Abstract

In this paper, we realized a monolithic silicon photonic integrated circuit (PIC) for polarization and phase diversity coherent detection. The PIC includes two polarization beam splitters, two 90$^{\circ}$ optical hybrids, and four pairs of balanced photodiodes implemented as integrated germanium detectors. We tested the PIC using polarization-division multiplexed quadrature phase-shift keyed signals at 43 and at 112 Gb/s.

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  1. T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, Coherent Optical Fiber Communications (Kluwer, 1988).
  2. F. Derr, "Coherent optical QPSK intradyne system concept and digital receiver realization," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1290-1296 (1992).
  3. A. Leven, N. Kaneda, U.-V. Koc, Y.-K. Chen, "Coherent receivers for practical optical communication systems," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2007) OThK4.
  4. H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, K. Roberts, "Real-time measurements of a 40 Gb/s coherent system," Opt. Exp. 16, 873-879 (2008).
  5. S. Yamashita, T. Okoshi, "Suppression of common-mode beat noise from optical amplifiers using a balanced receiver," Electron. Lett. 28, 1970-1972 (1992).
  6. S. Ryu, Y. Horiuchi, "Use of an optical amplifier in a coherent receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 663-665 (1991).
  7. A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, "Dynamic range of single-ended detection receivers for 100GE coherent PM-QPSK," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1281-1283 (2008).
  8. R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, Jr., J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, H.-S. Tsai, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, "Large-scale photonic integrated circuits," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 50-65 (2005).
  9. H. Takeuchi, K. Kasaya, Y. Kondo, H. Yasaka, K. Oe, Y. Imamura, "Monolithic integrated coherent receiver on InP substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 398-400 (1989).
  10. T. L. Koch, U. Koren, R. P. Gnall, F. S. Choa, F. Hernandez-Gil, C. A. Burrus, M. G. Young, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, "GaInAs/GaInAsP multiple-quantum-well integrated heterodyne receiver," Electron. Lett. 25, 1621-1623 (1989).
  11. R. J. Deri, E. C. M. Pennings, A. Scherer, A. S. Gozdz, C. Caneau, N. C. Andreadakis, V. Shah, L. Curtis, R. J. Hawkins, J. B. D Soole, J.-I. Song, "Ultracompact monolithic integration of balanced, polarization diversity photodetectors for coherent lightwave receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1238-1240 (1992).
  12. H.-G. Bach, A. Matiss, C. C. Leonhardt, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, A. Umbach, "Monolithic 90 $^{\circ}$ hybrid with balanced PIN photodiodes for 100 Gbit/s PM-QPSK receiver applications," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) OMK5.
  13. C. R. Doerr, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, M. Rasras, M. Earnshaw, J. Weiner, D. M. Gill, Y. K. Chen, "Monolithic silicon coherent receiver," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) PDPB2.
  14. T. Tamir, Integrated Optics .
  15. D. Taillert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, R. Baets, "A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249-1251 (2003).
  16. F. Van Laere, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Focusing polarization diversity grating couplers in silicon-on-insulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 612-618 (2009).
  17. F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, C. Cambournac, M. Ayre, R. Brenot, H. Benisty, G. Roelkens, T. F. Krauss, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Nanophotonic polarization diversity demultiplexer chip," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 417-425 (2009).
  18. D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, M. Imada, S. Noda, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of a surface-emitting two-dimensional photonic crystal diode laser," Opt. Exp. 12, 1562-1568 (2004).
  19. J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, T. H. Loh, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, "Evanescent-coupled Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si-waveguide with SEG-Ge and comparative study of lateral and vertical p-i-n configurations," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 445-448 (2008).
  20. W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thorhout, R. Baets, E. Pluk, "A polarization-diversity wavelength duplexer circuit in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Opt. Exp. 15, 1567-1578 (2007).

2009 (2)

F. Van Laere, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Focusing polarization diversity grating couplers in silicon-on-insulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 612-618 (2009).

F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, C. Cambournac, M. Ayre, R. Brenot, H. Benisty, G. Roelkens, T. F. Krauss, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Nanophotonic polarization diversity demultiplexer chip," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 417-425 (2009).

2008 (3)

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, T. H. Loh, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, "Evanescent-coupled Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si-waveguide with SEG-Ge and comparative study of lateral and vertical p-i-n configurations," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 445-448 (2008).

A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, "Dynamic range of single-ended detection receivers for 100GE coherent PM-QPSK," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1281-1283 (2008).

H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, K. Roberts, "Real-time measurements of a 40 Gb/s coherent system," Opt. Exp. 16, 873-879 (2008).

2007 (1)

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thorhout, R. Baets, E. Pluk, "A polarization-diversity wavelength duplexer circuit in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Opt. Exp. 15, 1567-1578 (2007).

2005 (1)

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, Jr., J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, H.-S. Tsai, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, "Large-scale photonic integrated circuits," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 50-65 (2005).

2004 (1)

D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, M. Imada, S. Noda, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of a surface-emitting two-dimensional photonic crystal diode laser," Opt. Exp. 12, 1562-1568 (2004).

2003 (1)

D. Taillert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, R. Baets, "A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249-1251 (2003).

1992 (3)

S. Yamashita, T. Okoshi, "Suppression of common-mode beat noise from optical amplifiers using a balanced receiver," Electron. Lett. 28, 1970-1972 (1992).

F. Derr, "Coherent optical QPSK intradyne system concept and digital receiver realization," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1290-1296 (1992).

R. J. Deri, E. C. M. Pennings, A. Scherer, A. S. Gozdz, C. Caneau, N. C. Andreadakis, V. Shah, L. Curtis, R. J. Hawkins, J. B. D Soole, J.-I. Song, "Ultracompact monolithic integration of balanced, polarization diversity photodetectors for coherent lightwave receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1238-1240 (1992).

1991 (1)

S. Ryu, Y. Horiuchi, "Use of an optical amplifier in a coherent receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 663-665 (1991).

1989 (2)

H. Takeuchi, K. Kasaya, Y. Kondo, H. Yasaka, K. Oe, Y. Imamura, "Monolithic integrated coherent receiver on InP substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 398-400 (1989).

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, R. P. Gnall, F. S. Choa, F. Hernandez-Gil, C. A. Burrus, M. G. Young, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, "GaInAs/GaInAsP multiple-quantum-well integrated heterodyne receiver," Electron. Lett. 25, 1621-1623 (1989).

Electron. Lett. (2)

S. Yamashita, T. Okoshi, "Suppression of common-mode beat noise from optical amplifiers using a balanced receiver," Electron. Lett. 28, 1970-1972 (1992).

T. L. Koch, U. Koren, R. P. Gnall, F. S. Choa, F. Hernandez-Gil, C. A. Burrus, M. G. Young, M. Oron, B. I. Miller, "GaInAs/GaInAsP multiple-quantum-well integrated heterodyne receiver," Electron. Lett. 25, 1621-1623 (1989).

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, T. H. Loh, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, "Evanescent-coupled Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si-waveguide with SEG-Ge and comparative study of lateral and vertical p-i-n configurations," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 445-448 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

H. Takeuchi, K. Kasaya, Y. Kondo, H. Yasaka, K. Oe, Y. Imamura, "Monolithic integrated coherent receiver on InP substrate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 398-400 (1989).

R. J. Deri, E. C. M. Pennings, A. Scherer, A. S. Gozdz, C. Caneau, N. C. Andreadakis, V. Shah, L. Curtis, R. J. Hawkins, J. B. D Soole, J.-I. Song, "Ultracompact monolithic integration of balanced, polarization diversity photodetectors for coherent lightwave receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1238-1240 (1992).

D. Taillert, H. Chong, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, R. M. De La Rue, R. Baets, "A compact two-dimensional grating coupler used as a polarization splitter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1249-1251 (2003).

S. Ryu, Y. Horiuchi, "Use of an optical amplifier in a coherent receiver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 663-665 (1991).

A. Carena, V. Curri, P. Poggiolini, F. Forghieri, "Dynamic range of single-ended detection receivers for 100GE coherent PM-QPSK," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1281-1283 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

F. Derr, "Coherent optical QPSK intradyne system concept and digital receiver realization," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1290-1296 (1992).

F. Van Laere, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Focusing polarization diversity grating couplers in silicon-on-insulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 612-618 (2009).

F. Van Laere, T. Stomeo, C. Cambournac, M. Ayre, R. Brenot, H. Benisty, G. Roelkens, T. F. Krauss, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, "Nanophotonic polarization diversity demultiplexer chip," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 417-425 (2009).

J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, Jr., J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, H.-S. Tsai, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, D. F. Welch, "Large-scale photonic integrated circuits," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 50-65 (2005).

Opt. Exp. (3)

H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, K. Roberts, "Real-time measurements of a 40 Gb/s coherent system," Opt. Exp. 16, 873-879 (2008).

D. Ohnishi, T. Okano, M. Imada, S. Noda, "Room temperature continuous wave operation of a surface-emitting two-dimensional photonic crystal diode laser," Opt. Exp. 12, 1562-1568 (2004).

W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, P. Dumon, D. Van Thorhout, R. Baets, E. Pluk, "A polarization-diversity wavelength duplexer circuit in silicon-on-insulator photonic wires," Opt. Exp. 15, 1567-1578 (2007).

Other (5)

H.-G. Bach, A. Matiss, C. C. Leonhardt, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, A. Umbach, "Monolithic 90 $^{\circ}$ hybrid with balanced PIN photodiodes for 100 Gbit/s PM-QPSK receiver applications," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) OMK5.

C. R. Doerr, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, M. Rasras, M. Earnshaw, J. Weiner, D. M. Gill, Y. K. Chen, "Monolithic silicon coherent receiver," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. San DiegoCA (2009) PDPB2.

T. Tamir, Integrated Optics .

T. Okoshi, K. Kikuchi, Coherent Optical Fiber Communications (Kluwer, 1988).

A. Leven, N. Kaneda, U.-V. Koc, Y.-K. Chen, "Coherent receivers for practical optical communication systems," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. AnaheimCA (2007) OThK4.

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