Abstract

We report on room temperature continuous wave laser generation at ~1062 nm from proton implanted Nd:GGG planar waveguides. Single-mode stable laser operation is realized with an 808-nm pump source, resulting in a laser threshold of ~49.3 mW and slope efficiency of 30%. The maximum output power of ~21.9 mW, an absorbed pump power of ~117.4 mW, leads to an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 18.7%.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. L. J. Qin, D. Y. Tang, G. Q. Xie, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, X. T. Tao, "High-power continuous wave and passively $Q$-switched laser operations of a Nd:GGG crystal ," Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 100-103 (2008).
  2. J. I. Mackenzie, "Dielectric solid-state planar waveguide lasers: A review," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 626-637 (2007).
  3. M. Pollnau, C. Grivas, L. Laversenne, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, D. P. Shepherd, "Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers," Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 560-571 (2007).
  4. D. Kip, "Photorefractive waveguides in oxide crystals: Fabrication, properties, and applications," Appl. Phys. B 67, 131-150 (1998).
  5. F. Chen, "Construction of two-dimensional waveguides in insulating optical materials by means of ion beam implantation for photonic applications: Fabrication methods and research progress," Crit. Rev. Solid Stat. Mater. Sci. 33, 165-182 (2008).
  6. P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994).
  7. J. Olivares, M. L. Crespillo, O. Caballero-Calero, M. D. Ynsa, A. García-Cabañes, M. Toulemonde, C. Trautmann, F. Agulló-López, "Thick optical waveguides in lithium niobate induced by swift heavy ions ( ${\sim} {\hbox {10}}$ MeV/amu) at ultralow fluences," Opt. Exp. 17, 24175-24182 (2009).
  8. N. Dong, F. Chen, D. Jaque, "Carbon ion implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO$_{3}$ optical channel waveguides: An intermediate step between light and heavy ion implanted waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 5951-5956 (2010).
  9. G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, R. Guzzi, J. , "Effect of low dose high energy O$^{3 +}$ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO $_{3}$: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).
  10. M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Flores-Romero, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, "Continuous-wave laser oscillation at 1.3 $\mu$m in Nd:YAG proton-implanted planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151108-1--151108-3 (2005).
  11. F. Chen, Y. Tan, D. Jaque, "Ion-implanted optical channel waveguides in neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics for integrated laser generation," Opt. Lett. 34, 28-30 (2009).
  12. D. Jaque, F. Chen, "High resolution fluorescence imaging of damage regions in H$^{+}$ ion implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO$_{3}$ channel waveguides ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 01110-19--011109-3 (2009).
  13. M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, R. Trejo-Luna, "Laser emission in Nd:YVO$_{4}$ channel waveguides at 1064 nm," Appl. Phys. B 94, 215-219 (2009).
  14. S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, L. Zhang, "An efficient, diode-pumped, ion-implanted Nd:GGG planar waveguide laser," Opt. Commun. 86, 161-166 (1991).
  15. S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, D. P. Shepherd, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, L. Zhang, "Ion-implanted Nd:GGG channel waveguide laser," Opt. Lett. 17, 52-54 (1992).
  16. D. S. Gill, A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, T. J. Warburton, D. P. Shepherd, "Laser operation of an Nd:Gd$_{3}$ Ga $_{5}$ O$_{12}$ thin-film optical waveguide fabricated by pulsed laser deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 10-12 (1996).
  17. G. A. Bufetova, M. Y. Gusev, I. A. Ivanov, N. S. Neustroev, D. A. Nikolaev, V. F. Seregin, V. B. Tsvetkov, I. A. Shcherbakov, "Nd$^{3+}$: GGG and Cr$^{4+}$: GGG epitaxial films for neodymium lasers," Phys. Wave Phenomena 17, 77-91 (2008).
  18. R. Gerhardt, J. Kleine-Borger, L. Beilschmidt, M. Frommeyer, H. Dotsch, B. Gather, "Efficient channel-waveguide laser in Nd:GGG at 1.062 $\mu$m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1210-1212 (1999).
  19. Y. Ren, F. Chen, Q. Lu, H. Ma, "Optical waveguides in Nd:GGG crystals produced by H$^{+}$ or C$^{3 +}$ ion implantation," Appl. Opt. 49, 2085-2089 (2010).
  20. D. Jaque, U. Caldino, J. J. Romero, J. G. Sole, "Influence of neodymium concentration on the cw laser properties of Nd-doped Ca $_{3}$ Ga$_{2}$ Ge$_{3}$ O$_{12}$ laser garnet crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6627-6633 (1999).
  21. M. Montes, C. de las Heras, D. Jaque, "Passive Q-switching of a diode pumped Nd$^{3 +}$: CGGG crystal: Benefits of inhomogeneous line broadening and short pulse generation," Opt. Mater. 28, 408-414 (2006).
  22. D. Jaque, J. G. Sole, "Tunable Nd$^{3 +}$: Ca $_{3}$ Ga$_{2}$ Ge$_{3}$ O$_{12}$ site-selective laser operating around 1.33 $\mu$m," Phys. Rev. B. 70, 155116-1--155116-6 (2004).

2010 (2)

N. Dong, F. Chen, D. Jaque, "Carbon ion implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO$_{3}$ optical channel waveguides: An intermediate step between light and heavy ion implanted waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 5951-5956 (2010).

Y. Ren, F. Chen, Q. Lu, H. Ma, "Optical waveguides in Nd:GGG crystals produced by H$^{+}$ or C$^{3 +}$ ion implantation," Appl. Opt. 49, 2085-2089 (2010).

2009 (4)

J. Olivares, M. L. Crespillo, O. Caballero-Calero, M. D. Ynsa, A. García-Cabañes, M. Toulemonde, C. Trautmann, F. Agulló-López, "Thick optical waveguides in lithium niobate induced by swift heavy ions ( ${\sim} {\hbox {10}}$ MeV/amu) at ultralow fluences," Opt. Exp. 17, 24175-24182 (2009).

F. Chen, Y. Tan, D. Jaque, "Ion-implanted optical channel waveguides in neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics for integrated laser generation," Opt. Lett. 34, 28-30 (2009).

D. Jaque, F. Chen, "High resolution fluorescence imaging of damage regions in H$^{+}$ ion implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO$_{3}$ channel waveguides ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 01110-19--011109-3 (2009).

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, R. Trejo-Luna, "Laser emission in Nd:YVO$_{4}$ channel waveguides at 1064 nm," Appl. Phys. B 94, 215-219 (2009).

2008 (3)

G. A. Bufetova, M. Y. Gusev, I. A. Ivanov, N. S. Neustroev, D. A. Nikolaev, V. F. Seregin, V. B. Tsvetkov, I. A. Shcherbakov, "Nd$^{3+}$: GGG and Cr$^{4+}$: GGG epitaxial films for neodymium lasers," Phys. Wave Phenomena 17, 77-91 (2008).

F. Chen, "Construction of two-dimensional waveguides in insulating optical materials by means of ion beam implantation for photonic applications: Fabrication methods and research progress," Crit. Rev. Solid Stat. Mater. Sci. 33, 165-182 (2008).

L. J. Qin, D. Y. Tang, G. Q. Xie, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, X. T. Tao, "High-power continuous wave and passively $Q$-switched laser operations of a Nd:GGG crystal ," Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 100-103 (2008).

2007 (2)

J. I. Mackenzie, "Dielectric solid-state planar waveguide lasers: A review," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 626-637 (2007).

M. Pollnau, C. Grivas, L. Laversenne, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, D. P. Shepherd, "Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers," Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 560-571 (2007).

2006 (1)

M. Montes, C. de las Heras, D. Jaque, "Passive Q-switching of a diode pumped Nd$^{3 +}$: CGGG crystal: Benefits of inhomogeneous line broadening and short pulse generation," Opt. Mater. 28, 408-414 (2006).

2005 (1)

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Flores-Romero, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, "Continuous-wave laser oscillation at 1.3 $\mu$m in Nd:YAG proton-implanted planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151108-1--151108-3 (2005).

2004 (1)

D. Jaque, J. G. Sole, "Tunable Nd$^{3 +}$: Ca $_{3}$ Ga$_{2}$ Ge$_{3}$ O$_{12}$ site-selective laser operating around 1.33 $\mu$m," Phys. Rev. B. 70, 155116-1--155116-6 (2004).

2002 (1)

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, R. Guzzi, J. , "Effect of low dose high energy O$^{3 +}$ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO $_{3}$: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).

1999 (2)

R. Gerhardt, J. Kleine-Borger, L. Beilschmidt, M. Frommeyer, H. Dotsch, B. Gather, "Efficient channel-waveguide laser in Nd:GGG at 1.062 $\mu$m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1210-1212 (1999).

D. Jaque, U. Caldino, J. J. Romero, J. G. Sole, "Influence of neodymium concentration on the cw laser properties of Nd-doped Ca $_{3}$ Ga$_{2}$ Ge$_{3}$ O$_{12}$ laser garnet crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6627-6633 (1999).

1998 (1)

D. Kip, "Photorefractive waveguides in oxide crystals: Fabrication, properties, and applications," Appl. Phys. B 67, 131-150 (1998).

1996 (1)

D. S. Gill, A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, T. J. Warburton, D. P. Shepherd, "Laser operation of an Nd:Gd$_{3}$ Ga $_{5}$ O$_{12}$ thin-film optical waveguide fabricated by pulsed laser deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 10-12 (1996).

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, L. Zhang, "An efficient, diode-pumped, ion-implanted Nd:GGG planar waveguide laser," Opt. Commun. 86, 161-166 (1991).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

D. Kip, "Photorefractive waveguides in oxide crystals: Fabrication, properties, and applications," Appl. Phys. B 67, 131-150 (1998).

M. E. Sánchez-Morales, G. V. Vázquez, E. B. Mejía, H. Márquez, J. Rickards, R. Trejo-Luna, "Laser emission in Nd:YVO$_{4}$ channel waveguides at 1064 nm," Appl. Phys. B 94, 215-219 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. Domenech, G. V. Vázquez, E. Flores-Romero, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, "Continuous-wave laser oscillation at 1.3 $\mu$m in Nd:YAG proton-implanted planar waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 151108-1--151108-3 (2005).

D. S. Gill, A. A. Anderson, R. W. Eason, T. J. Warburton, D. P. Shepherd, "Laser operation of an Nd:Gd$_{3}$ Ga $_{5}$ O$_{12}$ thin-film optical waveguide fabricated by pulsed laser deposition," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 10-12 (1996).

D. Jaque, F. Chen, "High resolution fluorescence imaging of damage regions in H$^{+}$ ion implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO$_{3}$ channel waveguides ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 01110-19--011109-3 (2009).

R. Gerhardt, J. Kleine-Borger, L. Beilschmidt, M. Frommeyer, H. Dotsch, B. Gather, "Efficient channel-waveguide laser in Nd:GGG at 1.062 $\mu$m wavelength," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1210-1212 (1999).

Crit. Rev. Solid Stat. Mater. Sci. (1)

F. Chen, "Construction of two-dimensional waveguides in insulating optical materials by means of ion beam implantation for photonic applications: Fabrication methods and research progress," Crit. Rev. Solid Stat. Mater. Sci. 33, 165-182 (2008).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. I. Mackenzie, "Dielectric solid-state planar waveguide lasers: A review," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 626-637 (2007).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, R. Guzzi, J. , "Effect of low dose high energy O$^{3 +}$ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO $_{3}$: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization," J. Appl. Phys. 92, 6477-6483 (2002).

D. Jaque, U. Caldino, J. J. Romero, J. G. Sole, "Influence of neodymium concentration on the cw laser properties of Nd-doped Ca $_{3}$ Ga$_{2}$ Ge$_{3}$ O$_{12}$ laser garnet crystal," J. Appl. Phys. 86, 6627-6633 (1999).

Laser Phys. Lett. (2)

L. J. Qin, D. Y. Tang, G. Q. Xie, C. M. Dong, Z. T. Jia, X. T. Tao, "High-power continuous wave and passively $Q$-switched laser operations of a Nd:GGG crystal ," Laser Phys. Lett. 5, 100-103 (2008).

M. Pollnau, C. Grivas, L. Laversenne, J. S. Wilkinson, R. W. Eason, D. P. Shepherd, "Ti:Sapphire waveguide lasers," Laser Phys. Lett. 4, 560-571 (2007).

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. J. Field, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Large, D. P. Shepherd, A. C. Tropper, P. J. Chandler, P. D. Townsend, L. Zhang, "An efficient, diode-pumped, ion-implanted Nd:GGG planar waveguide laser," Opt. Commun. 86, 161-166 (1991).

Opt. Exp. (2)

J. Olivares, M. L. Crespillo, O. Caballero-Calero, M. D. Ynsa, A. García-Cabañes, M. Toulemonde, C. Trautmann, F. Agulló-López, "Thick optical waveguides in lithium niobate induced by swift heavy ions ( ${\sim} {\hbox {10}}$ MeV/amu) at ultralow fluences," Opt. Exp. 17, 24175-24182 (2009).

N. Dong, F. Chen, D. Jaque, "Carbon ion implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO$_{3}$ optical channel waveguides: An intermediate step between light and heavy ion implanted waveguides," Opt. Exp. 18, 5951-5956 (2010).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

M. Montes, C. de las Heras, D. Jaque, "Passive Q-switching of a diode pumped Nd$^{3 +}$: CGGG crystal: Benefits of inhomogeneous line broadening and short pulse generation," Opt. Mater. 28, 408-414 (2006).

Phys. Rev. B. (1)

D. Jaque, J. G. Sole, "Tunable Nd$^{3 +}$: Ca $_{3}$ Ga$_{2}$ Ge$_{3}$ O$_{12}$ site-selective laser operating around 1.33 $\mu$m," Phys. Rev. B. 70, 155116-1--155116-6 (2004).

Phys. Wave Phenomena (1)

G. A. Bufetova, M. Y. Gusev, I. A. Ivanov, N. S. Neustroev, D. A. Nikolaev, V. F. Seregin, V. B. Tsvetkov, I. A. Shcherbakov, "Nd$^{3+}$: GGG and Cr$^{4+}$: GGG epitaxial films for neodymium lasers," Phys. Wave Phenomena 17, 77-91 (2008).

Other (1)

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994).

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