M. Reimer, D. Yevick, D. Dumas, "The accuracy of the magnus expansion for
polarization-mode dispersion and polarization-dependent loss," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 3337-3344 (2008).

B. Szafraniec, R. Mästle, D. M. Baney, "Polarization mode dispersion measurement based on
continuous polarization modulation," Appl. Opt. 47, 1-9 (2008).

T. Do, H. Dong, P. Shum, "Measurement of the complex polarization mode
dispersion vector using Jones matrix analysis," Appl. Opt. 46, 916-921 (2007).

H. Dong, P. Shum, Y. D. Gong, M. Yan, J. Q. Zhou, C. Q. Wu, "Virtual generalized mueller matrix method for
measurement of complex polarization-mode dispersion vector in
optical fibers," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 27-29 (2007).

B. Szafraniec, D. M. Baney, "Elementary matrix-based vector optical network
analysis," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1061-1069 (2007).

H. Dong, P. Shum, M. Yan, J. Q. Zhou, G. X. Ning, Y. D. Gong, C. Q. Wu, "Generalized Mueller matrix method for polarization
mode dispersion measurement in a system with polarization-dependent
loss or gain," Opt. Exp. 14, 5067-5072 (2006).

A. E. Willner, S. M. R. M. Nezam, L. Yan, Z. Pan, M. C. Hauer, "Monitoring and control of polarization-related
impairments in optical fiber systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 106-125 (2004).

P. A. Williams, J. D. Kofler, "Narrow-band measurement of differential group delay by
a six-state RF phase-shift technique: 40 fs single-measurement
uncertainty," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 448-456 (2004).

L. Chen, O. Chen, S. Hadjifaradji, X. Bao, "Polarization-mode dispersion measurement in a system
with polarization-dependent loss or gain," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 206-208 (2004).

V. Chernyak, M. Chertkov, I. Gabitov, I. Kolokolov, V. Lebedev, "PMD-induced fluctuations of bit-error rate in optical
fiber systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1155-1168 (2004).

P. Williams, "PMD measurement techniques and how to avoid the
pitfalls," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. 1, 84-105 (2004) Rep. 1.

H. Kogelnik, L. E. Nelson, J. P. Gordon, "The inverse PMD problem," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. 1, 107-122 (2004) Rep. 1.

D. Wang, C. R. Menyuk, "Calculation of penalties due to polarization effects
in a long-haul WDM system using a stokes parameter model," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 487-494 (2001).

E. Forestieri, L. Vincetti, "Exact evaluation of the jones matrix of a fiber in the
presence of polarization mode dispersion of any order," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1898-1909 (2001).

H. Kogelnik, L. E. Nelson, J. P. Gordon, R. M. Jopson, "Jones matrix for second order polarization mode
dispersion," Opt. Lett. 25, 19-21 (2000).

B. Huttner, C. Geiser, N. Gisin, "Polarization-induced distortions in optical networks
with polarization-mode dispersion and polarization-dependent losses," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 317-329 (2000).

N. Gisin, B. Huttner, "Combined effects of polarization mode dispersion and
polarization dependent losses in optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 142, 119-125 (1997).

F. Bruyère, "Impact of first- and second-order PMD in optical
digital transmission systems," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 269-280 (1996).

E. Iannone, F. Matera, A. Galtarossa, G. Gianello, M. Schiano, "Effect of polarization dispersion on the performance
in IM-DD communication systems," Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1247-1249 (1993).

C. D. Poole, T. E. Darcie, "Distortion related to polarization-mode dispersion in
analog lightwave systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1749-1759 (1993).

N. Gisin, J. P. Pellaux, "Polarization mode dispersion: Time versus frequency
domain," Opt. Commun. 89, 316-323 (1992).

B. L. Heffner, "Automated measurement of polarization mode dispersion
using Jones matrix eigenanalysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1066-1069 (1992).

R. M. A. Azzam, "Propagation of partially polarized light through
anisotropic media with or without depolarization: A differential 44
matrix calculus," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 68, 1756-1767 (1978).

C. Whitney, "Pauli-algebraic operators in polarization optics," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 61, 1207-1213 (1971).

R. C. Jones, "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems.
VII properties of the N-matrices," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 38, 671-685 (1948).

R. C. Jones, "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems,
V. A more general formulation and description of another calculus," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 37, 107-110 (1947).

R. C. Jones, "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems,
VI. Experimental determination or the matrix," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 37, 110-112 (1947).

R. C. Jones, "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems,
IV," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 32, 486-493 (1942).

R. C. Jones, "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems I.
Description and discussion of the calculus," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 31, 488-493 (1941).

H. Hurwitz Jr., R. C. Jones, "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems
II. Proof of the three general equivalence theorems," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 31, 493-499 (1941).

R. C. Jones, "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems
III. The sohncke theory of optical activity," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 31, 500-503 (1941).

T. Do, H. Dong, P. Shum, "Measurement of the complex polarization mode
dispersion vector using Jones matrix analysis," Appl. Opt. 46, 916-921 (2007).

B. Szafraniec, R. Mästle, D. M. Baney, "Polarization mode dispersion measurement based on
continuous polarization modulation," Appl. Opt. 47, 1-9 (2008).

J. W. Hovenier, "Structure of a general pure Mueller matrix," Appl. Opt. 33, 8318-8324 (1994).

P. A. Williams, "Modulation phase-shift measurements of PMD using only
four launched polarization states: A new algorithm," Electron. Lett. 34, 1578-1579 (1999).

B. Huttner, C. Geiser, N. Gisin, "Polarization-induced distortions in optical networks
with polarization-mode dispersion and polarization-dependent losses," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 6, 317-329 (2000).

B. L. Heffner, "Automated measurement of polarization mode dispersion
using Jones matrix eigenanalysis," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1066-1069 (1992).

A. E. Willner, S. M. R. M. Nezam, L. Yan, Z. Pan, M. C. Hauer, "Monitoring and control of polarization-related
impairments in optical fiber systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 106-125 (2004).

E. Forestieri, L. Vincetti, "Exact evaluation of the jones matrix of a fiber in the
presence of polarization mode dispersion of any order," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1898-1909 (2001).

M. Reimer, D. Yevick, D. Dumas, "The accuracy of the magnus expansion for
polarization-mode dispersion and polarization-dependent loss," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 3337-3344 (2008).

P. A. Williams, J. D. Kofler, "Narrow-band measurement of differential group delay by
a six-state RF phase-shift technique: 40 fs single-measurement
uncertainty," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 448-456 (2004).

V. Chernyak, M. Chertkov, I. Gabitov, I. Kolokolov, V. Lebedev, "PMD-induced fluctuations of bit-error rate in optical
fiber systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1155-1168 (2004).

D. Wang, C. R. Menyuk, "Calculation of penalties due to polarization effects
in a long-haul WDM system using a stokes parameter model," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 487-494 (2001).

C. D. Poole, T. E. Darcie, "Distortion related to polarization-mode dispersion in
analog lightwave systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1749-1759 (1993).

B. Szafraniec, D. M. Baney, "Elementary matrix-based vector optical network
analysis," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1061-1069 (2007).

P. Williams, "PMD measurement techniques and how to avoid the
pitfalls," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. 1, 84-105 (2004) Rep. 1.

H. Kogelnik, L. E. Nelson, J. P. Gordon, "The inverse PMD problem," J. Opt. Fiber Commun. 1, 107-122 (2004) Rep. 1.

R. C. Jones, "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems I.
Description and discussion of the calculus," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 31, 488-493 (1941).

H. Hurwitz Jr., R. C. Jones, "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems
II. Proof of the three general equivalence theorems," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 31, 493-499 (1941).

R. C. Jones, "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems
III. The sohncke theory of optical activity," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 31, 500-503 (1941).

R. C. Jones, "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems,
IV," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 32, 486-493 (1942).

R. C. Jones, "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems,
V. A more general formulation and description of another calculus," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 37, 107-110 (1947).

R. C. Jones, "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems,
VI. Experimental determination or the matrix," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 37, 110-112 (1947).

R. C. Jones, "A new calculus for the treatment of optical systems.
VII properties of the N-matrices," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 38, 671-685 (1948).

C. Whitney, "Pauli-algebraic operators in polarization optics," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 61, 1207-1213 (1971).

R. M. A. Azzam, "Propagation of partially polarized light through
anisotropic media with or without depolarization: A differential 44
matrix calculus," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B, Opt. Phys. 68, 1756-1767 (1978).

N. Gisin, J. P. Pellaux, "Polarization mode dispersion: Time versus frequency
domain," Opt. Commun. 89, 316-323 (1992).

N. Gisin, B. Huttner, "Combined effects of polarization mode dispersion and
polarization dependent losses in optical fibers," Opt. Commun. 142, 119-125 (1997).

H. Dong, P. Shum, M. Yan, J. Q. Zhou, G. X. Ning, Y. D. Gong, C. Q. Wu, "Generalized Mueller matrix method for polarization
mode dispersion measurement in a system with polarization-dependent
loss or gain," Opt. Exp. 14, 5067-5072 (2006).

F. Bruyère, "Impact of first- and second-order PMD in optical
digital transmission systems," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 269-280 (1996).

H. Kogelnik, L. E. Nelson, J. P. Gordon, R. M. Jopson, "Jones matrix for second order polarization mode
dispersion," Opt. Lett. 25, 19-21 (2000).

D. Penninckx, V. Morénas, "Jones matrix of polarization mode dispersion," Opt. Lett. 24, 875-877 (1999).

H. Dong, P. Shum, Y. D. Gong, M. Yan, J. Q. Zhou, C. Q. Wu, "Virtual generalized mueller matrix method for
measurement of complex polarization-mode dispersion vector in
optical fibers," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 27-29 (2007).

L. Chen, O. Chen, S. Hadjifaradji, X. Bao, "Polarization-mode dispersion measurement in a system
with polarization-dependent loss or gain," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 206-208 (2004).

E. Iannone, F. Matera, A. Galtarossa, G. Gianello, M. Schiano, "Effect of polarization dispersion on the performance
in IM-DD communication systems," Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1247-1249 (1993).

H. Kogelnik, L. E. Nelson, R. M. Jopson, "Polarization mode dispersion impairment in lightwave
transmission systems," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC 2002) pp. 194.

P. K. Kondamuri, C. Allen, D. L. Richards, "Variation of PMD-induced outage rates and durations
with link length on buried standard single-mode fibers," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2005) pp. 1-3.

J. P. Gordon, H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in
optical fibers," Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA (2000) pp. 4541-4550.

D. M. Baney, "Complex component characterization based on elementary
matrices," Proc. Optical Fiber Communications Conf. (OFC 2009) (2009).

G. Arfken, Mathematical Methods for Physicists (Academic, 1985).

C. Brosseau, Fundamentals of Polarized Light: A Statistical Optics
Approach (Wiley, 1998).

G. N. Ramachandran, S. Ramaseshan, Crystal Optics in Handbuch der Physik (Springer-Verlag, 1961).