S. Masudy-Panah, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, "An analytic approach to study the effects of optical
phonon scattering loss on the characteristics of avalanche
photodiodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 533-540 (2010).

S. Masudy-Panah, V. Ahmadi, "A closed form analytic model to study the
characteristics of avalanche photodiodes," J. Mod. Opt. 56, 67-72 (2009).

S. Masudy-Panah, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, M. Jalali, "Temperature dependent characteristics of submicron
GaAs avalanche photodiodes obtained by a nonlocal analysis," Opt. Commun. 282, 3630-3636 (2009).

Y. X. Mai, G. Wang, "Equivalent circuit modeling of separate absorption
grading charge multiplication avalanche photodiode," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1197-1202 (2009).

L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, "Avalanche noise characteristics in submicron InP
diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 378-382 (2008).

S. C. Liew Tat Mun, C. H. Tan, Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, J. P. R. David, "Modeling of avalanche multiplication and excess noise
factor in In$_{0.52}$Al$_{0.48}$As avalanche photodiodes using a simple Monte Carlo model," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 13114-13119 (2008).

K. Songfeng, C. Qian, J. Eryou, X. Wei, Q. Jian, "Single-photon time response of reach-through APD," Opt. Commun. 281, 2481-2484 (2008).

Y. L. Goh, D. J. Massey, A. R. J. Marshall, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, G. J. Rees, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, "Avalanche multiplication in InAlAs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 11-16 (2007).

Y. M. El-Batawy, M. J. Deen, "Analysis and circuit modeling of waveguide-separated
absorption charge multiplication-avalanche photodetector
(WG-SACM-APD)," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 335-344 (2005).

A. Banoushi, M. R. Kardan, M. A. Naeini, "A circuit model for separate absorption, grading,
charge, and multiplication avalanche photodiodes," Solid State Electron. 49, 871-877 (2005).

Y. M. El-Batawy, M. J. Deen, "Modeling and optimization of resonant cavity
enhanced-separated absorption graded charge multiplication-avalanche
photodetector (RCE-SAGCM-APD)," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 790-801 (2003).

Y. M. El-Batawy, M. J. Deen, N. R. Das, "Analysis, optimization and SPICE modeling of resonant
cavity enhanced PIN photodetector," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2031-2043 (2003).

C. Groves, R. Ghin, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, "Temperature dependence of impact ionization in GaAs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 2027-2031 (2003).

M. M. Hayat, O. H. Kwon, Y. Pan, P. Sotirelis, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, "Gain-bandwidth characteristics of thin avalanche
photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49, 770-781 (2002).

E. Mortazy, V. Ahmadi, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, "An integrated equivalent circuit model for relative
intensity noise and frequency noise spectrum of a multimode
semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1366-1371 (2002).

J. J. Jou, C. K. Liu, C. M. Hsiao, H. H. Lin, H. C. Lee, "Time-delay circuit model of high-speed p-i-n
photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 525-527 (2002).

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. P. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, "Impact-ionization and noise characteristics of thin
III-V avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 2722-2731 (2001).

B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, M. Hopkinson, G. Hill, "Avalanche multiplication characteristics of Al$_{0.8}$Ga$_{0.2}$As diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 48, 2198-2204 (2001).

S. A. Plimmer, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, R. Grey, K. F. Li, G. J. Rees, "The effect of an electric-field gradient on avalanche
noise," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2963-2965 (1999).

A. Bandyopadhyay, M. J. Deen, L. E. Tarof, W. Clark, "A simplified approach to time-domain modeling of
avalanche photodiodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 691-699 (1998).

M. A. Neifeld, W. C. Chou, "Spice-based optoelectronic system simulation," Appl. Opt. 37, 6093-6104 (1998).

W. Chen, S. Liu, "PIN avalanche photodiodes model for circuit simulation," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 32, 2105-2111 (1996).

N. R. Desai, K. V. Hoang, G. J. Sonek, "Applications of PSPICE simulation software to the
study of optoelectronic integrated circuits and devices," IEEE Trans. Education 36, 357-362 (1993).

S. R. Forrest, "Performance of In$_{\rm x}$Ga$_{l - {\rm x}}$,As$_{\rm y}$P$_{1 - {\rm y}}$, photodiodes with dark current limited by diffusion,
generation recombination, and tunneling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 217-226 (1981).

S. A. Plimmer, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, R. Grey, K. F. Li, G. J. Rees, "The effect of an electric-field gradient on avalanche
noise," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2963-2965 (1999).

A. Bandyopadhyay, M. J. Deen, L. E. Tarof, W. Clark, "A simplified approach to time-domain modeling of
avalanche photodiodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 691-699 (1998).

S. Masudy-Panah, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, "An analytic approach to study the effects of optical
phonon scattering loss on the characteristics of avalanche
photodiodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 533-540 (2010).

E. Mortazy, V. Ahmadi, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, "An integrated equivalent circuit model for relative
intensity noise and frequency noise spectrum of a multimode
semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1366-1371 (2002).

S. R. Forrest, "Performance of In$_{\rm x}$Ga$_{l - {\rm x}}$,As$_{\rm y}$P$_{1 - {\rm y}}$, photodiodes with dark current limited by diffusion,
generation recombination, and tunneling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 217-226 (1981).

L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, "Avalanche noise characteristics in submicron InP
diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 378-382 (2008).

W. Chen, S. Liu, "PIN avalanche photodiodes model for circuit simulation," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 32, 2105-2111 (1996).

J. J. Jou, C. K. Liu, C. M. Hsiao, H. H. Lin, H. C. Lee, "Time-delay circuit model of high-speed p-i-n
photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 525-527 (2002).

N. R. Desai, K. V. Hoang, G. J. Sonek, "Applications of PSPICE simulation software to the
study of optoelectronic integrated circuits and devices," IEEE Trans. Education 36, 357-362 (1993).

M. M. Hayat, O. H. Kwon, Y. Pan, P. Sotirelis, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, "Gain-bandwidth characteristics of thin avalanche
photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49, 770-781 (2002).

C. Groves, R. Ghin, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, "Temperature dependence of impact ionization in GaAs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 2027-2031 (2003).

Y. M. El-Batawy, M. J. Deen, "Modeling and optimization of resonant cavity
enhanced-separated absorption graded charge multiplication-avalanche
photodetector (RCE-SAGCM-APD)," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 790-801 (2003).

Y. M. El-Batawy, M. J. Deen, "Analysis and circuit modeling of waveguide-separated
absorption charge multiplication-avalanche photodetector
(WG-SACM-APD)," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 335-344 (2005).

Y. L. Goh, D. J. Massey, A. R. J. Marshall, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, G. J. Rees, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, "Avalanche multiplication in InAlAs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 11-16 (2007).

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. P. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, "Impact-ionization and noise characteristics of thin
III-V avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 2722-2731 (2001).

B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, M. Hopkinson, G. Hill, "Avalanche multiplication characteristics of Al$_{0.8}$Ga$_{0.2}$As diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 48, 2198-2204 (2001).

S. C. Liew Tat Mun, C. H. Tan, Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, J. P. R. David, "Modeling of avalanche multiplication and excess noise
factor in In$_{0.52}$Al$_{0.48}$As avalanche photodiodes using a simple Monte Carlo model," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 13114-13119 (2008).

Y. X. Mai, G. Wang, "Equivalent circuit modeling of separate absorption
grading charge multiplication avalanche photodiode," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1197-1202 (2009).

Y. M. El-Batawy, M. J. Deen, N. R. Das, "Analysis, optimization and SPICE modeling of resonant
cavity enhanced PIN photodetector," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2031-2043 (2003).

S. Masudy-Panah, V. Ahmadi, "A closed form analytic model to study the
characteristics of avalanche photodiodes," J. Mod. Opt. 56, 67-72 (2009).

S. Masudy-Panah, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, M. Jalali, "Temperature dependent characteristics of submicron
GaAs avalanche photodiodes obtained by a nonlocal analysis," Opt. Commun. 282, 3630-3636 (2009).

K. Songfeng, C. Qian, J. Eryou, X. Wei, Q. Jian, "Single-photon time response of reach-through APD," Opt. Commun. 281, 2481-2484 (2008).

A. Banoushi, M. R. Kardan, M. A. Naeini, "A circuit model for separate absorption, grading,
charge, and multiplication avalanche photodiodes," Solid State Electron. 49, 871-877 (2005).

J. C. Campbell, P. Yuan, Avalanche Photodiodes with an Impact Ionization-Engineered
Multiplication Region U.S. Patent 7 045 833 (2006).

D. S. Kim, S. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, G. S. Oh, N. J. Kim, J. W. Lee, A. S. Kim, Y. K. Sin, "Fabrication of planar InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiode
without guard rings," Proc. IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Soc. Annu. Meeting
(LEOS 96) (1996) pp. 332-333.

M. Jalali, M. Soroosh, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, A. R. Nabavi, "Transient and frequency analysis of PIN avalanche
photodetector using circuit model," Proc. 7th IEEE Int. Conf. Laser and Fiber-Optical Networks
Modeling (LFNM) (2005) pp. 294-296.