Abstract

In this paper we propose an efficient technique for micromachining lithium niobate that is used in Ti-diffused waveguides. The use of Focused Ion Beam (FIB) etching allows obtaining homogeneous periodic microstructures. Bragg gratings with a period of 1.05 µm and an aspect ratio of 6:1 (depth-to-half period ratio) have been achieved. A reflectivity greater than 95% associated with a bandwidth at half maximum of about 100 nm within a window centered at 1550 nm, is demonstrated for a Bragg grating of period Λ = 1.8 µm and a length of 144 µm, in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

© 2010 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Pereira, S. LaRochelle, "Field profiles and spectral properties of chirped Bragg grating Fabry–Perot interferometer," Opt. Exp. 13, 1906-1915 (2005).
  2. M. Abtahi, M. Mirshafiei, J. Magné, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, "Ultra-wideband waveform generator based on optical pulse-shaping and FBG tuning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 135-137 (2008).
  3. J. Wang, J. Sun, Q. Sun, "Proposal for all-optical format conversion based on a periodically poled lithium niobate loop mirror," Opt. Let. 32, 1477-1479 (2007).
  4. P. Dekker, M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. J. Little, M. J. Withford, "Annealing dynamics of waveguide Bragg gratings: Evidence of femtosecond laser induced colour centres," Opt. Exp. 18, 3274-3283 (2010).
  5. S. Kumar, Awasthi, U. Malaviya, S. P. Ojha, "Enhancement of omnidirectional total-reflection wavelength range by using one-dimensional ternary photonic bandgap material," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 23, 2566-2571 (2006).
  6. R.-H. Kim, J. Zhang, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, T. L. Smith, "Narrowband Bragg reflectors in Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguides," Appl. Opt. 45, 4927-4932 (2006).
  7. C. Becker, A. G. T. Oesselke, A. Pape, W. Sohler, H. Suche, "Integrated optical Ti:Er:LiNbO$_3$ distibuted Bragg reflector laser with fixed photorefractive grating," Opt. Lett. 23, 1194-1196 (1998).
  8. B. Das, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, "Integrated optical distributed feedback laser with Ti:Er:LiNbO$_3$ waveguide," Appl. Phys. Let. 82, 1515-1517 (2003).
  9. T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, "Integrated optics components and devices using periodic structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 845-867 (1986).
  10. L. Pierno, M. Dispenza, A. Secchi, A. Fiorello, V. Foglietti, "A lithium niobate electro-optic tunable Bragg filter fabricated by electron beam lithography," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 1-6 (2008).
  11. J. Sochtig, "Ti:LiNbO$_3$ stripe waveguide Bragg reflector gratings," J. Electron. Lett. 24, 844-845 (1988).
  12. Y. Sidorin, A. Cheng, "Integration of Bragg gratings on LiNbO$_3$ channel waveguides using laser ablation," Electron. Lett. 37, 312-314 (2001).
  13. B.-E. Benkelfat, R. Ferriere, B. Wacogne, P. Mollier, "Technological implementation of Bragg grating reflectors in Ti:LiNbO$_3$ waveguides by proton exchange," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1430-1432 (2002).
  14. R. Ferriere, B.-E. Benkelfat, J. Dudley, K. Ghoumid, "Bragg miroir inscription on LiNbO$_3$ waveguides by index microstructuration," J. Appl. Opt. 45, 1-9 (2006).
  15. F. Lacour, N. Courjal, M.-P. Bernal, A. Sabac, C. Bainier, M. Spajer, "Nanostructuring lithium niobate substrates by focused ion beam milling," Opt. Mater. 27, 1421-1425 (2005).
  16. J. Amet, G. Ulliac, F. I. Baida, M.-P. Bernal, "Experimental evidence of enhanced electro-optic control on a lithium niobate photonic crystal superprism," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 103111 (2010).
  17. T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-94 (1997).
  18. K. O. Hill, T. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Let. 32, 647-649 (1978).
  19. A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystal: Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (Wiley, 1984).
  20. W. Streifer, D. Scifres, R. Burnham, "Coupling coefficients for distributed feedback single- and double-heterostructure diode lasers.," IEEE. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 867-873 (1975).
  21. A. Hardy, W. Streifer, "Coupled mode theory of parallel waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 1135-1146 (1985).
  22. N. Matuschek, F. X. Kärtner, U. Keller, "Exact coupled-mode theorys for multilayer interference coatings with arbitrary strong index modulations," IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 33, 295-302 (1997).
  23. M. Prabhugoud, K. Peters, "Modified transfer Matrix formulation for Bragg grating strain sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2302-2309 (2004).
  24. J. Hong, W. Huang, T. Makino, "On the transfer matrix methode for distributed feedback waveguide devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1860-1868 (1992).
  25. K. Chaganti, I. Salakhutdinov, I. Avrutsky, G. W. Auner, J. Mansfield, "Sub-micron grating fabrication on hafnium oxide thin-film waveguides with focused ion beam milling," Opt. Exp. 14, 1505-1511 (2006).
  26. R. Schmidth, P. Kaminow, "Metal-diffused optical waveguides in LiNbO$_3$," Appl. Phy. 25, 458-460 (1974).
  27. H. Bookey, R. Thomson, N. Psaila, A. Kar, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond laser inscription of low insertion loss waveguides in Z-cut lithium niobate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 892-894 (2007).
  28. F. Rottmann, E. Voges, "Low-insertion-loss, tunable wavelength multiplexer on lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 23, 1007-1008 (1987).
  29. S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, P. De Natale, B. Tiribilli, M. Vassalli, "Surface nanoscale periodic structures in congruent lithium niobate by domain reversal patterning and differential etching," Appl. Phys. Let. 87, 233106 (2005).
  30. P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, "Modulating the thickness of the resist pattern for controlling size and depth of submicron reversed domains in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Let. 89, 133111 (2006) (2006).
  31. S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, L. Sansone, M. Paturzo, S. DE Nicola, G. Pierattini, P. DE Natale, "Double-face and submicron two-dimensional domain patterning in congruent lithium niobate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 541-543 (2006).
  32. S. Yin, "Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio submicron-to-nanometer range microstructures in LiNbO$_3$ for the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices by focused ion beams (FIB)," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 22, 396-398 (1999).

2010

J. Amet, G. Ulliac, F. I. Baida, M.-P. Bernal, "Experimental evidence of enhanced electro-optic control on a lithium niobate photonic crystal superprism," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 103111 (2010).

P. Dekker, M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. J. Little, M. J. Withford, "Annealing dynamics of waveguide Bragg gratings: Evidence of femtosecond laser induced colour centres," Opt. Exp. 18, 3274-3283 (2010).

2008

M. Abtahi, M. Mirshafiei, J. Magné, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, "Ultra-wideband waveform generator based on optical pulse-shaping and FBG tuning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 135-137 (2008).

L. Pierno, M. Dispenza, A. Secchi, A. Fiorello, V. Foglietti, "A lithium niobate electro-optic tunable Bragg filter fabricated by electron beam lithography," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 1-6 (2008).

2007

J. Wang, J. Sun, Q. Sun, "Proposal for all-optical format conversion based on a periodically poled lithium niobate loop mirror," Opt. Let. 32, 1477-1479 (2007).

H. Bookey, R. Thomson, N. Psaila, A. Kar, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond laser inscription of low insertion loss waveguides in Z-cut lithium niobate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 892-894 (2007).

2006

K. Chaganti, I. Salakhutdinov, I. Avrutsky, G. W. Auner, J. Mansfield, "Sub-micron grating fabrication on hafnium oxide thin-film waveguides with focused ion beam milling," Opt. Exp. 14, 1505-1511 (2006).

P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, "Modulating the thickness of the resist pattern for controlling size and depth of submicron reversed domains in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Let. 89, 133111 (2006) (2006).

S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, L. Sansone, M. Paturzo, S. DE Nicola, G. Pierattini, P. DE Natale, "Double-face and submicron two-dimensional domain patterning in congruent lithium niobate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 541-543 (2006).

S. Kumar, Awasthi, U. Malaviya, S. P. Ojha, "Enhancement of omnidirectional total-reflection wavelength range by using one-dimensional ternary photonic bandgap material," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 23, 2566-2571 (2006).

R.-H. Kim, J. Zhang, O. Eknoyan, H. F. Taylor, T. L. Smith, "Narrowband Bragg reflectors in Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguides," Appl. Opt. 45, 4927-4932 (2006).

R. Ferriere, B.-E. Benkelfat, J. Dudley, K. Ghoumid, "Bragg miroir inscription on LiNbO$_3$ waveguides by index microstructuration," J. Appl. Opt. 45, 1-9 (2006).

2005

F. Lacour, N. Courjal, M.-P. Bernal, A. Sabac, C. Bainier, M. Spajer, "Nanostructuring lithium niobate substrates by focused ion beam milling," Opt. Mater. 27, 1421-1425 (2005).

S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, P. De Natale, B. Tiribilli, M. Vassalli, "Surface nanoscale periodic structures in congruent lithium niobate by domain reversal patterning and differential etching," Appl. Phys. Let. 87, 233106 (2005).

S. Pereira, S. LaRochelle, "Field profiles and spectral properties of chirped Bragg grating Fabry–Perot interferometer," Opt. Exp. 13, 1906-1915 (2005).

2004

M. Prabhugoud, K. Peters, "Modified transfer Matrix formulation for Bragg grating strain sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2302-2309 (2004).

2003

B. Das, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, "Integrated optical distributed feedback laser with Ti:Er:LiNbO$_3$ waveguide," Appl. Phys. Let. 82, 1515-1517 (2003).

2002

B.-E. Benkelfat, R. Ferriere, B. Wacogne, P. Mollier, "Technological implementation of Bragg grating reflectors in Ti:LiNbO$_3$ waveguides by proton exchange," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1430-1432 (2002).

2001

Y. Sidorin, A. Cheng, "Integration of Bragg gratings on LiNbO$_3$ channel waveguides using laser ablation," Electron. Lett. 37, 312-314 (2001).

1999

S. Yin, "Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio submicron-to-nanometer range microstructures in LiNbO$_3$ for the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices by focused ion beams (FIB)," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 22, 396-398 (1999).

1998

1997

N. Matuschek, F. X. Kärtner, U. Keller, "Exact coupled-mode theorys for multilayer interference coatings with arbitrary strong index modulations," IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 33, 295-302 (1997).

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-94 (1997).

1992

J. Hong, W. Huang, T. Makino, "On the transfer matrix methode for distributed feedback waveguide devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1860-1868 (1992).

1988

J. Sochtig, "Ti:LiNbO$_3$ stripe waveguide Bragg reflector gratings," J. Electron. Lett. 24, 844-845 (1988).

1987

F. Rottmann, E. Voges, "Low-insertion-loss, tunable wavelength multiplexer on lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 23, 1007-1008 (1987).

1986

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, "Integrated optics components and devices using periodic structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 845-867 (1986).

1985

A. Hardy, W. Streifer, "Coupled mode theory of parallel waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 1135-1146 (1985).

1978

K. O. Hill, T. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Let. 32, 647-649 (1978).

1975

W. Streifer, D. Scifres, R. Burnham, "Coupling coefficients for distributed feedback single- and double-heterostructure diode lasers.," IEEE. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 867-873 (1975).

1974

R. Schmidth, P. Kaminow, "Metal-diffused optical waveguides in LiNbO$_3$," Appl. Phy. 25, 458-460 (1974).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phy.

R. Schmidth, P. Kaminow, "Metal-diffused optical waveguides in LiNbO$_3$," Appl. Phy. 25, 458-460 (1974).

Appl. Phys. Let.

S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, P. De Natale, B. Tiribilli, M. Vassalli, "Surface nanoscale periodic structures in congruent lithium niobate by domain reversal patterning and differential etching," Appl. Phys. Let. 87, 233106 (2005).

P. Ferraro, S. Grilli, "Modulating the thickness of the resist pattern for controlling size and depth of submicron reversed domains in lithium niobate," Appl. Phys. Let. 89, 133111 (2006) (2006).

B. Das, R. Ricken, W. Sohler, "Integrated optical distributed feedback laser with Ti:Er:LiNbO$_3$ waveguide," Appl. Phys. Let. 82, 1515-1517 (2003).

K. O. Hill, T. Fujii, D. C. Johnson, B. S. Kawasaki, "Photosensitivity in optical fiber waveguides: Application to reflection filter fabrication," Appl. Phys. Let. 32, 647-649 (1978).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Amet, G. Ulliac, F. I. Baida, M.-P. Bernal, "Experimental evidence of enhanced electro-optic control on a lithium niobate photonic crystal superprism," Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 103111 (2010).

Electron. Lett.

Y. Sidorin, A. Cheng, "Integration of Bragg gratings on LiNbO$_3$ channel waveguides using laser ablation," Electron. Lett. 37, 312-314 (2001).

F. Rottmann, E. Voges, "Low-insertion-loss, tunable wavelength multiplexer on lithium niobate," Electron. Lett. 23, 1007-1008 (1987).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, "Integrated optics components and devices using periodic structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 22, 845-867 (1986).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

B.-E. Benkelfat, R. Ferriere, B. Wacogne, P. Mollier, "Technological implementation of Bragg grating reflectors in Ti:LiNbO$_3$ waveguides by proton exchange," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1430-1432 (2002).

H. Bookey, R. Thomson, N. Psaila, A. Kar, N. Chiodo, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, "Femtosecond laser inscription of low insertion loss waveguides in Z-cut lithium niobate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 892-894 (2007).

S. Grilli, P. Ferraro, L. Sansone, M. Paturzo, S. DE Nicola, G. Pierattini, P. DE Natale, "Double-face and submicron two-dimensional domain patterning in congruent lithium niobate," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 541-543 (2006).

M. Abtahi, M. Mirshafiei, J. Magné, L. A. Rusch, S. LaRochelle, "Ultra-wideband waveform generator based on optical pulse-shaping and FBG tuning," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 135-137 (2008).

IEEE. J. Quantum Electron.

N. Matuschek, F. X. Kärtner, U. Keller, "Exact coupled-mode theorys for multilayer interference coatings with arbitrary strong index modulations," IEEE. J. Quantum Electron. 33, 295-302 (1997).

IEEE. Quantum Electron.

W. Streifer, D. Scifres, R. Burnham, "Coupling coefficients for distributed feedback single- and double-heterostructure diode lasers.," IEEE. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 867-873 (1975).

J. Appl. Opt.

R. Ferriere, B.-E. Benkelfat, J. Dudley, K. Ghoumid, "Bragg miroir inscription on LiNbO$_3$ waveguides by index microstructuration," J. Appl. Opt. 45, 1-9 (2006).

J. Electron. Lett.

J. Sochtig, "Ti:LiNbO$_3$ stripe waveguide Bragg reflector gratings," J. Electron. Lett. 24, 844-845 (1988).

J. Lightw. Technol.

T. Erdogan, "Fiber grating spectra," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1277-94 (1997).

A. Hardy, W. Streifer, "Coupled mode theory of parallel waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 1135-1146 (1985).

M. Prabhugoud, K. Peters, "Modified transfer Matrix formulation for Bragg grating strain sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2302-2309 (2004).

J. Hong, W. Huang, T. Makino, "On the transfer matrix methode for distributed feedback waveguide devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1860-1868 (1992).

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.

L. Pierno, M. Dispenza, A. Secchi, A. Fiorello, V. Foglietti, "A lithium niobate electro-optic tunable Bragg filter fabricated by electron beam lithography," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 1-6 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B

S. Kumar, Awasthi, U. Malaviya, S. P. Ojha, "Enhancement of omnidirectional total-reflection wavelength range by using one-dimensional ternary photonic bandgap material," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 23, 2566-2571 (2006).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.

S. Yin, "Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio submicron-to-nanometer range microstructures in LiNbO$_3$ for the next generation of integrated optoelectronic devices by focused ion beams (FIB)," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 22, 396-398 (1999).

Opt. Exp.

S. Pereira, S. LaRochelle, "Field profiles and spectral properties of chirped Bragg grating Fabry–Perot interferometer," Opt. Exp. 13, 1906-1915 (2005).

P. Dekker, M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. J. Little, M. J. Withford, "Annealing dynamics of waveguide Bragg gratings: Evidence of femtosecond laser induced colour centres," Opt. Exp. 18, 3274-3283 (2010).

K. Chaganti, I. Salakhutdinov, I. Avrutsky, G. W. Auner, J. Mansfield, "Sub-micron grating fabrication on hafnium oxide thin-film waveguides with focused ion beam milling," Opt. Exp. 14, 1505-1511 (2006).

Opt. Let.

J. Wang, J. Sun, Q. Sun, "Proposal for all-optical format conversion based on a periodically poled lithium niobate loop mirror," Opt. Let. 32, 1477-1479 (2007).

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

F. Lacour, N. Courjal, M.-P. Bernal, A. Sabac, C. Bainier, M. Spajer, "Nanostructuring lithium niobate substrates by focused ion beam milling," Opt. Mater. 27, 1421-1425 (2005).

Other

A. Yariv, P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystal: Propagation and Control of Laser Radiation (Wiley, 1984).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.