "Optical OFDM—A candidate for future long-haul optical transmission systems," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2008) pp. 1-3.
  9. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, H. Tanaka, "121.9-Gb/s PMD-OFDM transmission with 2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1000-km of SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 177-188 (2009).
  10. J. Armstrong, "OFDM for optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 189-204 (2009).
  11. W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, "Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," Electron. Lett. 42, 587-589 (2006).
  12. W. Shieh, H. Bao, Y. Tang, "Coherent optical OFDM: Theory and design," Opt. Exp. 16, 841-859 (2008).
  13. Q. Yang, Y. Tang, Y. Ma, W. Shieh, "Experimental demonstration and numerical simulation of 107-Gb/s high spectral efficiency coherent optical OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 168-176 (2009).
  14. J. Armstrong, A. J. Lowery, "Power efficient optical OFDM," Electron. Lett. 46, 370-372 (2006).
  15. R. N. Bracewell, "Discrete Hartley transform," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 73, 1832-1835 (1983).
  16. M. S. Moreolo, V. Sacchieri, G. Cincotti, "Signal processing based on trigonometric transforms for high-speed optical networks," Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON 2009) Island of São Miguel, AzoresPortugal ().
  17. S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, N. Hanik, "24-Gb/s transmission over 730 m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multi-tone modulation," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. 2007 AnaheimCA (2007) PDP 6.
  18. S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, H. P. A. Van Den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, "High-speed transmission over multimode fiber using discrete multitone modulation," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 183-196 (2008).
  19. D. Wang, D. Liu, F. Liu, G. Yue, "A novel DHT-based ultra-wideband system," Proc. ISCIT 2005 (2004) pp. 172-184.
  20. G. D. Mandyam, "Sinusidal transforms in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 50, 172-184 (2004).
  21. R. Merched, "On OFDM and single-carrier frequency-domain systems based on trigonometric transforms," IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 13, 473-476 (2006).
  22. A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Comparison of power-efficientoptical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing transmission methods," Conf. Optical Fibre Technology/Australian Optical Society MelbourneAustralia (2006).
  23. R. N. Bracewell, "The fast Hartley transform," Proc. IEEE 72, 1010-1018 (1984).
  24. H. S. Hou, "The fast Hartley transform algorithm," IEEE Trans. Comput. C-36, 147-156 (1987).
  25. H. V. Sorensen, D. L. Jones, C. S. Burrus, M. T. Heideman, "On computing the discrete Hartley transform," IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Process. ASSP-33, 1231-1238 (1985).
  26. P. Duhamel, M. Vetterli, "Cyclic convolution of real sequences: Hartley versus Fouroer and new schemes," Proc. Int Conf. Acoust., Speech, Signal Process. (ICASSP 1986) pp. 229-232.
  27. P. Duhamel, M. Vetterli, "Improved Fourier and Hartley transform algorithms: Application to cyclic convolution of real data," IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Process. ASSP-35, 818-824 (1987).
  28. J. Armstrong, B. J. C. Schmidt, D. Kalra, H. A. Suraweera, A. J. Lowery, "Performance of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM in AWGN for an intensity modulated direct detection system," Proc. IEEE Global Telecommun. Conf. (2006) pp. 1-5.
  29. J. Armstrong, B. J. C. Schmidt, "Comparison of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM and DC-biased optical OFDM in AWGN," IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 343-345 (2008).

2009 (3)

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, H. Tanaka, "121.9-Gb/s PMD-OFDM transmission with 2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1000-km of SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 177-188 (2009).

J. Armstrong, "OFDM for optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 189-204 (2009).

Q. Yang, Y. Tang, Y. Ma, W. Shieh, "Experimental demonstration and numerical simulation of 107-Gb/s high spectral efficiency coherent optical OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 168-176 (2009).

2008 (6)

A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, J. Armstrong, "Performance of optical OFDM in ultralong-haul WDM lightwave systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 131-138 (2008).

B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Experimental demonstration of electronic dispersion compensation for long-haul transmission using direct-detection optical OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 196-203 (2008).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).

W. Shieh, H. Bao, Y. Tang, "Coherent optical OFDM: Theory and design," Opt. Exp. 16, 841-859 (2008).

J. Armstrong, B. J. C. Schmidt, "Comparison of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM and DC-biased optical OFDM in AWGN," IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 343-345 (2008).

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, H. P. A. Van Den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, "High-speed transmission over multimode fiber using discrete multitone modulation," J. Opt. Netw. 7, 183-196 (2008).

2006 (4)

R. Merched, "On OFDM and single-carrier frequency-domain systems based on trigonometric transforms," IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 13, 473-476 (2006).

A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing for dispersion compensation of long haul optical systems," Opt. Exp. 14, 2079-2084 (2006).

J. Armstrong, A. J. Lowery, "Power efficient optical OFDM," Electron. Lett. 46, 370-372 (2006).

W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, "Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," Electron. Lett. 42, 587-589 (2006).

2004 (1)

G. D. Mandyam, "Sinusidal transforms in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 50, 172-184 (2004).

1987 (2)

H. S. Hou, "The fast Hartley transform algorithm," IEEE Trans. Comput. C-36, 147-156 (1987).

P. Duhamel, M. Vetterli, "Improved Fourier and Hartley transform algorithms: Application to cyclic convolution of real data," IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Process. ASSP-35, 818-824 (1987).

1985 (1)

H. V. Sorensen, D. L. Jones, C. S. Burrus, M. T. Heideman, "On computing the discrete Hartley transform," IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Process. ASSP-33, 1231-1238 (1985).

1984 (1)

R. N. Bracewell, "The fast Hartley transform," Proc. IEEE 72, 1010-1018 (1984).

1983 (1)

R. N. Bracewell, "Discrete Hartley transform," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 73, 1832-1835 (1983).

Electron. Lett. (2)

W. Shieh, C. Athaudage, "Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing," Electron. Lett. 42, 587-589 (2006).

J. Armstrong, A. J. Lowery, "Power efficient optical OFDM," Electron. Lett. 46, 370-372 (2006).

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

J. Armstrong, B. J. C. Schmidt, "Comparison of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM and DC-biased optical OFDM in AWGN," IEEE Commun. Lett. 12, 343-345 (2008).

IEEE Signal Process. Lett. (1)

R. Merched, "On OFDM and single-carrier frequency-domain systems based on trigonometric transforms," IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 13, 473-476 (2006).

IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Process. (2)

H. V. Sorensen, D. L. Jones, C. S. Burrus, M. T. Heideman, "On computing the discrete Hartley transform," IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Process. ASSP-33, 1231-1238 (1985).

P. Duhamel, M. Vetterli, "Improved Fourier and Hartley transform algorithms: Application to cyclic convolution of real data," IEEE Trans. Acoust., Speech, Signal Process. ASSP-35, 818-824 (1987).

IEEE Trans. Broadcast. (1)

G. D. Mandyam, "Sinusidal transforms in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 50, 172-184 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

H. S. Hou, "The fast Hartley transform algorithm," IEEE Trans. Comput. C-36, 147-156 (1987).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

Q. Yang, Y. Tang, Y. Ma, W. Shieh, "Experimental demonstration and numerical simulation of 107-Gb/s high spectral efficiency coherent optical OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 168-176 (2009).

A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, J. Armstrong, "Performance of optical OFDM in ultralong-haul WDM lightwave systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 131-138 (2008).

B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Experimental demonstration of electronic dispersion compensation for long-haul transmission using direct-detection optical OFDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 196-203 (2008).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8-Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, H. Tanaka, "121.9-Gb/s PMD-OFDM transmission with 2-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 1000-km of SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 177-188 (2009).

J. Armstrong, "OFDM for optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 189-204 (2009).

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

R. N. Bracewell, "Discrete Hartley transform," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 73, 1832-1835 (1983).

Opt. Exp. (2)

W. Shieh, H. Bao, Y. Tang, "Coherent optical OFDM: Theory and design," Opt. Exp. 16, 841-859 (2008).

A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Orthogonal-frequency-division multiplexing for dispersion compensation of long haul optical systems," Opt. Exp. 14, 2079-2084 (2006).

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. N. Bracewell, "The fast Hartley transform," Proc. IEEE 72, 1010-1018 (1984).

Other (10)

A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Comparison of power-efficientoptical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing transmission methods," Conf. Optical Fibre Technology/Australian Optical Society MelbourneAustralia (2006).

J. Armstrong, B. J. C. Schmidt, D. Kalra, H. A. Suraweera, A. J. Lowery, "Performance of asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM in AWGN for an intensity modulated direct detection system," Proc. IEEE Global Telecommun. Conf. (2006) pp. 1-5.

P. Duhamel, M. Vetterli, "Cyclic convolution of real sequences: Hartley versus Fouroer and new schemes," Proc. Int Conf. Acoust., Speech, Signal Process. (ICASSP 1986) pp. 229-232.

A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Dispersion compensation in long haul transmission systems—An orthogonal approach," Conf. Optical Internet 2007 MelbourneAustralia ().

B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, J. Armstrong, "Experimental demonstration of 20 Gbit/s direct-detection optical OFDM and 12 Gbit/s with a colorless transmitter," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. 2007 AnaheimCA () Paper PDP 18.

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, D. van den Borne, H. Tanaka, "Optical OFDM—A candidate for future long-haul optical transmission systems," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2008) pp. 1-3.

A. J. Lowery, "Optical OFDM," Proc. CLEO/QELS 2008 () pp. 1-2.

M. S. Moreolo, V. Sacchieri, G. Cincotti, "Signal processing based on trigonometric transforms for high-speed optical networks," Int. Conf. Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON 2009) Island of São Miguel, AzoresPortugal ().

S. C. J. Lee, F. Breyer, S. Randel, M. Schuster, J. Zeng, F. Huijskens, H. P. A. van den Boom, A. M. J. Koonen, N. Hanik, "24-Gb/s transmission over 730 m of multimode fiber by direct modulation of an 850-nm VCSEL using discrete multi-tone modulation," Optical Fiber Communication Conf. 2007 AnaheimCA (2007) PDP 6.

D. Wang, D. Liu, F. Liu, G. Yue, "A novel DHT-based ultra-wideband system," Proc. ISCIT 2005 (2004) pp. 172-184.

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