Abstract

We report on the fabrication of a 4-channel embedded waveguide array by a develop-free solgel process, adopted for the first time in waveguide fabrication to improve the sidewall roughness and simplify the fabrication procedures. A kind of novel hybrid HfO$_{2}$/SiO$_{2}$ solgel material, which can be used to form a crack-free thick film by a single spin-coating, was prepared to construct waveguide core and cladding, whose refractive index can be accurately set by adjusting ultraviolet (UV) exposure time. The average propagation losses of the fabricated single-mode channel waveguides were measured as low as $0.19 \pm 0.02$ dB/cm and $0.22 \pm 0.03$dB/cm at a wavelength of 1.55 $\mu$m for TE and TM polarizations, respectively.

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  1. J. M. Sabattie, B. D. Maccraith, K. Mongey, J. Charmet, K. O'Dwyer, M. Pez, F. Quentel, T. Dean, "Planar optical integrated circuits based on UV-patternable solgel technology," Proc. SPIE 4876, 295-304 (2003).
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2008 (3)

2007 (2)

J. Hu, N.-N. Feng, N. Carlie, L. Petit, J. Wang, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, L. Kimerling, "Low-loss high-index-contrast planar waveguides with graded-index cladding layers," Opt. Express 15, 14566-14572 (2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-22-14566.

Y. K. Kwon, J. K. Han, J. M. Lee, Y. S. Ko, J. H. Oh, H. S. Lee, E. H. Lee, "Organic-inorganic hybrid materials for flexible optical waveguide applications," J. Mater. Chem. 18, 579-585 (2007).

2006 (3)

E. S. Kang, M. Takahashi, Y. Tokuda, T. Yoko, "Wavelength dependence of thermo-optic coefficient of organically modified SiO$_{2}$-ZrO$_{2}$ hybrid films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131916 (2006).

A. Moujoud, W. S. Kim, B. S. Bae, S. Y. Shin, "Thermally stable optical characteristics of sol-gel hybrid material films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101916 (2006).

F. Chen, L. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, "Channel waveguide array in Ce-doped potassium sodium strontium barium niobate crystal fabricated by He$+$ ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191102 (2006).

2005 (4)

D. Sparacin, S. Spector, L. Kimerling, "Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2455-2461 (2005).

P. J. Moreira, P. V. S. Marques, A. P. Leite, "Hybrid solgel channel waveguide patterning using photoinitiator-free materials," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 399-401 (2005).

S. Jeong, J. Moon, "Fabrication of inorganic-organic hybrid films for optical waveguide," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 3530-3535 (2005).

J. S. Michael, G. Junpeng, G. A. Vawter, S. Habermehl, C. T. Sullivan, "Fabrication techniques for low-loss silicon nitride waveguides," Proc. SPIE 5720, 109-118 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-5-3172.

2004 (1)

Y. Wang, Z. Lin, J. Zhang, X. Cheng, F. Zhang, "Side-wall roughness in SOI rib waveguides fabricated by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching," Appl. Phys. B 79, 879-881 (2004).

2003 (2)

W. Huang, R. R. A. Syms, "Solgel silica-on-silicon buried-channel EDWAs," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1339-1349 (2003).

J. M. Sabattie, B. D. Maccraith, K. Mongey, J. Charmet, K. O'Dwyer, M. Pez, F. Quentel, T. Dean, "Planar optical integrated circuits based on UV-patternable solgel technology," Proc. SPIE 4876, 295-304 (2003).

2000 (1)

J. Fick, A. Martucci, M. Guglielmi, "Fabrication of erbium-doped channel waveguides by a combination of ion exchange and solgel techniques," J. Solgel. Sci. Technol. 19, 573-576 (2000).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Y. Wang, Z. Lin, J. Zhang, X. Cheng, F. Zhang, "Side-wall roughness in SOI rib waveguides fabricated by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching," Appl. Phys. B 79, 879-881 (2004).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

F. Chen, L. Wang, X. L. Wang, K. M. Wang, Q. M. Lu, "Channel waveguide array in Ce-doped potassium sodium strontium barium niobate crystal fabricated by He$+$ ion implantation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191102 (2006).

A. Moujoud, W. S. Kim, B. S. Bae, S. Y. Shin, "Thermally stable optical characteristics of sol-gel hybrid material films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 101916 (2006).

E. S. Kang, M. Takahashi, Y. Tokuda, T. Yoko, "Wavelength dependence of thermo-optic coefficient of organically modified SiO$_{2}$-ZrO$_{2}$ hybrid films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 131916 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. J. Moreira, P. V. S. Marques, A. P. Leite, "Hybrid solgel channel waveguide patterning using photoinitiator-free materials," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 399-401 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

W. Huang, R. R. A. Syms, "Solgel silica-on-silicon buried-channel EDWAs," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1339-1349 (2003).

D. Sparacin, S. Spector, L. Kimerling, "Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2455-2461 (2005).

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

Y. K. Kwon, J. K. Han, J. M. Lee, Y. S. Ko, J. H. Oh, H. S. Lee, E. H. Lee, "Organic-inorganic hybrid materials for flexible optical waveguide applications," J. Mater. Chem. 18, 579-585 (2007).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

S. Jeong, J. Moon, "Fabrication of inorganic-organic hybrid films for optical waveguide," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 351, 3530-3535 (2005).

J. Solgel. Sci. Technol. (2)

X. Zhang, M. Qian, X. Zeng, Z. Zhao, J. Lasante, P. Plante, "Design and fabrication of single rib waveguides using solgel derived organic-inorganic hybrid materials," J. Solgel. Sci. Technol. 45, 103-107 (2008).

J. Fick, A. Martucci, M. Guglielmi, "Fabrication of erbium-doped channel waveguides by a combination of ion exchange and solgel techniques," J. Solgel. Sci. Technol. 19, 573-576 (2000).

Opt. Express (3)

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. M. Sabattie, B. D. Maccraith, K. Mongey, J. Charmet, K. O'Dwyer, M. Pez, F. Quentel, T. Dean, "Planar optical integrated circuits based on UV-patternable solgel technology," Proc. SPIE 4876, 295-304 (2003).

J. S. Michael, G. Junpeng, G. A. Vawter, S. Habermehl, C. T. Sullivan, "Fabrication techniques for low-loss silicon nitride waveguides," Proc. SPIE 5720, 109-118 (2005) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-5-3172.

Other (1)

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, 1991).

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