Abstract

Carrier density fluctuations in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) impose penalties on phase-shift keying (PSK) signals due to nonlinear phase noise (NLPN), and on-off keying (OOK) signals due to self-gain modulation. In this paper, we propose a simple scheme to equalize the impairments induced by SOA nonlinearities, derived from the small signal analysis of carrier density fluctuations. We demonstrate via simulation almost complete cancelation of the NLPN added by a saturated SOA on a differential PSK signal. We demonstrate via both simulations and experiment the effectiveness of the method for mitigation of nonlinear distortions imposed by SOAs on an OOK signal.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. D. Zimmerman, L. Spiekman, "Amplifiers for the masses: EDFA, EDWA, and SOA amplets for metro and access applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 63-70 (2004).
  2. B. Mikkelsen, S. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, R. Pedersen, H. Poulsen, K. Stubkjaer, "All-optical noise reduction capability of interferometric wavelength converters," Electron. Lett. 32, 566-567 (1996).
  3. T. Durhuus, C. Joergensen, B. Mikkelsen, R. Pedersen, K. Stubkjaer, "All optical wavelength conversion by SOA's in a Mach-Zehnder configuration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 53-55 (1994).
  4. D. Marcenac, D. Nesset, A. Kelly, D. Gavrilovic, "40 Gbit/s transmission over 103 km of NDSF using polarisation independent mid-span spectral inversion by four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier," Electron. Lett. 34, 100-101 (1998).
  5. A. Ghazisaeidi, F. Vacondio, A. Bononi, L. A. Rusch, "SOA intensity noise suppression: Multicanonical monte carlo simulator of extremely low BER," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2667-2677 (2009).
  6. A. Mecozzi, J. Mork, "Saturation effects in nondegenerate four-wave mixing between short optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1190-1207 (1997).
  7. W. Mathlouthi, P. Lemieux, M. Salsi, A. Vannucci, A. Bononi, L. Rusch, "Fast and efficient dynamic WDM semiconductor optical amplifier model," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4353-4365 (2006).
  8. A. Saleh, R. Jopson, T. Darcie, "Compensation of nonlinearity in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 24, 950-952 (1988).
  9. X. Wei, Y. Su, X. Liu, J. Leuthold, S. Chandrasekhar, "10-Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmitter using a saturated SOA as a power booster and limiting amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1582-1584 (2004).
  10. P. Cho, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. Khurgin, "Investigation of SOA nonlinearities on the amplification of DWDM channels with spectral efficiency up to 2.5 b/s/Hz," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 918-920 (2004).
  11. E. Ciaramella, A. D'Errico, V. Donzella, "Using semiconductor-optical amplifiers with constant envelope WDM signals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 403-409 (2008).
  12. J. P. Gordon, L. F. Mollenauer, "Phase noise in photonic communications systems using linear amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 15, 1351-1353 (1990).
  13. M. Shtaif, B. Tromborg, G. Eisenstein, "Noise spectra of semiconductor optical amplifiers: Relation between semiclassical and quantum descriptions," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 869-878 (1998).
  14. A. Bononi, P. Serena, A. Orlandini, "A unified design framework for single-channel dispersion-managed terrestrial systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3617-3631 (2008).
  15. K. Kikuchi, C. Zah, T. Lee, "Measurement and analysis of phase noise generated from semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 416-422 (1991).
  16. X. Wei, L. Zhang, "Analysis of the phase noise in saturated SOAs for DPSK applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 554-561 (2005).
  17. G. Agrawal, N. Olsson, "Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297-2306 (1989).
  18. C. Henry, "Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259-264 (1982).
  19. I. Kang, C. Dorrer, L. Zhang, M. Dinu, M. Rasras, L. Buhl, S. Cabot, A. Bhardwaj, X. Liu, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, Y. Chen, N. Dutta, S. Patel, D. Neilson, C. Giles, A. Piccirilli, J. Jaques, "Characterization of the dynamical processes in all-optical signal processing using semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 758-769 (2008).
  20. J. Hansryd, J. van Howe, C. Xu, "Experimental demonstration of nonlinear phase jitter compensation in DPSK modulated fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 232-234 (2005).
  21. K. Ho, J. Kahn, "Electronic compensation technique to mitigate nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 779-783 (2004).
  22. J. van Howe, G. Zhu, C. Xu, "Compensation of self-phase modulation in fiber-based chirped-pulse amplification systems," Opt. Lett. 31, 1756-1758 (2006).
  23. G. Zhu, L. Mollenauer, C. Xu, "Experimental demonstration of postnonlinearity compensation in a multispan DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1007-1009 (2006).
  24. A. Lau, J. Kahn, "Signal design and detection in presence of nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3008-3016 (2007).
  25. C. Xu, X. Liu, "Postnonlinearity compensation with data-driven phase modulators in phase-shift keying transmission," Opt. Lett. 27, 1619-1621 (2002).
  26. A. Saleh, I. Habbab, "Effects of semiconductor-optical-amplifier nonlinearity on the performance of high-speed intensity-modulation lightwave systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 839-846 (1990).
  27. A. Bhardwaj, C. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Stulz, "Reduction of nonlinear distortion from a semiconductor optical amplifier using an optical equalizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 921-923 (2004).
  28. J. Downie, J. Hurley, "Performance of an MLSE-EDC receiver with SOA-induced nonlinear impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1326-1328 (2008).
  29. X. Li, G. Li, "Electrical postcompensation of SOA impairments for fiber-optic transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 581-583 (2009).
  30. I. T. Monroy, F. Öhman, K. Yvind, L. J. Christiansen, J. Mörk, C. Peucheret, P. Jeppesen, "Monolithically integrated reflective SOA-EA carrier re-modulator for broadband access nodes," Opt. Exp. 14, 8060-8064 (2006).
  31. M. Kroh, G. Unterborsch, G. Tsianos, R. Ziegler, A. Steffan, H. Bach, J. Kreissl, R. Kunkel, G. Mekonnen, W. Rehbein, D. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, K. Petermann, J. Bruns, T. Mitze, K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, "Hybrid integrated 40 gb/s DPSK receiver on SOI," Proc. Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. 2009 (OFC 2009) () pp. 1-3.
  32. J. M. Hutchinson, J. S. Barton, M. L. Masanovic, M. N. Sysak, J. A. Henness, L. A. Johansson, D. J. Blumenthal, L. A. Coldren, M. Osinski, H. Amano, F. Henneberger, "Monolithically integrated InP-based tunable wavelength conversion," Proc. SPIE 5349, 176-184 (2004) http://link.aip.org/link/?PSI/5349/176/1 [Online]. Available.
  33. J. Leuthold, C. Joyner, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, J. Pleumeekers, B. Miller, K. Dreyer, C. Burrus, "100 gbit/s all-optical wavelength conversion with integrated SOA delayed-interference configuration," Electron. Lett. 36, 1129-1130 (2000).
  34. A. Saleh, "Nonlinear models of travelling-wave optical amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 24, 835-837 (1988).
  35. D. Cassioli, S. Scotti, A. Mecozzi, "A time-domain computer simulator of the nonlinear response of semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1072-1080 (2000).
  36. A. Ghazisaeidi, F. Vacondio, A. Bononi, L. A. Rusch, "Statistical characterization of bit patterning in SOAs: BER prediction and experimental validation," Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. 2009 (OFC 2009) San DiegoCA Paper OWE7.
  37. A. Ghazisaeidi, F. Vacondio, A. Bononi, L. A. Rusch, "Bit patterning in SOAs: Statistical characterization through multicanonical monte carlo simulations," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. .
  38. X. Wei, X. Liu, C. Xu, "Numerical simulation of the SPM penalty in a 10-Gb/s RZ-DPSK system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1636-1638 (2003).

2009 (2)

A. Ghazisaeidi, F. Vacondio, A. Bononi, L. A. Rusch, "SOA intensity noise suppression: Multicanonical monte carlo simulator of extremely low BER," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2667-2677 (2009).

X. Li, G. Li, "Electrical postcompensation of SOA impairments for fiber-optic transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 581-583 (2009).

2008 (4)

I. Kang, C. Dorrer, L. Zhang, M. Dinu, M. Rasras, L. Buhl, S. Cabot, A. Bhardwaj, X. Liu, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, Y. Chen, N. Dutta, S. Patel, D. Neilson, C. Giles, A. Piccirilli, J. Jaques, "Characterization of the dynamical processes in all-optical signal processing using semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 758-769 (2008).

J. Downie, J. Hurley, "Performance of an MLSE-EDC receiver with SOA-induced nonlinear impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1326-1328 (2008).

E. Ciaramella, A. D'Errico, V. Donzella, "Using semiconductor-optical amplifiers with constant envelope WDM signals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 403-409 (2008).

A. Bononi, P. Serena, A. Orlandini, "A unified design framework for single-channel dispersion-managed terrestrial systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3617-3631 (2008).

2007 (1)

A. Lau, J. Kahn, "Signal design and detection in presence of nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3008-3016 (2007).

2006 (4)

J. van Howe, G. Zhu, C. Xu, "Compensation of self-phase modulation in fiber-based chirped-pulse amplification systems," Opt. Lett. 31, 1756-1758 (2006).

G. Zhu, L. Mollenauer, C. Xu, "Experimental demonstration of postnonlinearity compensation in a multispan DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1007-1009 (2006).

I. T. Monroy, F. Öhman, K. Yvind, L. J. Christiansen, J. Mörk, C. Peucheret, P. Jeppesen, "Monolithically integrated reflective SOA-EA carrier re-modulator for broadband access nodes," Opt. Exp. 14, 8060-8064 (2006).

W. Mathlouthi, P. Lemieux, M. Salsi, A. Vannucci, A. Bononi, L. Rusch, "Fast and efficient dynamic WDM semiconductor optical amplifier model," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4353-4365 (2006).

2005 (2)

X. Wei, L. Zhang, "Analysis of the phase noise in saturated SOAs for DPSK applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 554-561 (2005).

J. Hansryd, J. van Howe, C. Xu, "Experimental demonstration of nonlinear phase jitter compensation in DPSK modulated fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 232-234 (2005).

2004 (6)

K. Ho, J. Kahn, "Electronic compensation technique to mitigate nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 779-783 (2004).

A. Bhardwaj, C. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Stulz, "Reduction of nonlinear distortion from a semiconductor optical amplifier using an optical equalizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 921-923 (2004).

J. M. Hutchinson, J. S. Barton, M. L. Masanovic, M. N. Sysak, J. A. Henness, L. A. Johansson, D. J. Blumenthal, L. A. Coldren, M. Osinski, H. Amano, F. Henneberger, "Monolithically integrated InP-based tunable wavelength conversion," Proc. SPIE 5349, 176-184 (2004) http://link.aip.org/link/?PSI/5349/176/1 [Online]. Available.

X. Wei, Y. Su, X. Liu, J. Leuthold, S. Chandrasekhar, "10-Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmitter using a saturated SOA as a power booster and limiting amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1582-1584 (2004).

P. Cho, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. Khurgin, "Investigation of SOA nonlinearities on the amplification of DWDM channels with spectral efficiency up to 2.5 b/s/Hz," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 918-920 (2004).

D. Zimmerman, L. Spiekman, "Amplifiers for the masses: EDFA, EDWA, and SOA amplets for metro and access applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 63-70 (2004).

2003 (1)

X. Wei, X. Liu, C. Xu, "Numerical simulation of the SPM penalty in a 10-Gb/s RZ-DPSK system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1636-1638 (2003).

2002 (1)

2000 (2)

D. Cassioli, S. Scotti, A. Mecozzi, "A time-domain computer simulator of the nonlinear response of semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1072-1080 (2000).

J. Leuthold, C. Joyner, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, J. Pleumeekers, B. Miller, K. Dreyer, C. Burrus, "100 gbit/s all-optical wavelength conversion with integrated SOA delayed-interference configuration," Electron. Lett. 36, 1129-1130 (2000).

1998 (2)

D. Marcenac, D. Nesset, A. Kelly, D. Gavrilovic, "40 Gbit/s transmission over 103 km of NDSF using polarisation independent mid-span spectral inversion by four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier," Electron. Lett. 34, 100-101 (1998).

M. Shtaif, B. Tromborg, G. Eisenstein, "Noise spectra of semiconductor optical amplifiers: Relation between semiclassical and quantum descriptions," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 869-878 (1998).

1997 (1)

A. Mecozzi, J. Mork, "Saturation effects in nondegenerate four-wave mixing between short optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1190-1207 (1997).

1996 (1)

B. Mikkelsen, S. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, R. Pedersen, H. Poulsen, K. Stubkjaer, "All-optical noise reduction capability of interferometric wavelength converters," Electron. Lett. 32, 566-567 (1996).

1994 (1)

T. Durhuus, C. Joergensen, B. Mikkelsen, R. Pedersen, K. Stubkjaer, "All optical wavelength conversion by SOA's in a Mach-Zehnder configuration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 53-55 (1994).

1991 (1)

K. Kikuchi, C. Zah, T. Lee, "Measurement and analysis of phase noise generated from semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 416-422 (1991).

1990 (2)

J. P. Gordon, L. F. Mollenauer, "Phase noise in photonic communications systems using linear amplifiers," Opt. Lett. 15, 1351-1353 (1990).

A. Saleh, I. Habbab, "Effects of semiconductor-optical-amplifier nonlinearity on the performance of high-speed intensity-modulation lightwave systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 839-846 (1990).

1989 (1)

G. Agrawal, N. Olsson, "Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297-2306 (1989).

1988 (2)

A. Saleh, R. Jopson, T. Darcie, "Compensation of nonlinearity in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 24, 950-952 (1988).

A. Saleh, "Nonlinear models of travelling-wave optical amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 24, 835-837 (1988).

1982 (1)

C. Henry, "Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259-264 (1982).

Electron. Lett. (5)

B. Mikkelsen, S. Danielsen, C. Joergensen, R. Pedersen, H. Poulsen, K. Stubkjaer, "All-optical noise reduction capability of interferometric wavelength converters," Electron. Lett. 32, 566-567 (1996).

D. Marcenac, D. Nesset, A. Kelly, D. Gavrilovic, "40 Gbit/s transmission over 103 km of NDSF using polarisation independent mid-span spectral inversion by four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier," Electron. Lett. 34, 100-101 (1998).

A. Saleh, R. Jopson, T. Darcie, "Compensation of nonlinearity in semiconductor optical amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 24, 950-952 (1988).

J. Leuthold, C. Joyner, B. Mikkelsen, G. Raybon, J. Pleumeekers, B. Miller, K. Dreyer, C. Burrus, "100 gbit/s all-optical wavelength conversion with integrated SOA delayed-interference configuration," Electron. Lett. 36, 1129-1130 (2000).

A. Saleh, "Nonlinear models of travelling-wave optical amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 24, 835-837 (1988).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (8)

D. Cassioli, S. Scotti, A. Mecozzi, "A time-domain computer simulator of the nonlinear response of semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 1072-1080 (2000).

E. Ciaramella, A. D'Errico, V. Donzella, "Using semiconductor-optical amplifiers with constant envelope WDM signals," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 403-409 (2008).

M. Shtaif, B. Tromborg, G. Eisenstein, "Noise spectra of semiconductor optical amplifiers: Relation between semiclassical and quantum descriptions," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 869-878 (1998).

K. Kikuchi, C. Zah, T. Lee, "Measurement and analysis of phase noise generated from semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 416-422 (1991).

X. Wei, L. Zhang, "Analysis of the phase noise in saturated SOAs for DPSK applications," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 554-561 (2005).

G. Agrawal, N. Olsson, "Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2297-2306 (1989).

C. Henry, "Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 259-264 (1982).

A. Ghazisaeidi, F. Vacondio, A. Bononi, L. A. Rusch, "Bit patterning in SOAs: Statistical characterization through multicanonical monte carlo simulations," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. .

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

I. Kang, C. Dorrer, L. Zhang, M. Dinu, M. Rasras, L. Buhl, S. Cabot, A. Bhardwaj, X. Liu, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, Y. Chen, N. Dutta, S. Patel, D. Neilson, C. Giles, A. Piccirilli, J. Jaques, "Characterization of the dynamical processes in all-optical signal processing using semiconductor optical amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 758-769 (2008).

A. Mecozzi, J. Mork, "Saturation effects in nondegenerate four-wave mixing between short optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 1190-1207 (1997).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (9)

X. Wei, Y. Su, X. Liu, J. Leuthold, S. Chandrasekhar, "10-Gb/s RZ-DPSK transmitter using a saturated SOA as a power booster and limiting amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1582-1584 (2004).

P. Cho, Y. Achiam, G. Levy-Yurista, M. Margalit, Y. Gross, J. Khurgin, "Investigation of SOA nonlinearities on the amplification of DWDM channels with spectral efficiency up to 2.5 b/s/Hz," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 918-920 (2004).

T. Durhuus, C. Joergensen, B. Mikkelsen, R. Pedersen, K. Stubkjaer, "All optical wavelength conversion by SOA's in a Mach-Zehnder configuration," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 53-55 (1994).

J. Hansryd, J. van Howe, C. Xu, "Experimental demonstration of nonlinear phase jitter compensation in DPSK modulated fiber links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 232-234 (2005).

G. Zhu, L. Mollenauer, C. Xu, "Experimental demonstration of postnonlinearity compensation in a multispan DPSK transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1007-1009 (2006).

A. Bhardwaj, C. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, L. Stulz, "Reduction of nonlinear distortion from a semiconductor optical amplifier using an optical equalizer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 921-923 (2004).

J. Downie, J. Hurley, "Performance of an MLSE-EDC receiver with SOA-induced nonlinear impairments," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1326-1328 (2008).

X. Li, G. Li, "Electrical postcompensation of SOA impairments for fiber-optic transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 581-583 (2009).

X. Wei, X. Liu, C. Xu, "Numerical simulation of the SPM penalty in a 10-Gb/s RZ-DPSK system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1636-1638 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

A. Saleh, I. Habbab, "Effects of semiconductor-optical-amplifier nonlinearity on the performance of high-speed intensity-modulation lightwave systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 839-846 (1990).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

D. Zimmerman, L. Spiekman, "Amplifiers for the masses: EDFA, EDWA, and SOA amplets for metro and access applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 63-70 (2004).

A. Lau, J. Kahn, "Signal design and detection in presence of nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3008-3016 (2007).

A. Bononi, P. Serena, A. Orlandini, "A unified design framework for single-channel dispersion-managed terrestrial systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3617-3631 (2008).

K. Ho, J. Kahn, "Electronic compensation technique to mitigate nonlinear phase noise," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 779-783 (2004).

A. Ghazisaeidi, F. Vacondio, A. Bononi, L. A. Rusch, "SOA intensity noise suppression: Multicanonical monte carlo simulator of extremely low BER," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2667-2677 (2009).

W. Mathlouthi, P. Lemieux, M. Salsi, A. Vannucci, A. Bononi, L. Rusch, "Fast and efficient dynamic WDM semiconductor optical amplifier model," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4353-4365 (2006).

Opt. Exp. (1)

I. T. Monroy, F. Öhman, K. Yvind, L. J. Christiansen, J. Mörk, C. Peucheret, P. Jeppesen, "Monolithically integrated reflective SOA-EA carrier re-modulator for broadband access nodes," Opt. Exp. 14, 8060-8064 (2006).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. M. Hutchinson, J. S. Barton, M. L. Masanovic, M. N. Sysak, J. A. Henness, L. A. Johansson, D. J. Blumenthal, L. A. Coldren, M. Osinski, H. Amano, F. Henneberger, "Monolithically integrated InP-based tunable wavelength conversion," Proc. SPIE 5349, 176-184 (2004) http://link.aip.org/link/?PSI/5349/176/1 [Online]. Available.

Other (2)

M. Kroh, G. Unterborsch, G. Tsianos, R. Ziegler, A. Steffan, H. Bach, J. Kreissl, R. Kunkel, G. Mekonnen, W. Rehbein, D. Schmidt, R. Ludwig, K. Petermann, J. Bruns, T. Mitze, K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, "Hybrid integrated 40 gb/s DPSK receiver on SOI," Proc. Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. 2009 (OFC 2009) () pp. 1-3.

A. Ghazisaeidi, F. Vacondio, A. Bononi, L. A. Rusch, "Statistical characterization of bit patterning in SOAs: BER prediction and experimental validation," Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. 2009 (OFC 2009) San DiegoCA Paper OWE7.

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