Abstract

We propose a new structure of polarization splitter based on a dual-elliptical-core photonic crystal fiber. The polarization splitter has a simple and symmetric directional coupler configuration. The vector boundary element method is used to investigate the propagation characteristics of the device under various conditions. Results of the numerical calculation relevant to the design conditions are presented. A 0.3-mm-long splitter with an extinction ratio of 23 dB is obtained.

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  2. J. J. M. van der Tol, J. H. Laarhuis, "A polarization splitter on LiNbO$_{3}$ using only Titanium diffusion," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 879-886 (1991).
  3. T. Mizumoto, N. Iwakiri, T. Kaneko, Y. Naito, "Analysis and experimental study of waveguide optical polarization splitter with langmuir-blodgett cladding layer," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1807-1813 (1992).
  4. R. M. de Ridder, A. F. M. Sander, A. Driessen, J. H. J. Fiuitman, "An itegrated optical adiabatic TE/TM mode splitter on silicon," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1806-1810 (1993).
  5. P. K. Wei, W. S. Wang, "A TE-TM modes splitter on lithium niobate using Ti, Ni, and MgO diffusion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 245-248 (1994).
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  7. J. J. M. van der Tol, J. W. Pedersen, E. G. Metaal, J. J.-W. van Gaalen, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, "A short polarization splitter without metal overlays on InGaAsP-InP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 209-211 (1997).
  8. T. Hayakawa, S. Asakawa, Y. Kokubun, "Arrow-B type polarization splitter with asymmetric Y-branch fabricated by a self-alignment process," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1165-1170 (1996).
  9. M. S. Yataki, D. N. Payne, M. P. Varnham, "All-fibre polarising beamsplitter," Electron. Lett. 21, 249-251 (1985).
  10. I. Yokohama, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, "Fiber-optic polarizing beam splitter employing birefringent-fiber coupler," Electron. Lett. 21, 415-416 (1985).
  11. A. W. Snyder, "Polarizing beam splitter from fused-taper couplers," Electron. Lett. 21, 623-625 (1985).
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  14. G. D. Peng, T. Tjugiarto, P. L. Chu, "Polarization beam splitting using twin-elliptic-core optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 26, 682-683 (1990).
  15. A. N. Miliou, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, "A 1.3-$\mu$m directional coupler polarization splitter by Ion exchange," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 220-225 (1993).
  16. C. W. Wu, T. L. Wu, H. C. Chang, "A novel fabrication method for all-fiber, weakly fused, polarization beamsplitters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 786-788 (1995).
  17. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).
  18. M. J. Steel, R. M. Osgood Jr., "Polarization and dispersive properties of elliptical-hole photonic crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 495-503 (2001).
  19. V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, "Small-core silica holey fibers: Nonlinearity and confinement loss trade-offs," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 20, 1427-1436 (2003).
  20. K. M. Hilligsøe, H. N. Paulsen, J. Thøgersen, S. R. Keding, J. J. Larsen, "Initial steps of supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 20, 1887-1893 (2003).
  21. J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic bandgap guidance in optical fibers," Science 282, 1476-1478 (1998).
  22. J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, "Photonic crystal fibers: A new class of optical waveguides," Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 305-330 (1999).
  23. K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Photonic bandgap fibers with high birefringence," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1291-1293 (2002).
  24. T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).
  25. B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. J. Russell, A. H. Greenaway, "Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 36, 1358-1359 (2000).
  26. L. Zhang, C. Yang, C. Yu, T. Luo, A. E. Willner, "PCF-based polarization splitters with simplified structures," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3558-3565 (2005).
  27. J. Canning, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, T. Ryan, M. Kristensen, K. Lyytikainen, "Complex mode coupling within air-silica structured optical fibers and applications," Opt. Commun. 185, 321-324 (2000).
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  29. H. Kim, J. Kim, U.-C. Peak, B. H. Lee, "Tunable photonic crystal fiber coupler based on a side-polishing technique," Opt. Lett. 29, 1194-1196 (2004).
  30. L. Zhang, C. Yang, "Polarization splitter based on photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 11, 1015-1020 (2003).
  31. K. Saitoh, Y. Sato, M. Koshiba, "Coupling characteristics of dual-core photonic crystal fiber couplers," Opt. Express 11, 3188-3195 (2003).
  32. L. Zhang, C. Yang, "Polarization-dependent coupling in twin-core photonic crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1367-1373 (2004).
  33. L. Zhang, C. Yang, "A novel polarization splitter based on the photonic crystal fiber with nonidentical dual cores," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1670-1672 (2004).
  34. J. S. Chiang, "A new compact polarization beam splitter based on dual-elliptical-core photonic crystal fiber," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2007).
  35. N. Guan, S. Habu, K. Tatsuhiro, K. Himeno, A. Wada, "Boundary element method for analysis of holey optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1787-1792 (2003).
  36. T. L. Wu, C. H. Chao, "Photonic crystal fiber analysis through the vector boundary-element method: Effect of elliptical air hole," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 126-128 (2004).
  37. T. L. Wu, J. S. Chiang, C. H. Chao, "A novel approach for calculating the dispersions of photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1492-1494 (2004).
  38. J. S. Chiang, T. L. Wu, "Analysis of propagation characteristics for an octagonal photonic crystal fiber (O-PCF)," Opt. Commun. 258, 170-176 (2006).
  39. H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, S. Koyanagi, M. Tanaka, S. Yamaguchi, "Absolutely single polarization photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 182-184 (2004).
  40. K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, M. Fujita, "Optical properities of a low-loss polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 9, 676-680 (2001).
  41. F. Fogli, L. Saccomandi, P. Bassi, G. Bellanca, S. Trillo, "Full vectorial BPM modeling of index-guiding photonic crystal fibers and couplers," Opt. Express 10, 54-59 (2002).
  42. S. W. Yang, T. L. Wu, C. W. Wu, H. C. Chang, "Numerical modeling of weakly fused fiber-optic polarization beamsplitters—Part II: The three-dimensional electromagnetic model," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 691-696 (1998).
  43. M. Eisenmann, E. Weidel, "Single-mode fused biconical coupler optimized for polarization beamsplitting," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 853-858 (1991).

2006

J. S. Chiang, T. L. Wu, "Analysis of propagation characteristics for an octagonal photonic crystal fiber (O-PCF)," Opt. Commun. 258, 170-176 (2006).

2005

L. Zhang, C. Yang, C. Yu, T. Luo, A. E. Willner, "PCF-based polarization splitters with simplified structures," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3558-3565 (2005).

2004

L. Zhang, C. Yang, "Polarization-dependent coupling in twin-core photonic crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1367-1373 (2004).

L. Zhang, C. Yang, "A novel polarization splitter based on the photonic crystal fiber with nonidentical dual cores," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1670-1672 (2004).

H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, S. Koyanagi, M. Tanaka, S. Yamaguchi, "Absolutely single polarization photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 182-184 (2004).

T. L. Wu, C. H. Chao, "Photonic crystal fiber analysis through the vector boundary-element method: Effect of elliptical air hole," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 126-128 (2004).

T. L. Wu, J. S. Chiang, C. H. Chao, "A novel approach for calculating the dispersions of photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1492-1494 (2004).

H. Kim, J. Kim, U.-C. Peak, B. H. Lee, "Tunable photonic crystal fiber coupler based on a side-polishing technique," Opt. Lett. 29, 1194-1196 (2004).

2003

L. Zhang, C. Yang, "Polarization splitter based on photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 11, 1015-1020 (2003).

K. Saitoh, Y. Sato, M. Koshiba, "Coupling characteristics of dual-core photonic crystal fiber couplers," Opt. Express 11, 3188-3195 (2003).

N. Guan, S. Habu, K. Tatsuhiro, K. Himeno, A. Wada, "Boundary element method for analysis of holey optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1787-1792 (2003).

V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, "Small-core silica holey fibers: Nonlinearity and confinement loss trade-offs," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 20, 1427-1436 (2003).

K. M. Hilligsøe, H. N. Paulsen, J. Thøgersen, S. R. Keding, J. J. Larsen, "Initial steps of supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 20, 1887-1893 (2003).

2002

2001

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).

M. J. Steel, R. M. Osgood Jr., "Polarization and dispersive properties of elliptical-hole photonic crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 495-503 (2001).

K. Suzuki, H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, M. Tanaka, M. Fujita, "Optical properities of a low-loss polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Express 9, 676-680 (2001).

2000

B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. J. Russell, A. H. Greenaway, "Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 36, 1358-1359 (2000).

J. Canning, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, T. Ryan, M. Kristensen, K. Lyytikainen, "Complex mode coupling within air-silica structured optical fibers and applications," Opt. Commun. 185, 321-324 (2000).

1999

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, "Photonic crystal fibers: A new class of optical waveguides," Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 305-330 (1999).

1998

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic bandgap guidance in optical fibers," Science 282, 1476-1478 (1998).

S. W. Yang, T. L. Wu, C. W. Wu, H. C. Chang, "Numerical modeling of weakly fused fiber-optic polarization beamsplitters—Part II: The three-dimensional electromagnetic model," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 691-696 (1998).

1997

J. J. M. van der Tol, J. W. Pedersen, E. G. Metaal, J. J.-W. van Gaalen, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, "A short polarization splitter without metal overlays on InGaAsP-InP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 209-211 (1997).

1996

T. Hayakawa, S. Asakawa, Y. Kokubun, "Arrow-B type polarization splitter with asymmetric Y-branch fabricated by a self-alignment process," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1165-1170 (1996).

K. C. Lin, W. C. Chuang, W. Y. Lee, "Proposal and analysis of an ultrashort directional-coupler polarization splitter with an NLC coupling layer," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2547-2553 (1996).

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, D. M. Atkin, "All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding," Opt. Lett. 21, 1547-1549 (1996).

1995

C. W. Wu, T. L. Wu, H. C. Chang, "A novel fabrication method for all-fiber, weakly fused, polarization beamsplitters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 786-788 (1995).

1994

P. K. Wei, W. S. Wang, "A TE-TM modes splitter on lithium niobate using Ti, Ni, and MgO diffusion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 245-248 (1994).

1993

R. M. de Ridder, A. F. M. Sander, A. Driessen, J. H. J. Fiuitman, "An itegrated optical adiabatic TE/TM mode splitter on silicon," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1806-1810 (1993).

A. N. Miliou, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, "A 1.3-$\mu$m directional coupler polarization splitter by Ion exchange," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 220-225 (1993).

1992

T. Mizumoto, N. Iwakiri, T. Kaneko, Y. Naito, "Analysis and experimental study of waveguide optical polarization splitter with langmuir-blodgett cladding layer," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1807-1813 (1992).

1991

J. J. M. van der Tol, J. H. Laarhuis, "A polarization splitter on LiNbO$_{3}$ using only Titanium diffusion," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 879-886 (1991).

M. Eisenmann, E. Weidel, "Single-mode fused biconical coupler optimized for polarization beamsplitting," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 853-858 (1991).

1990

G. D. Peng, T. Tjugiarto, P. L. Chu, "Polarization beam splitting using twin-elliptic-core optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 26, 682-683 (1990).

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, R. F. Kazarinov, K. J. Orlowsky, "Integrated optic adiabatic polarization splitter on silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 120-121 (1990).

1987

K. S. Chiang, "Birefringent-fiber polarisation splitters," Electron. Lett. 23, 908-909 (1987).

1986

1985

M. S. Yataki, D. N. Payne, M. P. Varnham, "All-fibre polarising beamsplitter," Electron. Lett. 21, 249-251 (1985).

I. Yokohama, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, "Fiber-optic polarizing beam splitter employing birefringent-fiber coupler," Electron. Lett. 21, 415-416 (1985).

A. W. Snyder, "Polarizing beam splitter from fused-taper couplers," Electron. Lett. 21, 623-625 (1985).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, R. F. Kazarinov, K. J. Orlowsky, "Integrated optic adiabatic polarization splitter on silicon," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 120-121 (1990).

Electron. Lett.

M. S. Yataki, D. N. Payne, M. P. Varnham, "All-fibre polarising beamsplitter," Electron. Lett. 21, 249-251 (1985).

I. Yokohama, K. Okamoto, J. Noda, "Fiber-optic polarizing beam splitter employing birefringent-fiber coupler," Electron. Lett. 21, 415-416 (1985).

A. W. Snyder, "Polarizing beam splitter from fused-taper couplers," Electron. Lett. 21, 623-625 (1985).

B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. J. Russell, A. H. Greenaway, "Experimental study of dual-core photonic crystal fibre," Electron. Lett. 36, 1358-1359 (2000).

K. S. Chiang, "Birefringent-fiber polarisation splitters," Electron. Lett. 23, 908-909 (1987).

G. D. Peng, T. Tjugiarto, P. L. Chu, "Polarization beam splitting using twin-elliptic-core optical fibers," Electron. Lett. 26, 682-683 (1990).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

T. L. Wu, C. H. Chao, "Photonic crystal fiber analysis through the vector boundary-element method: Effect of elliptical air hole," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 126-128 (2004).

T. L. Wu, J. S. Chiang, C. H. Chao, "A novel approach for calculating the dispersions of photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1492-1494 (2004).

L. Zhang, C. Yang, "A novel polarization splitter based on the photonic crystal fiber with nonidentical dual cores," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1670-1672 (2004).

C. W. Wu, T. L. Wu, H. C. Chang, "A novel fabrication method for all-fiber, weakly fused, polarization beamsplitters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 786-788 (1995).

K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Photonic bandgap fibers with high birefringence," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1291-1293 (2002).

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, H. Simonsen, "Highly birefringent index-guiding photonic crystal fibers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 588-590 (2001).

J. J. M. van der Tol, J. W. Pedersen, E. G. Metaal, J. J.-W. van Gaalen, Y. S. Oei, F. H. Groen, "A short polarization splitter without metal overlays on InGaAsP-InP," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 209-211 (1997).

P. K. Wei, W. S. Wang, "A TE-TM modes splitter on lithium niobate using Ti, Ni, and MgO diffusion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 245-248 (1994).

H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, S. Koyanagi, M. Tanaka, S. Yamaguchi, "Absolutely single polarization photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 182-184 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol.

K. C. Lin, W. C. Chuang, W. Y. Lee, "Proposal and analysis of an ultrashort directional-coupler polarization splitter with an NLC coupling layer," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 2547-2553 (1996).

M. J. Steel, R. M. Osgood Jr., "Polarization and dispersive properties of elliptical-hole photonic crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 495-503 (2001).

T. Hayakawa, S. Asakawa, Y. Kokubun, "Arrow-B type polarization splitter with asymmetric Y-branch fabricated by a self-alignment process," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1165-1170 (1996).

R. M. de Ridder, A. F. M. Sander, A. Driessen, J. H. J. Fiuitman, "An itegrated optical adiabatic TE/TM mode splitter on silicon," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1806-1810 (1993).

L. Zhang, C. Yang, C. Yu, T. Luo, A. E. Willner, "PCF-based polarization splitters with simplified structures," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 3558-3565 (2005).

S. W. Yang, T. L. Wu, C. W. Wu, H. C. Chang, "Numerical modeling of weakly fused fiber-optic polarization beamsplitters—Part II: The three-dimensional electromagnetic model," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 691-696 (1998).

M. Eisenmann, E. Weidel, "Single-mode fused biconical coupler optimized for polarization beamsplitting," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 853-858 (1991).

L. Zhang, C. Yang, "Polarization-dependent coupling in twin-core photonic crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1367-1373 (2004).

N. Guan, S. Habu, K. Tatsuhiro, K. Himeno, A. Wada, "Boundary element method for analysis of holey optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1787-1792 (2003).

J. Lightwave Technol.

A. N. Miliou, R. Srivastava, R. V. Ramaswamy, "A 1.3-$\mu$m directional coupler polarization splitter by Ion exchange," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 220-225 (1993).

J. J. M. van der Tol, J. H. Laarhuis, "A polarization splitter on LiNbO$_{3}$ using only Titanium diffusion," J. Lightwave Technol. 9, 879-886 (1991).

T. Mizumoto, N. Iwakiri, T. Kaneko, Y. Naito, "Analysis and experimental study of waveguide optical polarization splitter with langmuir-blodgett cladding layer," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1807-1813 (1992).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B

V. Finazzi, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, "Small-core silica holey fibers: Nonlinearity and confinement loss trade-offs," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 20, 1427-1436 (2003).

K. M. Hilligsøe, H. N. Paulsen, J. Thøgersen, S. R. Keding, J. J. Larsen, "Initial steps of supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 20, 1887-1893 (2003).

Opt. Commun.

J. Canning, M. A. van Eijkelenborg, T. Ryan, M. Kristensen, K. Lyytikainen, "Complex mode coupling within air-silica structured optical fibers and applications," Opt. Commun. 185, 321-324 (2000).

J. S. Chiang, T. L. Wu, "Analysis of propagation characteristics for an octagonal photonic crystal fiber (O-PCF)," Opt. Commun. 258, 170-176 (2006).

Opt. Express

Opt. Fiber Technol.

J. Broeng, D. Mogilevstev, S. E. Barkou, A. Bjarklev, "Photonic crystal fibers: A new class of optical waveguides," Opt. Fiber Technol. 5, 305-330 (1999).

Opt. Lett.

Science

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic bandgap guidance in optical fibers," Science 282, 1476-1478 (1998).

Other

J. S. Chiang, "A new compact polarization beam splitter based on dual-elliptical-core photonic crystal fiber," Conf. Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (2007).

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