Abstract

In this paper, we present the first wavelength-preserving, tunable all-optical delay lines surpassing the microsecond range. Experimental demonstrations with 10-Gb/s data streams, tunable over 1.83 $\mu$s, as well as 40-Gb/s data tunable over 1.56 $\mu$s, characterized by a record delay-bandwidth product of 78 000, are presented and analyzed in detail.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. F. P. Kapron, D. B. Keck, R. D. Maurer, "Radiation losses in glass optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 423-425 (1970).
  2. R. S. Tucker, P.-C. Ku, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow-light optical buffers: Capabilities and fundamental limitations," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4046-4066 (2005).
  3. J. Strand, Optical Telecommunication IVB (Academic, 2002).
  4. R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, "Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (TON) 3, 489-500 (1995).
  5. S. P. Davis, J. W. Brault, M. C. Abrams, Fourier Transform Spectrometry (Academic, 1983).
  6. D. Cotter, R. J. Manning, K. J. Blow, A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, I. D. Phillips, A. J. Poustie, D. C. Rogers, "Nonlinear optics for high-speed digital information processing," Science 286, 1523-1528 (1999).
  7. Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Line-by-line pulse shaping control for optical arbitrary waveform generation," Opt. Exp. 13, 10431-10439 (2005).
  8. W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, "Line-by-line pulse shaping control for optical arbitrary waveform generation," Opt. Exp. 13, 10431-10439 (2005).
  9. J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, R. I. Laming, "True time-delay scheme for feeding optically controlled phased-array antennas using chirped-fiber gratings," Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1529-1531 (1997).
  10. E. Choi, J. H. Na, Y. Ryu, G. Mudhana, B. H. Lee, "All-fiber variable optical delay line for applications in optical coherence tomography: Feasibility study for a novel delay line," Opt. Exp. 13, 1334-1345 (2005).
  11. G. N. Pearson, K. D. Ridley, D. V. Willetts, "Chirp-pulse-compression three dimensional lidar imager with fiber optics," Appl. Opt. 44, 257-265 (2005).
  12. N. Alic, J. R. Windmiller, J. B. Coles, S. Radic, "Two-pump parametric optical delays," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 681-690 (2008).
  13. J. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, J. van Howe, C. Xu, Y. Wang, A. Willner, A. Gaeta, "All-optical, wavelength and bandwidth preserving, pulse delay based on parametric wavelength conversion and dispersion," Opt. Exp. 13, 7872-7877 (2005).
  14. M. Burzio, P. Cinato, R. Finotti, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, E. Vezzoni, L. Zuchelli, "Optical cell synchronization in an ATM optical switch," Proc. ECOC 1994 (1994) pp. 581-584.
  15. E. K. Kirchner, "Microwave variable delay devices," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-17, 986-997 (1969).
  16. J. Ren, N. Alic, E. Myslivets, R. E. Saperstein, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, P. A. Andrekson, S. Radic, "12.47 ns continuously-tunable two-pump parametric delay," Postdeadline Paper ECOC 2006 CannesFrance (2006) Paper Th4.4.3.
  17. N. Alic, J. R. Windmiller, J. B. Coles, S. Moro, E. Myslivets, R. E. Saperstein, J. M. C. Boggio, C.-S. Bres, S. Radic, "105-ns continuously tunable delay of 10-Gb/s optical signal," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1187-1189 (2008).
  18. E. Myslivets, N. Alic, J. R. Windmiller, R. M. Jopson, S. Radic, "400-ns continuously tunable delay of 10-Gb/s intensity modulated optical signal," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 251-253 (2009).
  19. S. R. Nuccio, O. F. Yilmaz, S. Khaleghi, L. Christen, I. Fazal, A. E. Willner, "503 ns, tunable optical delay of 40 Gb/s RZ-OOK and RZ-DPSK using additional $\lambda$-conversion for increased delay and reduced residual dispersion," OFC 2009 San DiegoCA (2009) Paper OThM7.
  20. S. Moro, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, J. X. Zhao, A. J. Anderson, J. M. Aparicio, J. B. Coles, J. M. C. Boggio, S. Radic, "720-ns continuously tunable parametric delay of a 10-Gb/s optical signal," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1250-1252 (2009).
  21. Y. Wang, C. Yu, L. Yan, A. E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, "Continuously-tunable dispersionless 44-ns all optical delay element using a two-pump PPLN, DCF, and a dispersion compensator," ECOC 2005 GlasgowScotland (2005) Paper Th1.3.3-2.
  22. I. Fazal, O. Yilmaz, S. Nuccio, B. Zhang, A. E. Willner, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, "Optical data packet synchronization and multiplexing using a tunable optical delay based on wavelength conversion and inter-channel chromatic dispersion," Opt. Exp. 15, 10492-10497 (2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-17-10492.
  23. L. Christen, O. F. Yilmaz, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, I. Fazal, A. E. Willner, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, "Tunable 105 ns optical delay for 80 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK, 40 Gb/s RZ-DPSK, and 40 Gb/s RZ-OOK signals using wavelength conversion and chromatic dispersion," Opt. Lett. 34, 542-544 (2009).
  24. Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, X. Chen, A. C. Turner-Foster, R. Salem, M. Lipson, C. Xu, A. L. Gaeta, "Large tunable delays using parametric mixing and phase conjugation in Si nanowaveguides," Opt. Exp. 16, 10349-10357 (2008).
  25. S. Namiki, "Wide-band and -range tunable dispersion compensation through parametric wavelength conversion and dispersive optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 28-35 (2008).
  26. S. Namiki, T. Kurosu, "17 ns tunable delay for picosecond pulses through simultaneous and independent control of delay and dispersion using cascaded parametric processes," ECOC 2009 BrusselsBelgium (2008) Paper Th.3.C.3.
  27. N. Alic, E. Myslivets, S. Moro, B. P.-P. Kuo, R. M. Jopson, C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, "1.83-$\mu$s wavelength-transparent all-optical delay," OFC 2009 San DiegoCA (2009) Postdeadline Paper PDP-A1.
  28. Y. Dai, X. Chen, Y. Okawachi, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, C. Xu, "1 $\mu$s tunable delay using parametric mixing and optical phase conjugation in Si waveguides," Opt. Exp. 17, 7004-7010 (2009).
  29. E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Moro, B. P. P. Kuo, R. M. Jopson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, S. Radic, "1.56-$\mu$s continuously tunable parametric delay line for a 40-Gb/s signal," Opt. Exp. 17, 11958-11964 (2009).
  30. C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, A. R. Chraplyvy, "Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves," IEEE Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 538-547 (2002).
  31. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 1995).
  32. J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, A. H. Gnauck, B. Glance, "Bit error rate performance for wavelength conversion at 20 Gbit/s," Electon. Lett. 30, 720-721 (1994).
  33. R. A. Griffin, A. C. Carter, "Optical differential quadrature phaseshift keying (oDQPSK) for high capacity optical transmission," OFC 2002 AnaheimCA () Paper WX6C.
  34. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol 23, 115-130 (2005).
  35. P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, C. R. Doerr, M. Duelk, C. Dorrer, "107-Gb/s optical signal generation using electronic time-division multiplexing," J. Ligthw. Technol. 24, 3107-3113 (2006).
  36. C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 64-72 (2008).
  37. R. S. Tucker, R. Parthiban, J. Baliga, K. Hinton, R. W. A. Ayre, W. V. Sorin, "Evolution of WDM optical IP networks: A cost and energy perspective," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 243-252 (2009).

2009 (6)

E. Myslivets, N. Alic, J. R. Windmiller, R. M. Jopson, S. Radic, "400-ns continuously tunable delay of 10-Gb/s intensity modulated optical signal," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 251-253 (2009).

S. Moro, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, J. X. Zhao, A. J. Anderson, J. M. Aparicio, J. B. Coles, J. M. C. Boggio, S. Radic, "720-ns continuously tunable parametric delay of a 10-Gb/s optical signal," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1250-1252 (2009).

Y. Dai, X. Chen, Y. Okawachi, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, C. Xu, "1 $\mu$s tunable delay using parametric mixing and optical phase conjugation in Si waveguides," Opt. Exp. 17, 7004-7010 (2009).

E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Moro, B. P. P. Kuo, R. M. Jopson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, S. Radic, "1.56-$\mu$s continuously tunable parametric delay line for a 40-Gb/s signal," Opt. Exp. 17, 11958-11964 (2009).

R. S. Tucker, R. Parthiban, J. Baliga, K. Hinton, R. W. A. Ayre, W. V. Sorin, "Evolution of WDM optical IP networks: A cost and energy perspective," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 243-252 (2009).

L. Christen, O. F. Yilmaz, S. Nuccio, X. Wu, I. Fazal, A. E. Willner, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, "Tunable 105 ns optical delay for 80 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK, 40 Gb/s RZ-DPSK, and 40 Gb/s RZ-OOK signals using wavelength conversion and chromatic dispersion," Opt. Lett. 34, 542-544 (2009).

2008 (5)

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 64-72 (2008).

Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, X. Chen, A. C. Turner-Foster, R. Salem, M. Lipson, C. Xu, A. L. Gaeta, "Large tunable delays using parametric mixing and phase conjugation in Si nanowaveguides," Opt. Exp. 16, 10349-10357 (2008).

S. Namiki, "Wide-band and -range tunable dispersion compensation through parametric wavelength conversion and dispersive optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 28-35 (2008).

N. Alic, J. R. Windmiller, J. B. Coles, S. Moro, E. Myslivets, R. E. Saperstein, J. M. C. Boggio, C.-S. Bres, S. Radic, "105-ns continuously tunable delay of 10-Gb/s optical signal," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1187-1189 (2008).

N. Alic, J. R. Windmiller, J. B. Coles, S. Radic, "Two-pump parametric optical delays," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 681-690 (2008).

2007 (1)

I. Fazal, O. Yilmaz, S. Nuccio, B. Zhang, A. E. Willner, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, "Optical data packet synchronization and multiplexing using a tunable optical delay based on wavelength conversion and inter-channel chromatic dispersion," Opt. Exp. 15, 10492-10497 (2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-17-10492.

2006 (1)

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, C. R. Doerr, M. Duelk, C. Dorrer, "107-Gb/s optical signal generation using electronic time-division multiplexing," J. Ligthw. Technol. 24, 3107-3113 (2006).

2005 (7)

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol 23, 115-130 (2005).

G. N. Pearson, K. D. Ridley, D. V. Willetts, "Chirp-pulse-compression three dimensional lidar imager with fiber optics," Appl. Opt. 44, 257-265 (2005).

E. Choi, J. H. Na, Y. Ryu, G. Mudhana, B. H. Lee, "All-fiber variable optical delay line for applications in optical coherence tomography: Feasibility study for a novel delay line," Opt. Exp. 13, 1334-1345 (2005).

J. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, J. van Howe, C. Xu, Y. Wang, A. Willner, A. Gaeta, "All-optical, wavelength and bandwidth preserving, pulse delay based on parametric wavelength conversion and dispersion," Opt. Exp. 13, 7872-7877 (2005).

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Line-by-line pulse shaping control for optical arbitrary waveform generation," Opt. Exp. 13, 10431-10439 (2005).

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, "Line-by-line pulse shaping control for optical arbitrary waveform generation," Opt. Exp. 13, 10431-10439 (2005).

R. S. Tucker, P.-C. Ku, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow-light optical buffers: Capabilities and fundamental limitations," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4046-4066 (2005).

2002 (1)

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, A. R. Chraplyvy, "Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves," IEEE Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 538-547 (2002).

1999 (1)

D. Cotter, R. J. Manning, K. J. Blow, A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, I. D. Phillips, A. J. Poustie, D. C. Rogers, "Nonlinear optics for high-speed digital information processing," Science 286, 1523-1528 (1999).

1997 (1)

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, R. I. Laming, "True time-delay scheme for feeding optically controlled phased-array antennas using chirped-fiber gratings," Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1529-1531 (1997).

1995 (1)

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, "Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (TON) 3, 489-500 (1995).

1994 (1)

J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, A. H. Gnauck, B. Glance, "Bit error rate performance for wavelength conversion at 20 Gbit/s," Electon. Lett. 30, 720-721 (1994).

1970 (1)

F. P. Kapron, D. B. Keck, R. D. Maurer, "Radiation losses in glass optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 423-425 (1970).

1969 (1)

E. K. Kirchner, "Microwave variable delay devices," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-17, 986-997 (1969).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

F. P. Kapron, D. B. Keck, R. D. Maurer, "Radiation losses in glass optical waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 17, 423-425 (1970).

Electon. Lett. (1)

J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, A. H. Gnauck, B. Glance, "Bit error rate performance for wavelength conversion at 20 Gbit/s," Electon. Lett. 30, 720-721 (1994).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

S. Moro, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, J. X. Zhao, A. J. Anderson, J. M. Aparicio, J. B. Coles, J. M. C. Boggio, S. Radic, "720-ns continuously tunable parametric delay of a 10-Gb/s optical signal," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1250-1252 (2009).

N. Alic, J. R. Windmiller, J. B. Coles, S. Moro, E. Myslivets, R. E. Saperstein, J. M. C. Boggio, C.-S. Bres, S. Radic, "105-ns continuously tunable delay of 10-Gb/s optical signal," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1187-1189 (2008).

E. Myslivets, N. Alic, J. R. Windmiller, R. M. Jopson, S. Radic, "400-ns continuously tunable delay of 10-Gb/s intensity modulated optical signal," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 251-253 (2009).

IEEE Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, A. R. Chraplyvy, "Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves," IEEE Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 538-547 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

E. K. Kirchner, "Microwave variable delay devices," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-17, 986-997 (1969).

IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (TON) (1)

R. Ramaswami, K. N. Sivarajan, "Routing and wavelength assignment in all-optical networks," IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw. (TON) 3, 489-500 (1995).

J. Lightw. Technol (1)

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol 23, 115-130 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

C. R. S. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Coherent equalization and POLMUX-RZ-DQPSK for robust 100-GE transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 64-72 (2008).

R. S. Tucker, R. Parthiban, J. Baliga, K. Hinton, R. W. A. Ayre, W. V. Sorin, "Evolution of WDM optical IP networks: A cost and energy perspective," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 243-252 (2009).

S. Namiki, "Wide-band and -range tunable dispersion compensation through parametric wavelength conversion and dispersive optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 28-35 (2008).

R. S. Tucker, P.-C. Ku, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, "Slow-light optical buffers: Capabilities and fundamental limitations," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 4046-4066 (2005).

J. Ligthw. Technol. (1)

P. J. Winzer, G. Raybon, C. R. Doerr, M. Duelk, C. Dorrer, "107-Gb/s optical signal generation using electronic time-division multiplexing," J. Ligthw. Technol. 24, 3107-3113 (2006).

J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Alic, J. R. Windmiller, J. B. Coles, S. Radic, "Two-pump parametric optical delays," J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 681-690 (2008).

Opt. Exp. (8)

J. Sharping, Y. Okawachi, J. van Howe, C. Xu, Y. Wang, A. Willner, A. Gaeta, "All-optical, wavelength and bandwidth preserving, pulse delay based on parametric wavelength conversion and dispersion," Opt. Exp. 13, 7872-7877 (2005).

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Line-by-line pulse shaping control for optical arbitrary waveform generation," Opt. Exp. 13, 10431-10439 (2005).

W. Ng, A. A. Walston, G. L. Tangonan, J. J. Lee, I. L. Newberg, N. Bernstein, "Line-by-line pulse shaping control for optical arbitrary waveform generation," Opt. Exp. 13, 10431-10439 (2005).

E. Choi, J. H. Na, Y. Ryu, G. Mudhana, B. H. Lee, "All-fiber variable optical delay line for applications in optical coherence tomography: Feasibility study for a novel delay line," Opt. Exp. 13, 1334-1345 (2005).

Y. Dai, X. Chen, Y. Okawachi, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, C. Xu, "1 $\mu$s tunable delay using parametric mixing and optical phase conjugation in Si waveguides," Opt. Exp. 17, 7004-7010 (2009).

E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Moro, B. P. P. Kuo, R. M. Jopson, C. J. McKinstrie, M. Karlsson, S. Radic, "1.56-$\mu$s continuously tunable parametric delay line for a 40-Gb/s signal," Opt. Exp. 17, 11958-11964 (2009).

I. Fazal, O. Yilmaz, S. Nuccio, B. Zhang, A. E. Willner, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, "Optical data packet synchronization and multiplexing using a tunable optical delay based on wavelength conversion and inter-channel chromatic dispersion," Opt. Exp. 15, 10492-10497 (2007) http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-17-10492.

Y. Okawachi, M. A. Foster, X. Chen, A. C. Turner-Foster, R. Salem, M. Lipson, C. Xu, A. L. Gaeta, "Large tunable delays using parametric mixing and phase conjugation in Si nanowaveguides," Opt. Exp. 16, 10349-10357 (2008).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, J. M. Fuster, R. I. Laming, "True time-delay scheme for feeding optically controlled phased-array antennas using chirped-fiber gratings," Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1529-1531 (1997).

Science (1)

D. Cotter, R. J. Manning, K. J. Blow, A. D. Ellis, A. E. Kelly, D. Nesset, I. D. Phillips, A. J. Poustie, D. C. Rogers, "Nonlinear optics for high-speed digital information processing," Science 286, 1523-1528 (1999).

Other (10)

J. Strand, Optical Telecommunication IVB (Academic, 2002).

S. P. Davis, J. W. Brault, M. C. Abrams, Fourier Transform Spectrometry (Academic, 1983).

M. Burzio, P. Cinato, R. Finotti, P. Gambini, M. Puleo, E. Vezzoni, L. Zuchelli, "Optical cell synchronization in an ATM optical switch," Proc. ECOC 1994 (1994) pp. 581-584.

J. Ren, N. Alic, E. Myslivets, R. E. Saperstein, C. J. McKinstrie, R. M. Jopson, A. H. Gnauck, P. A. Andrekson, S. Radic, "12.47 ns continuously-tunable two-pump parametric delay," Postdeadline Paper ECOC 2006 CannesFrance (2006) Paper Th4.4.3.

S. R. Nuccio, O. F. Yilmaz, S. Khaleghi, L. Christen, I. Fazal, A. E. Willner, "503 ns, tunable optical delay of 40 Gb/s RZ-OOK and RZ-DPSK using additional $\lambda$-conversion for increased delay and reduced residual dispersion," OFC 2009 San DiegoCA (2009) Paper OThM7.

Y. Wang, C. Yu, L. Yan, A. E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, "Continuously-tunable dispersionless 44-ns all optical delay element using a two-pump PPLN, DCF, and a dispersion compensator," ECOC 2005 GlasgowScotland (2005) Paper Th1.3.3-2.

S. Namiki, T. Kurosu, "17 ns tunable delay for picosecond pulses through simultaneous and independent control of delay and dispersion using cascaded parametric processes," ECOC 2009 BrusselsBelgium (2008) Paper Th.3.C.3.

N. Alic, E. Myslivets, S. Moro, B. P.-P. Kuo, R. M. Jopson, C. J. McKinstrie, S. Radic, "1.83-$\mu$s wavelength-transparent all-optical delay," OFC 2009 San DiegoCA (2009) Postdeadline Paper PDP-A1.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, 1995).

R. A. Griffin, A. C. Carter, "Optical differential quadrature phaseshift keying (oDQPSK) for high capacity optical transmission," OFC 2002 AnaheimCA () Paper WX6C.

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