Abstract

Reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers (ROADMs) based on 1$\,\times\,$N wavelength-selective switches (WSS) are evolving to support DWDM networks with higher capacity and increased flexibility in wavelength routing. Different WSS technologies can be employed to provide colorless and steerable functionality for ring, or meshed architectures. Improvements in specifications of WSS modules operating on the 50 GHz wavelength grid have enabled 40 Gb/s transmission rates through extensive ROADM networks. The same ROADMs are also expected to support 100 Gb/s transmission in the near future. In parallel, development of lower-cost WSS technologies is allowing ROADMs to expand into edge networks. In all these network applications, propagation through multiple ROADMs generates transmission penalties for the DWDM channels, which need to be factored into the network design. Such OSNR or Q factor penalties can be induced by passband narrowing, imperfect isolation across the signal bandwidth, insertion loss, PDL, and other effects. The impact of these impairments depend on the transmitter and receiver types (e.g., data rate and modulation format), and on the WSS characteristics (e.g., insertion loss, passband width, shape, isolation magnitude and isolation stopband). Key transmission impairments such as bandpass narrowing, crosstalk, insertion loss, and PDL are estimated based on experiments and numerical simulations for common data rates and modulation formats. Implications of temporal fluctuations during power setting throughout a ROADM network are also discussed.

© 2010 IEEE

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  44. J. Renaudier, G. Charlet, O. B. Pardo, S. Bigo, "Long-haul transmission systems involving coherent detection for linear impairments mitigation," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (2008).
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2009 (2)

F. Smyth, D. C. Kilper, S. Chandrasekhar, L. P. Barry, "Applied constant gain amplification in circulating loop experiments," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4686-4696 (2009).

S. Azodolmolky, "A dynamic impairment-aware networking solution for transparent mesh optical networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 38-47 (2009).

2008 (3)

J. Homa, K. Bala, "ROADM architectures and their enabling technologies," IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, 150-153 (2008).

M. A. F. Roelens, "Dispersion trimming in a reconfigurable wavelength selective switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 73-78 (2008).

D. C. Kilper, C. A. White, S. Chandrasekhar, "Control of channel power instabilities in constant-gain amplified transparent networks using scalable mesh scheduling," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 108-113 (2008).

2006 (4)

E. B. Basch, R. Egorov, S. Gringeri, S. Elby, "Architectural tradeoffs for reconfigurable dense wavelength-division multiplexing systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1-12 (2006).

T. Lehman, J. Sobieski, B. Jabbari, "DRAGON: A framework for service provisioning in heterogeneous grid networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 84-90 (2006).

M. Nagy, S. Tibuleac, "Wavelength selective switches for fiber optics telecommunications," Photonics Spectra 74 (2006).

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, F. Liu, "Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity," Electron. Lett. 42, 1363-1364 (2006).

2004 (1)

X. Liu, Y. H. Kao, M. Movassaghi, R. C. Giles, "Tolerance to in-band coherent crosstalk of differential phase-shift-keyed signal with balanced detection and FEC," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1209-1211 (2004).

2003 (1)

J. D. Downie, A. B. Ruffin, "Analysis of signal distortion and crosstalk penalties induced by optical filters in optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1876-1886 (2003).

2002 (2)

M. Lee, N. Antoniades, A. Boskovic, "PDL-induced channel power divergence in a metro WDM network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 561-562 (2002).

A. Mecozzi, M. Shtaif, "The statistics of polarization-dependent loss in optical communication systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 313-315 (2002).

1999 (1)

H. Maeda, Y. Tada, M. Sumida, S. Saito, Y. Hayashi, "Performance degradation of long-distance optical WDM networks due to bandwidth limitations of wavelength multiplexers and demultiplexers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1509-1511 (1999).

1995 (2)

N. N. Khrais, A. F. Elrefaie, R. E. Wagner, S. Ahmed, "Performance degradation of multiwavelength optical networks due to laser and (de)multiplexer misalignments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1348-1350 (1995).

N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, "Circulating loop transmission experiments for the study of long-haul transmission systems using erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. of Lightwave Tech. 13, 875-888 (1995).

1994 (1)

E. L. Goldstein, L. Eskildsen, A. F. Elrefaie, "Performance implications of component crosstalk in transparent lightwave networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 5657-660 (1994).

Electron. Lett. (1)

B. Mikkelsen, C. Rasmussen, P. Mamyshev, F. Liu, "Partial DPSK with excellent filter tolerance and OSNR sensitivity," Electron. Lett. 42, 1363-1364 (2006).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (3)

T. Lehman, J. Sobieski, B. Jabbari, "DRAGON: A framework for service provisioning in heterogeneous grid networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 44, 84-90 (2006).

J. Homa, K. Bala, "ROADM architectures and their enabling technologies," IEEE Commun. Mag. 46, 150-153 (2008).

S. Azodolmolky, "A dynamic impairment-aware networking solution for transparent mesh optical networks," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 38-47 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. B. Basch, R. Egorov, S. Gringeri, S. Elby, "Architectural tradeoffs for reconfigurable dense wavelength-division multiplexing systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1-12 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

E. L. Goldstein, L. Eskildsen, A. F. Elrefaie, "Performance implications of component crosstalk in transparent lightwave networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 5657-660 (1994).

H. Maeda, Y. Tada, M. Sumida, S. Saito, Y. Hayashi, "Performance degradation of long-distance optical WDM networks due to bandwidth limitations of wavelength multiplexers and demultiplexers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1509-1511 (1999).

N. N. Khrais, A. F. Elrefaie, R. E. Wagner, S. Ahmed, "Performance degradation of multiwavelength optical networks due to laser and (de)multiplexer misalignments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1348-1350 (1995).

M. Lee, N. Antoniades, A. Boskovic, "PDL-induced channel power divergence in a metro WDM network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 561-562 (2002).

A. Mecozzi, M. Shtaif, "The statistics of polarization-dependent loss in optical communication systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 313-315 (2002).

X. Liu, Y. H. Kao, M. Movassaghi, R. C. Giles, "Tolerance to in-band coherent crosstalk of differential phase-shift-keyed signal with balanced detection and FEC," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1209-1211 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

F. Smyth, D. C. Kilper, S. Chandrasekhar, L. P. Barry, "Applied constant gain amplification in circulating loop experiments," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4686-4696 (2009).

D. C. Kilper, C. A. White, S. Chandrasekhar, "Control of channel power instabilities in constant-gain amplified transparent networks using scalable mesh scheduling," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 108-113 (2008).

J. D. Downie, A. B. Ruffin, "Analysis of signal distortion and crosstalk penalties induced by optical filters in optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1876-1886 (2003).

M. A. F. Roelens, "Dispersion trimming in a reconfigurable wavelength selective switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 73-78 (2008).

J. of Lightwave Tech. (1)

N. S. Bergano, C. R. Davidson, "Circulating loop transmission experiments for the study of long-haul transmission systems using erbium-doped fiber amplifiers," J. of Lightwave Tech. 13, 875-888 (1995).

Photonics Spectra (1)

M. Nagy, S. Tibuleac, "Wavelength selective switches for fiber optics telecommunications," Photonics Spectra 74 (2006).

Other (31)

B. Collings, B. C. Collings, F. Heismann, C. Reimer, "Dependence of the transmission impairment on the WSS port isolation spectral profile in 50 GHz ROADM networks with 43 Gb/s NRZ-ADPSK signals," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2009).

M. Filer, S. Tibuleac, "Impact of ROADM in-band crosstalk on 40 G DPSK signals," OFC/NFOEC (2010).

B. Keyworth, "ROADM subsystems and technologies," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2005).

J. Kelly, "Application of liquid crystal technology to telecommunication devices," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2007).

G. Baxter, "Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2006).

M. D. Feuer, D. C. Kilper, S. L. Woodward, Optical Fiber Telecommunications V (Academic, 2008) pp. 293-343.

M. Mezhoudi, R. Feldman, R. Goudreault, B. Basch, V. Poudyal, "The value of multiple degree ROADMs on metropolitan network economics," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2006).

P. Roorda, B. Collings, "Evolution to colorless and directionless ROADM architectures," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2008).

T. Strasser, "ROADM technologies and evolution," Proc. IEEE LEOS (2008).

A. Sahara, "Demonstration of colorless and directed/directionless ROADMs in router network," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2009).

B. E. Smith, "AT&T transport services," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2009).

D. R. Templeton, "Impact of FTTP on metro network architecture," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2009).

S. Tibuleac, "Field trial of metro DWDM system with ROADMs based on 5$\,\times\,$1 and 5$\,\times\,$5 wavelength selective switches," Proc. ECOC (2006) pp. 401-402.

S. Chandrasekhar, "Improving the filtering tolerance of 42.7-Gb/s partial DPSK by optimized power imbalance," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2009).

P. J. Winzer, R. J. Essiambre, Optical Fiber Telecommunications V B (Academic, 2008) pp. 23-93.

C. Fuerst, M. Camera, H. Wernz, H. Griesser, "Experimental experiences in high speed DQPSK transmission," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2009).

H. Bissessur, C. Bastide, "Experimental assessment of frequency-dependent crosstalk penalty with different 43 Gb/s modulation formats," Proc. ECOC (2007).

T. Zami, "Comparative study of crosstalk created in 50 GHz-spaced wavelength selective switch for various modulation formats at 43 Gbit/s," Proc. ECOC (2006).

R. Narevich, "Integrated optical switch, variable attenuator and power monitor tap chip for 40-channel PLC ROADM," Proc. Photon. Switching (2007).

T. Goh, "Port scalable PLC-based wavelength selective switch with low extension loss for multi-degree ROADM/WXC," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2008).

L. Eldada, "40-channel ultra-low-power compact PLC-based ROADM subsystem," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2006).

M. Muha, "MEMS based channelized ROADM platform," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2008).

F. Heismann, P. Mamyshev, "43-Gb/s NRZ-PDPSK WDM transmission with 50-GHz channel spacing in systems with cascaded wavelength-selective switches," Proc. OFC-NFOEC (2009).

M. Filer, "System performance of tunable-filter ROADM," Proc. IEEE LEOS (2008) pp. 202-203.

Transmission characteristics of optical components and subsystems ITU-T Recommendation G.671 (2005).

B. Clouet, "Cascadability study of 16 1$\,\times\,$9 wavelength selective switches with 5$\,\times\,$42.6 Gb/s CS-RZ channels," Proc. ECOC (2005).

S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, "Experimental investigation of system impairments in polarization multiplexed 107-Gb/s RZ-DQPSK," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2008).

J. Renaudier, G. Charlet, O. B. Pardo, S. Bigo, "Long-haul transmission systems involving coherent detection for linear impairments mitigation," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (2008).

T. Schmidt, C. Malouin, R. Saunders, J. Hong, , "Mitigating channel impairments in high capacity serial 40 G and 100 G DWDM transmission systems," Proc. IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (2008).

A. Farrel, I. Bryskin, GMPLS Architecture and Applications (Elsevier, 2006).

T. Anderson, J. C. Li, D. Hewitt, O. Jerphagnon, "Optical performance monitoring for intelligent networks," Proc. ECOC (2009).

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