Abstract

A novel equivalent circuit for separate absorption grading charge multiplication (SAGCM) APDs composed of basic circuit components is developed. The model is applied to simulate the frequency performance of APDs, and the simulating results show a well-reasonable agreement with the physical model calculation and experimental data. The influence of three important factors on frequency performance, including carrier transit time, avalanche buildup time, and parasitic elements (consisted of resistance, inductance, and capacitance of APDs) are investigated. Using this model, the cosimulation of the packaged APD$\backslash$transimpedance amplifier (TIA)-module is also carried out. We found that the resonance of parasitic inductance and capacitance can be utilized to compensate the attenuation of high-speed APD$\backslash$TIA circuit board.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. E. Yagyu, E. Ishimura, M. Nakaji, S. Ihara, Y. Mikami, H. Itamoto, T. Aoyagi, K. Yoshiara, Y. Tokuda, "Design and characteristics of guardring-free planar AlInAs avalanche photodiodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1011-1017 (2009).
  2. B. F. Levine, R. N. Sacks, J. Ko, M. Jazwiecki, J. A. Valdmanis, D. Gunther, J. H. Meier, "A new planar InGaAs-InAlAs avalanche photodiode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1898-1900 (2006).
  3. S. An, M. J. Deen, A. S. Vetter, W. R. Clark, J.-. Noel, F. R. Shepherd, "Effect of mesa overgrowth on low-frequency noise in planar separate absorption, grading, charge, and multiplication avalanche photodiodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1196-1202 (1999).
  4. W. Chen, S. Liu, "PIN avalanche photodiodes model for circuit simulation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 2105-2111 (1996).
  5. A. Banoushi, M. R. Kardan, M. A. Naeini, "A circuit model simulation for separate absorption, grading, charge, and multiplication avalanche photodiodes," Solid State Electron. 49, 871-877 (2005).
  6. M. R. Abbasi, M. H. Sheikhi, A. Zarifkar, "Implementation of split step method to consider gradual changes of the electric field for circuit simulation of an avalanche photodetector," Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Inf. Commun. Technol.: Theory Appl. (2008) pp. 1-6.
  7. Y. M. El-Batawy, M. J. Deen, "Modeling and optimization of resonant cavity enhanced-separated absorption graded charge multiplication-avalanche photodetector (RCE-SAGCM-APD)," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 790-801 (2003).
  8. Y. M. El-Batawy, M. J. Deen, "Analysis and circuit modeling of waveguide-separated absorption charge multiplication-avalanche photodetector (WG-SACM-APD)," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 335-344 (2005).
  9. Y. X. Mai, G. Wang, "Equivalent circuit modeling of separate absorption grading charge multiplication avalanche photodiode," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1197-1202 (2009).
  10. J. C. Campbell, "Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 109-121 (2007).
  11. Y. M. El-Batawy, M. J. Deen, "Effects of the parasitics on the time response of RCE-PDs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 325-334 (2005).
  12. J. C. Campbell, B. C. Johnson, G. J. Qua, W. T. Tsang, "Frequency response of InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 778-784 (1989).
  13. A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, I. T. Young, Signals and Systems (Prentice Hall, 1983).
  14. J. D. Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis (Wiley, 2002) pp. 274.
  15. D. Ning, S. Wang, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, L. Ning, J. C. Campbell, W. Chad, L. A. Coldren, "Detrimental effect of impact ionization in the absorption region on the frequency response and excess noise performance of InGaAs-InAlAs SACM avalanche photodiodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 568-572 (2005).
  16. D. S. kim, S. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, G. S. Oh, N. J. Kim, J. W. Lee, A. S. Kim, Y. K. Sin, "Fabrication of planar InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiode without guard ring," Proc. Conf. Proc. IEEE Laser Electro-Opt. Soc. Annu. Meet. 1996 () pp. 332-333.
  17. G. Grove, J. P. David, "Effects of ionization velocity and dead space on avalanche photodiode bit error rate," IEEE Trans. Commun. 55, 2152-2158 (2007).
  18. L. W. Cook, G. E. Bulman, G. E. Stillman, "Electron and hole impact ionization coefficients in InP determined by photomultiplication measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 589-591 (1982).
  19. I. Watanabe, M. Tsuji, K. Makita, K. Taguchi, "Gain-bandwidth product analysis of InAlGaAs-InAlAs superlattice avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 269-271 (1996).
  20. N. H. Zhu, Y. Liu, S. J. Zhang, J. M. Wen, "Bonding-wire compensation effect on the packaging parasitics of optoelectronic devices," Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. 48, 76-79 (2006).

2009 (2)

E. Yagyu, E. Ishimura, M. Nakaji, S. Ihara, Y. Mikami, H. Itamoto, T. Aoyagi, K. Yoshiara, Y. Tokuda, "Design and characteristics of guardring-free planar AlInAs avalanche photodiodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1011-1017 (2009).

Y. X. Mai, G. Wang, "Equivalent circuit modeling of separate absorption grading charge multiplication avalanche photodiode," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1197-1202 (2009).

2007 (2)

J. C. Campbell, "Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 109-121 (2007).

G. Grove, J. P. David, "Effects of ionization velocity and dead space on avalanche photodiode bit error rate," IEEE Trans. Commun. 55, 2152-2158 (2007).

2006 (2)

N. H. Zhu, Y. Liu, S. J. Zhang, J. M. Wen, "Bonding-wire compensation effect on the packaging parasitics of optoelectronic devices," Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. 48, 76-79 (2006).

B. F. Levine, R. N. Sacks, J. Ko, M. Jazwiecki, J. A. Valdmanis, D. Gunther, J. H. Meier, "A new planar InGaAs-InAlAs avalanche photodiode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1898-1900 (2006).

2005 (4)

Y. M. El-Batawy, M. J. Deen, "Effects of the parasitics on the time response of RCE-PDs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 325-334 (2005).

A. Banoushi, M. R. Kardan, M. A. Naeini, "A circuit model simulation for separate absorption, grading, charge, and multiplication avalanche photodiodes," Solid State Electron. 49, 871-877 (2005).

Y. M. El-Batawy, M. J. Deen, "Analysis and circuit modeling of waveguide-separated absorption charge multiplication-avalanche photodetector (WG-SACM-APD)," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 335-344 (2005).

D. Ning, S. Wang, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, L. Ning, J. C. Campbell, W. Chad, L. A. Coldren, "Detrimental effect of impact ionization in the absorption region on the frequency response and excess noise performance of InGaAs-InAlAs SACM avalanche photodiodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 568-572 (2005).

2003 (1)

Y. M. El-Batawy, M. J. Deen, "Modeling and optimization of resonant cavity enhanced-separated absorption graded charge multiplication-avalanche photodetector (RCE-SAGCM-APD)," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 790-801 (2003).

1999 (1)

S. An, M. J. Deen, A. S. Vetter, W. R. Clark, J.-. Noel, F. R. Shepherd, "Effect of mesa overgrowth on low-frequency noise in planar separate absorption, grading, charge, and multiplication avalanche photodiodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1196-1202 (1999).

1996 (2)

W. Chen, S. Liu, "PIN avalanche photodiodes model for circuit simulation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 2105-2111 (1996).

I. Watanabe, M. Tsuji, K. Makita, K. Taguchi, "Gain-bandwidth product analysis of InAlGaAs-InAlAs superlattice avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 269-271 (1996).

1989 (1)

J. C. Campbell, B. C. Johnson, G. J. Qua, W. T. Tsang, "Frequency response of InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 778-784 (1989).

1982 (1)

L. W. Cook, G. E. Bulman, G. E. Stillman, "Electron and hole impact ionization coefficients in InP determined by photomultiplication measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 589-591 (1982).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. W. Cook, G. E. Bulman, G. E. Stillman, "Electron and hole impact ionization coefficients in InP determined by photomultiplication measurements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 589-591 (1982).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

S. An, M. J. Deen, A. S. Vetter, W. R. Clark, J.-. Noel, F. R. Shepherd, "Effect of mesa overgrowth on low-frequency noise in planar separate absorption, grading, charge, and multiplication avalanche photodiodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 1196-1202 (1999).

W. Chen, S. Liu, "PIN avalanche photodiodes model for circuit simulation," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 2105-2111 (1996).

D. Ning, S. Wang, X. G. Zheng, X. Li, L. Ning, J. C. Campbell, W. Chad, L. A. Coldren, "Detrimental effect of impact ionization in the absorption region on the frequency response and excess noise performance of InGaAs-InAlAs SACM avalanche photodiodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 568-572 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

B. F. Levine, R. N. Sacks, J. Ko, M. Jazwiecki, J. A. Valdmanis, D. Gunther, J. H. Meier, "A new planar InGaAs-InAlAs avalanche photodiode," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1898-1900 (2006).

I. Watanabe, M. Tsuji, K. Makita, K. Taguchi, "Gain-bandwidth product analysis of InAlGaAs-InAlAs superlattice avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 269-271 (1996).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

G. Grove, J. P. David, "Effects of ionization velocity and dead space on avalanche photodiode bit error rate," IEEE Trans. Commun. 55, 2152-2158 (2007).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (3)

Y. M. El-Batawy, M. J. Deen, "Effects of the parasitics on the time response of RCE-PDs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 325-334 (2005).

Y. M. El-Batawy, M. J. Deen, "Modeling and optimization of resonant cavity enhanced-separated absorption graded charge multiplication-avalanche photodetector (RCE-SAGCM-APD)," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 790-801 (2003).

Y. M. El-Batawy, M. J. Deen, "Analysis and circuit modeling of waveguide-separated absorption charge multiplication-avalanche photodetector (WG-SACM-APD)," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 335-344 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

Y. X. Mai, G. Wang, "Equivalent circuit modeling of separate absorption grading charge multiplication avalanche photodiode," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1197-1202 (2009).

J. C. Campbell, "Recent advances in telecommunications avalanche photodiodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 109-121 (2007).

J. C. Campbell, B. C. Johnson, G. J. Qua, W. T. Tsang, "Frequency response of InP/InGaAsP/InGaAs avalanche photodiodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 778-784 (1989).

E. Yagyu, E. Ishimura, M. Nakaji, S. Ihara, Y. Mikami, H. Itamoto, T. Aoyagi, K. Yoshiara, Y. Tokuda, "Design and characteristics of guardring-free planar AlInAs avalanche photodiodes," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1011-1017 (2009).

Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. (1)

N. H. Zhu, Y. Liu, S. J. Zhang, J. M. Wen, "Bonding-wire compensation effect on the packaging parasitics of optoelectronic devices," Microw. Opt. Tech. Lett. 48, 76-79 (2006).

Solid State Electron. (1)

A. Banoushi, M. R. Kardan, M. A. Naeini, "A circuit model simulation for separate absorption, grading, charge, and multiplication avalanche photodiodes," Solid State Electron. 49, 871-877 (2005).

Other (4)

M. R. Abbasi, M. H. Sheikhi, A. Zarifkar, "Implementation of split step method to consider gradual changes of the electric field for circuit simulation of an avalanche photodetector," Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. Inf. Commun. Technol.: Theory Appl. (2008) pp. 1-6.

D. S. kim, S. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, G. S. Oh, N. J. Kim, J. W. Lee, A. S. Kim, Y. K. Sin, "Fabrication of planar InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiode without guard ring," Proc. Conf. Proc. IEEE Laser Electro-Opt. Soc. Annu. Meet. 1996 () pp. 332-333.

A. V. Oppenheim, A. S. Willsky, I. T. Young, Signals and Systems (Prentice Hall, 1983).

J. D. Irwin, Basic Engineering Circuit Analysis (Wiley, 2002) pp. 274.

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