Abstract

This work addresses important issues of photonic crystal fiber (PCF) interferometers built by fusion splicing: high insertion loss, low mechanical strength, and complex multiplexing schemes. We have found that by decreasing the length of the collapsed region in these interferometers, the overall insertion losses diminish (down to 0.7 dB) without compromising their performance and mechanical strength. To multiplex such interferometers, we have used the frequency-division-multiplexing technique combined with a simple fast Fourier transform demodulation method. To avoid crosstalk between the interferometers, we have calculated the optimal relationship between their periods. The results reported here may allow the development of functional and competitive PCF devices or PCF-based sensor networks and can be adapted to multiplex any other optical fiber sensors that exhibit sinusoidal patterns.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic-crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).
  2. O. Frazao, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, "Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers," Laser Photon., Rev. 2 449-459 (2008).
  3. J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, G. Badenes, "Simple all-microstructured-optical-fiber interferometer built via fusion splicing," Opt. Exp. 15, 1491-1496 (2007).
  4. H. Choi, M. Kim, B. Lee, "All-fiber Mach–Zehnder type interferometers formed in photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 15, 5711-5720 (2007).
  5. J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, G. Badenes, "Temperature-insensitive photonic crystal fiber interferometer for absolute strain sensing ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109-1-091109-3 (2007).
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  7. W. Bock, T. Eftimov, P. Mikulic, J. Chen, "An inline core-cladding intermodal interferometer using a photonic crystal fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3933-3939 (2009).
  8. S. Aref, R. Amezcua-Correa, J. Carvalho, O. Frazão, P. Caldas, J. Santos, F. Araújo, H. Latifi, F. Farahi, L. Ferreira, J. Knight, "Modal interferometer based on hollow-core photonic crystal fiber for strain and temperature measurement," Opt. Exp. 17, 18669-18675 (2009).
  9. G. Coviello, V. Finazzi, J. Villatoro, V. Pruneri, "Thermally stabilized PCF-based sensor for temperature measurements up to 1000 $^{\circ}$C," Opt. Exp. 17, 21551-21559 (2009).
  10. T. Pinheiro-Ortega, E. Silvestre, P. Andres, B. Maes, P. Bienstman, "Design of bimodal PCFs for interferometric gas sensors with high sensitivity," IEEE Sens. J. 10, 1180-1184 (2010).
  11. B. Dong, D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, "Temperature insensitive all-fiber compact polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based interferometer and its applications in fiber sensors," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1011-1015 (2010).
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  13. I. Sakai, R. Youngquist, G. Parry, "Multiplexing of optical fiber sensors using a frequency-modulated source and gated output ," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 932-940 (1987).
  14. K. Blotekjaer, R. Wentworth, H. Shaw, "Choosing relative optical path delays in series-topology interferometric sensor arrays ," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 229-235 (1987).
  15. G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "Large-scale multiplexing of interferometric fiber-optic sensors using TDM and DWDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 687-699 (2001).
  16. Z. Wang, F. Shen, L. Song, X. Wang, A. Wang, "Multiplexed fiber Fabry–Perot interferometer sensors based on ultrashort Bragg gratings ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 622-624 (2007).
  17. R. P. Murphy, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Multiplexing of fiber-optic long-period grating-based interferometric sensors," IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 825-829 (2007).
  18. Q. Shi, Z. Wang, L. Jin, Y. Li, H. Zhang, F. Lu, G. Kai, X. Dong, "A hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cavity based multiplexed Fabry-Pérot interferometric strain sensor system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1329-1331 (2008).
  19. H. Y. Fu, A. C. L. Wong, P. A. Childs, H. Y. Tam, Y. B. Liao, C. Lu, P. K. A. Wai, "Multiplexing of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometric sensors ," Opt. Exp. 17, 18501-18512 (2009).
  20. L. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, Y. Wang, C. L. Zhao, "Fusion splicing photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers: Microhole collapse effect," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3563-3574 (2007).

2010 (2)

T. Pinheiro-Ortega, E. Silvestre, P. Andres, B. Maes, P. Bienstman, "Design of bimodal PCFs for interferometric gas sensors with high sensitivity," IEEE Sens. J. 10, 1180-1184 (2010).

B. Dong, D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, "Temperature insensitive all-fiber compact polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based interferometer and its applications in fiber sensors," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1011-1015 (2010).

2009 (4)

W. Bock, T. Eftimov, P. Mikulic, J. Chen, "An inline core-cladding intermodal interferometer using a photonic crystal fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3933-3939 (2009).

S. Aref, R. Amezcua-Correa, J. Carvalho, O. Frazão, P. Caldas, J. Santos, F. Araújo, H. Latifi, F. Farahi, L. Ferreira, J. Knight, "Modal interferometer based on hollow-core photonic crystal fiber for strain and temperature measurement," Opt. Exp. 17, 18669-18675 (2009).

G. Coviello, V. Finazzi, J. Villatoro, V. Pruneri, "Thermally stabilized PCF-based sensor for temperature measurements up to 1000 $^{\circ}$C," Opt. Exp. 17, 21551-21559 (2009).

H. Y. Fu, A. C. L. Wong, P. A. Childs, H. Y. Tam, Y. B. Liao, C. Lu, P. K. A. Wai, "Multiplexing of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometric sensors ," Opt. Exp. 17, 18501-18512 (2009).

2008 (2)

O. Frazao, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, "Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers," Laser Photon., Rev. 2 449-459 (2008).

Q. Shi, Z. Wang, L. Jin, Y. Li, H. Zhang, F. Lu, G. Kai, X. Dong, "A hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cavity based multiplexed Fabry-Pérot interferometric strain sensor system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1329-1331 (2008).

2007 (6)

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, G. Badenes, "Simple all-microstructured-optical-fiber interferometer built via fusion splicing," Opt. Exp. 15, 1491-1496 (2007).

H. Choi, M. Kim, B. Lee, "All-fiber Mach–Zehnder type interferometers formed in photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 15, 5711-5720 (2007).

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, G. Badenes, "Temperature-insensitive photonic crystal fiber interferometer for absolute strain sensing ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109-1-091109-3 (2007).

L. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, Y. Wang, C. L. Zhao, "Fusion splicing photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers: Microhole collapse effect," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3563-3574 (2007).

Z. Wang, F. Shen, L. Song, X. Wang, A. Wang, "Multiplexed fiber Fabry–Perot interferometer sensors based on ultrashort Bragg gratings ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 622-624 (2007).

R. P. Murphy, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Multiplexing of fiber-optic long-period grating-based interferometric sensors," IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 825-829 (2007).

2006 (1)

P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic-crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).

2001 (1)

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "Large-scale multiplexing of interferometric fiber-optic sensors using TDM and DWDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 687-699 (2001).

1987 (2)

I. Sakai, R. Youngquist, G. Parry, "Multiplexing of optical fiber sensors using a frequency-modulated source and gated output ," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 932-940 (1987).

K. Blotekjaer, R. Wentworth, H. Shaw, "Choosing relative optical path delays in series-topology interferometric sensor arrays ," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 229-235 (1987).

1985 (1)

J. Brooks, R. Wentworth, R. Youngquist, M. Tur, H. Shaw, "Coherence multiplexing of fiber-optic interferometric sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 3, 1062-1072 (1985).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Villatoro, V. Finazzi, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, G. Badenes, "Temperature-insensitive photonic crystal fiber interferometer for absolute strain sensing ," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 091109-1-091109-3 (2007).

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

B. Dong, D. P. Zhou, L. Wei, "Temperature insensitive all-fiber compact polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based interferometer and its applications in fiber sensors," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 1011-1015 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Z. Wang, F. Shen, L. Song, X. Wang, A. Wang, "Multiplexed fiber Fabry–Perot interferometer sensors based on ultrashort Bragg gratings ," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 622-624 (2007).

Q. Shi, Z. Wang, L. Jin, Y. Li, H. Zhang, F. Lu, G. Kai, X. Dong, "A hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cavity based multiplexed Fabry-Pérot interferometric strain sensor system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1329-1331 (2008).

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

T. Pinheiro-Ortega, E. Silvestre, P. Andres, B. Maes, P. Bienstman, "Design of bimodal PCFs for interferometric gas sensors with high sensitivity," IEEE Sens. J. 10, 1180-1184 (2010).

IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

R. P. Murphy, S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Multiplexing of fiber-optic long-period grating-based interferometric sensors," IEEE/OSA J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 825-829 (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (7)

J. Brooks, R. Wentworth, R. Youngquist, M. Tur, H. Shaw, "Coherence multiplexing of fiber-optic interferometric sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 3, 1062-1072 (1985).

I. Sakai, R. Youngquist, G. Parry, "Multiplexing of optical fiber sensors using a frequency-modulated source and gated output ," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 932-940 (1987).

K. Blotekjaer, R. Wentworth, H. Shaw, "Choosing relative optical path delays in series-topology interferometric sensor arrays ," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 229-235 (1987).

G. A. Cranch, P. J. Nash, "Large-scale multiplexing of interferometric fiber-optic sensors using TDM and DWDM," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 687-699 (2001).

W. Bock, T. Eftimov, P. Mikulic, J. Chen, "An inline core-cladding intermodal interferometer using a photonic crystal fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3933-3939 (2009).

P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic-crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).

L. Xiao, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, Y. Wang, C. L. Zhao, "Fusion splicing photonic crystal fibers and conventional single-mode fibers: Microhole collapse effect," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3563-3574 (2007).

Laser Photon., Rev. 2 (1)

O. Frazao, J. L. Santos, F. M. Araujo, L. A. Ferreira, "Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers," Laser Photon., Rev. 2 449-459 (2008).

Opt. Exp. (5)

J. Villatoro, V. P. Minkovich, V. Pruneri, G. Badenes, "Simple all-microstructured-optical-fiber interferometer built via fusion splicing," Opt. Exp. 15, 1491-1496 (2007).

H. Choi, M. Kim, B. Lee, "All-fiber Mach–Zehnder type interferometers formed in photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 15, 5711-5720 (2007).

S. Aref, R. Amezcua-Correa, J. Carvalho, O. Frazão, P. Caldas, J. Santos, F. Araújo, H. Latifi, F. Farahi, L. Ferreira, J. Knight, "Modal interferometer based on hollow-core photonic crystal fiber for strain and temperature measurement," Opt. Exp. 17, 18669-18675 (2009).

G. Coviello, V. Finazzi, J. Villatoro, V. Pruneri, "Thermally stabilized PCF-based sensor for temperature measurements up to 1000 $^{\circ}$C," Opt. Exp. 17, 21551-21559 (2009).

H. Y. Fu, A. C. L. Wong, P. A. Childs, H. Y. Tam, Y. B. Liao, C. Lu, P. K. A. Wai, "Multiplexing of polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber based Sagnac interferometric sensors ," Opt. Exp. 17, 18501-18512 (2009).

Opt. Lett. (1)

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