Abstract

A staircase approximation method is deployed to model nonuniform field in the multiplication region and its surrounding ambient of a thin avalanche photodiode (APD). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first instance of introducing an equivalent circuit model that is taking the effect of the electric field profile in a thin APD's multiplication region and its surroundings into account. This equivalent circuit model that is developed from the carriers' rate equations also includes the effect of the tunneling current. The tunneling current that can be induced as a small current injected into the multiplication region results in an enhanced model behavior at high reverse bias voltages near breakdown. The output current obtained from the proposed model is compared with available experimental data. This comparison reveals excellent model accuracy, in regard to the current levels and prediction of breakdown voltages for both photo and dark currents. Moreover, simulations demonstrate ability of the present model for gain-bandwidth analysis.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. J. C. Campbell, P. Yuan, Avalanche Photodiodes with an Impact Ionization-Engineered Multiplication Region U.S. Patent 7 045 833 (2006).
  2. S. Masudy-Panah, V. Ahmadi, "A closed form analytic model to study the characteristics of avalanche photodiodes," J. Mod. Opt. 56, 67-72 (2009).
  3. Y. L. Goh, D. J. Massey, A. R. J. Marshall, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, G. J. Rees, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, "Avalanche multiplication in InAlAs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 11-16 (2007).
  4. M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. P. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, "Impact-ionization and noise characteristics of thin III-V avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 2722-2731 (2001).
  5. S. A. Plimmer, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, R. Grey, K. F. Li, G. J. Rees, "The effect of an electric-field gradient on avalanche noise," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2963-2965 (1999).
  6. S. C. Liew Tat Mun, C. H. Tan, Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, J. P. R. David, "Modeling of avalanche multiplication and excess noise factor in In$_{0.52}$Al$_{0.48}$As avalanche photodiodes using a simple Monte Carlo model," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 13114-13119 (2008).
  7. S. Masudy-Panah, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, M. Jalali, "Temperature dependent characteristics of submicron GaAs avalanche photodiodes obtained by a nonlocal analysis," Opt. Commun. 282, 3630-3636 (2009).
  8. A. Bandyopadhyay, M. J. Deen, L. E. Tarof, W. Clark, "A simplified approach to time-domain modeling of avalanche photodiodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 691-699 (1998).
  9. B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, M. Hopkinson, G. Hill, "Avalanche multiplication characteristics of Al$_{0.8}$Ga$_{0.2}$As diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 48, 2198-2204 (2001).
  10. S. Masudy-Panah, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, "An analytic approach to study the effects of optical phonon scattering loss on the characteristics of avalanche photodiodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 533-540 (2010).
  11. W. Chen, S. Liu, "PIN avalanche photodiodes model for circuit simulation," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 32, 2105-2111 (1996).
  12. J. J. Jou, C. K. Liu, C. M. Hsiao, H. H. Lin, H. C. Lee, "Time-delay circuit model of high-speed p-i-n photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 525-527 (2002).
  13. Y. M. El-Batawy, M. J. Deen, "Modeling and optimization of resonant cavity enhanced-separated absorption graded charge multiplication-avalanche photodetector (RCE-SAGCM-APD)," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 790-801 (2003).
  14. Y. M. El-Batawy, M. J. Deen, N. R. Das, "Analysis, optimization and SPICE modeling of resonant cavity enhanced PIN photodetector," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2031-2043 (2003).
  15. Y. M. El-Batawy, M. J. Deen, "Analysis and circuit modeling of waveguide-separated absorption charge multiplication-avalanche photodetector (WG-SACM-APD)," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 335-344 (2005).
  16. A. Banoushi, M. R. Kardan, M. A. Naeini, "A circuit model for separate absorption, grading, charge, and multiplication avalanche photodiodes," Solid State Electron. 49, 871-877 (2005).
  17. K. Songfeng, C. Qian, J. Eryou, X. Wei, Q. Jian, "Single-photon time response of reach-through APD," Opt. Commun. 281, 2481-2484 (2008).
  18. Y. X. Mai, G. Wang, "Equivalent circuit modeling of separate absorption grading charge multiplication avalanche photodiode," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1197-1202 (2009).
  19. M. A. Neifeld, W. C. Chou, "Spice-based optoelectronic system simulation," Appl. Opt. 37, 6093-6104 (1998).
  20. N. R. Desai, K. V. Hoang, G. J. Sonek, "Applications of PSPICE simulation software to the study of optoelectronic integrated circuits and devices," IEEE Trans. Education 36, 357-362 (1993).
  21. E. Mortazy, V. Ahmadi, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, "An integrated equivalent circuit model for relative intensity noise and frequency noise spectrum of a multimode semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1366-1371 (2002).
  22. M. Jalali, M. Soroosh, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, A. R. Nabavi, "Transient and frequency analysis of PIN avalanche photodetector using circuit model," Proc. 7th IEEE Int. Conf. Laser and Fiber-Optical Networks Modeling (LFNM) (2005) pp. 294-296.
  23. S. R. Forrest, "Performance of In$_{\rm x}$Ga$_{l - {\rm x}}$,As$_{\rm y}$P$_{1 - {\rm y}}$, photodiodes with dark current limited by diffusion, generation recombination, and tunneling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 217-226 (1981).
  24. D. S. Kim, S. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, G. S. Oh, N. J. Kim, J. W. Lee, A. S. Kim, Y. K. Sin, "Fabrication of planar InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiode without guard rings," Proc. IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Soc. Annu. Meeting (LEOS 96) (1996) pp. 332-333.
  25. L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, "Avalanche noise characteristics in submicron InP diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 378-382 (2008).
  26. M. M. Hayat, O. H. Kwon, Y. Pan, P. Sotirelis, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, "Gain-bandwidth characteristics of thin avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49, 770-781 (2002).
  27. C. Groves, R. Ghin, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, "Temperature dependence of impact ionization in GaAs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 2027-2031 (2003).

2010 (1)

S. Masudy-Panah, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, "An analytic approach to study the effects of optical phonon scattering loss on the characteristics of avalanche photodiodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 533-540 (2010).

2009 (3)

S. Masudy-Panah, V. Ahmadi, "A closed form analytic model to study the characteristics of avalanche photodiodes," J. Mod. Opt. 56, 67-72 (2009).

S. Masudy-Panah, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, M. Jalali, "Temperature dependent characteristics of submicron GaAs avalanche photodiodes obtained by a nonlocal analysis," Opt. Commun. 282, 3630-3636 (2009).

Y. X. Mai, G. Wang, "Equivalent circuit modeling of separate absorption grading charge multiplication avalanche photodiode," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1197-1202 (2009).

2008 (3)

L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, "Avalanche noise characteristics in submicron InP diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 378-382 (2008).

S. C. Liew Tat Mun, C. H. Tan, Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, J. P. R. David, "Modeling of avalanche multiplication and excess noise factor in In$_{0.52}$Al$_{0.48}$As avalanche photodiodes using a simple Monte Carlo model," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 13114-13119 (2008).

K. Songfeng, C. Qian, J. Eryou, X. Wei, Q. Jian, "Single-photon time response of reach-through APD," Opt. Commun. 281, 2481-2484 (2008).

2007 (1)

Y. L. Goh, D. J. Massey, A. R. J. Marshall, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, G. J. Rees, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, "Avalanche multiplication in InAlAs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 11-16 (2007).

2005 (2)

Y. M. El-Batawy, M. J. Deen, "Analysis and circuit modeling of waveguide-separated absorption charge multiplication-avalanche photodetector (WG-SACM-APD)," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 335-344 (2005).

A. Banoushi, M. R. Kardan, M. A. Naeini, "A circuit model for separate absorption, grading, charge, and multiplication avalanche photodiodes," Solid State Electron. 49, 871-877 (2005).

2003 (3)

Y. M. El-Batawy, M. J. Deen, "Modeling and optimization of resonant cavity enhanced-separated absorption graded charge multiplication-avalanche photodetector (RCE-SAGCM-APD)," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 790-801 (2003).

Y. M. El-Batawy, M. J. Deen, N. R. Das, "Analysis, optimization and SPICE modeling of resonant cavity enhanced PIN photodetector," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2031-2043 (2003).

C. Groves, R. Ghin, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, "Temperature dependence of impact ionization in GaAs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 2027-2031 (2003).

2002 (3)

M. M. Hayat, O. H. Kwon, Y. Pan, P. Sotirelis, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, "Gain-bandwidth characteristics of thin avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49, 770-781 (2002).

E. Mortazy, V. Ahmadi, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, "An integrated equivalent circuit model for relative intensity noise and frequency noise spectrum of a multimode semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1366-1371 (2002).

J. J. Jou, C. K. Liu, C. M. Hsiao, H. H. Lin, H. C. Lee, "Time-delay circuit model of high-speed p-i-n photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 525-527 (2002).

2001 (2)

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. P. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, "Impact-ionization and noise characteristics of thin III-V avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 2722-2731 (2001).

B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, M. Hopkinson, G. Hill, "Avalanche multiplication characteristics of Al$_{0.8}$Ga$_{0.2}$As diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 48, 2198-2204 (2001).

1999 (1)

S. A. Plimmer, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, R. Grey, K. F. Li, G. J. Rees, "The effect of an electric-field gradient on avalanche noise," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2963-2965 (1999).

1998 (2)

A. Bandyopadhyay, M. J. Deen, L. E. Tarof, W. Clark, "A simplified approach to time-domain modeling of avalanche photodiodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 691-699 (1998).

M. A. Neifeld, W. C. Chou, "Spice-based optoelectronic system simulation," Appl. Opt. 37, 6093-6104 (1998).

1996 (1)

W. Chen, S. Liu, "PIN avalanche photodiodes model for circuit simulation," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 32, 2105-2111 (1996).

1993 (1)

N. R. Desai, K. V. Hoang, G. J. Sonek, "Applications of PSPICE simulation software to the study of optoelectronic integrated circuits and devices," IEEE Trans. Education 36, 357-362 (1993).

1981 (1)

S. R. Forrest, "Performance of In$_{\rm x}$Ga$_{l - {\rm x}}$,As$_{\rm y}$P$_{1 - {\rm y}}$, photodiodes with dark current limited by diffusion, generation recombination, and tunneling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 217-226 (1981).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. A. Plimmer, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, R. Grey, K. F. Li, G. J. Rees, "The effect of an electric-field gradient on avalanche noise," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2963-2965 (1999).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

A. Bandyopadhyay, M. J. Deen, L. E. Tarof, W. Clark, "A simplified approach to time-domain modeling of avalanche photodiodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 691-699 (1998).

S. Masudy-Panah, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, "An analytic approach to study the effects of optical phonon scattering loss on the characteristics of avalanche photodiodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46, 533-540 (2010).

E. Mortazy, V. Ahmadi, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, "An integrated equivalent circuit model for relative intensity noise and frequency noise spectrum of a multimode semiconductor laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1366-1371 (2002).

S. R. Forrest, "Performance of In$_{\rm x}$Ga$_{l - {\rm x}}$,As$_{\rm y}$P$_{1 - {\rm y}}$, photodiodes with dark current limited by diffusion, generation recombination, and tunneling," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 217-226 (1981).

L. J. J. Tan, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, J. P. R. David, "Avalanche noise characteristics in submicron InP diodes," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 378-382 (2008).

IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. (1)

W. Chen, S. Liu, "PIN avalanche photodiodes model for circuit simulation," IEEE J. Quantum. Electron. 32, 2105-2111 (1996).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. J. Jou, C. K. Liu, C. M. Hsiao, H. H. Lin, H. C. Lee, "Time-delay circuit model of high-speed p-i-n photodiodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 525-527 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Education (1)

N. R. Desai, K. V. Hoang, G. J. Sonek, "Applications of PSPICE simulation software to the study of optoelectronic integrated circuits and devices," IEEE Trans. Education 36, 357-362 (1993).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (6)

M. M. Hayat, O. H. Kwon, Y. Pan, P. Sotirelis, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, "Gain-bandwidth characteristics of thin avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49, 770-781 (2002).

C. Groves, R. Ghin, J. P. R. David, G. J. Rees, "Temperature dependence of impact ionization in GaAs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 2027-2031 (2003).

Y. M. El-Batawy, M. J. Deen, "Modeling and optimization of resonant cavity enhanced-separated absorption graded charge multiplication-avalanche photodetector (RCE-SAGCM-APD)," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 50, 790-801 (2003).

Y. M. El-Batawy, M. J. Deen, "Analysis and circuit modeling of waveguide-separated absorption charge multiplication-avalanche photodetector (WG-SACM-APD)," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 52, 335-344 (2005).

Y. L. Goh, D. J. Massey, A. R. J. Marshall, J. S. Ng, C. H. Tan, W. K. Ng, G. J. Rees, M. Hopkinson, J. P. R. David, S. K. Jones, "Avalanche multiplication in InAlAs," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 11-16 (2007).

M. A. Saleh, M. M. Hayat, P. P. Sotirelis, A. L. Holmes, J. C. Campbell, B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, "Impact-ionization and noise characteristics of thin III-V avalanche photodiodes," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 2722-2731 (2001).

IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices (1)

B. K. Ng, J. P. R. David, S. A. Plimmer, G. J. Rees, R. C. Tozer, M. Hopkinson, G. Hill, "Avalanche multiplication characteristics of Al$_{0.8}$Ga$_{0.2}$As diodes," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 48, 2198-2204 (2001).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. C. Liew Tat Mun, C. H. Tan, Y. L. Goh, A. R. J. Marshall, J. P. R. David, "Modeling of avalanche multiplication and excess noise factor in In$_{0.52}$Al$_{0.48}$As avalanche photodiodes using a simple Monte Carlo model," J. Appl. Phys. 104, 13114-13119 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

Y. X. Mai, G. Wang, "Equivalent circuit modeling of separate absorption grading charge multiplication avalanche photodiode," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1197-1202 (2009).

Y. M. El-Batawy, M. J. Deen, N. R. Das, "Analysis, optimization and SPICE modeling of resonant cavity enhanced PIN photodetector," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2031-2043 (2003).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

S. Masudy-Panah, V. Ahmadi, "A closed form analytic model to study the characteristics of avalanche photodiodes," J. Mod. Opt. 56, 67-72 (2009).

Opt. Commun. (2)

S. Masudy-Panah, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, M. Jalali, "Temperature dependent characteristics of submicron GaAs avalanche photodiodes obtained by a nonlocal analysis," Opt. Commun. 282, 3630-3636 (2009).

K. Songfeng, C. Qian, J. Eryou, X. Wei, Q. Jian, "Single-photon time response of reach-through APD," Opt. Commun. 281, 2481-2484 (2008).

Solid State Electron. (1)

A. Banoushi, M. R. Kardan, M. A. Naeini, "A circuit model for separate absorption, grading, charge, and multiplication avalanche photodiodes," Solid State Electron. 49, 871-877 (2005).

Other (3)

J. C. Campbell, P. Yuan, Avalanche Photodiodes with an Impact Ionization-Engineered Multiplication Region U.S. Patent 7 045 833 (2006).

D. S. Kim, S. Y. Lee, J. H. Lee, G. S. Oh, N. J. Kim, J. W. Lee, A. S. Kim, Y. K. Sin, "Fabrication of planar InP/InGaAs avalanche photodiode without guard rings," Proc. IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Soc. Annu. Meeting (LEOS 96) (1996) pp. 332-333.

M. Jalali, M. Soroosh, M. K. Moravvej-Farshi, A. R. Nabavi, "Transient and frequency analysis of PIN avalanche photodetector using circuit model," Proc. 7th IEEE Int. Conf. Laser and Fiber-Optical Networks Modeling (LFNM) (2005) pp. 294-296.

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