Abstract

We have fabricated vertical p-i-n silicon photodetectors that are monolithically integrated with compact silicon-oxynitride channel waveguides. By comparing the evanescent coupling from low index-contrast waveguides and compact, high index-contrast waveguides, the dependence of evanescent coupling behavior on the waveguide index and geometry designs was analyzed. The effects of fabrication variations in the coupling structure have been studied and it was found that an offsetting step in the waveguide can help compensate for the mode mismatch at the transition interface from the input bus waveguide to the waveguide on top of the photodetector. Finally, we present a design map, built by drawing the evanescent coupling rate contour lines in the waveguide design space, which well predicts the evanescent coupling trends.

© 2010 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. L. C. Kimerling, L. D. Negro, S. Saini, Y. Yi, D. Ahn, S. Akiyama, D. Cannon, J. Liu, J. G. Sandland, D. Sparacin, J. Michel, K. Wada, M. R. Watts, Silicon Photonics (Springer-Verlag, 2006) pp. 89-119.
  2. R. Kirchain, L. Kimerling, "A roadmap for nanophotonics," Nat Photon 1, 303-305 (2007).
  3. "Silicon photonics and photonic integrated circuits II," Proc. SPIE (2010).
  4. M. Erman, P. Jarry, R. Gamonal, J.-L. Gentner, P. Stephan, C. Guedon, "Monolithic integration of a GaInAs p-i-n photodiode and an optical waveguide: modeling and realization using chloride vapor phase epitaxy," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 399-412 (1988).
  5. R. Deri, W. Doldissen, R. Hawkins, R. Bhat, J. Soole, L. Schiavone, M. Seto, N. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, M. Koza, "Efficient vertical coupling of photodiodes to InGaAsP rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2749-2751 (1991).
  6. J. Vinchant, F. Mallecot, D. Decoster, J. Vilcot, "Photodetectors monolithically integrated with optical waveguides: Theoretical and experimental study of absorbing layer effects," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectron. 136, 72-75 (1989).
  7. Y.-S. Wu, J.-W. Shi, J.-Y. Wu, F.-H. Huang, Y.-J. Chan, Y.-L. Huang, R. Xuan, "High-performance evanescently edge coupled photodiodes with partially p-doped photoabsorption layer at 1.55 $\mu$m wavelength," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 878-880 (2005).
  8. D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, F. Kartner, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors," Opt. Exp. 15, 3916-3921 (2007).
  9. L. Vivien, M. Rouvicre, J. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, J. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. E. Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. L. Roux, D. Pascal, S. Laval, "High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator microwaveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 9843-9848 (2007).
  10. T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, M. Paniccia, "31 GHz Ge nip waveguide photodetectors on silicon-on-insulator substrate," Opt. Exp. 15, 13965-13971 (2007).
  11. J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, T. H. Loh, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, "Evanescent- coupled Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si-waveguide with SEG-Ge and comparative study of lateral and vertical p-i-n configurations," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 445-448 (2008).
  12. L. Chen, P. Dong, M. Lipson, "High performance germanium photodetectors integrated on submicron silicon waveguides by low temperature wafer bonding," Opt. Exp. 16, 11513-11518 (2008).
  13. V. Sorianello, M. Balbi, L. Colace, G. Assanto, L. Socci, L. Bolla, G. Mutinati, M. Romagnoli, "Guided-wave photodetectors in germanium on SOI optical chips," Physica E 41, 1090-1093 (2009).
  14. D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105-3 (2009).
  15. S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. Rice, Y. Vlasov, "CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM germanium waveguide photodetector," Opt. Exp. 18, 4986-4999 (2010).
  16. K.-W. Ang, J. W. Ng, A. E.-J. Lim, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, "Waveguide-integrated Ge/Si avalanche photodetector with 105 GHz gain-bandwidth product," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2010).
  17. Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, K. Ang, M. Yu, G. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, "WDM multi-channel silicon photonic receiver with 320 Gbps data transmission capability," Opt. Exp. 18, 5106-5113 (2010).
  18. J. Liu, D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, A. T. Pomerene, D. Carothers, C. Hill, M. Jaso, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, S. Patel, M. Rasras, D. M. Gill, A. E. White, "Waveguide integrated Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a silicon-on-insulator platform," Proc. Opt. Valley of China Int. Symp. Optoelectron. (2006) pp. 1-4.
  19. H.-C. Luan, D. Lim, K. Lee, K. Chen, J. Sandland, K. Wada, L. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999).
  20. Z. Huang, J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, J. C. Campbell, "Effectiveness of SiGe buffer layers in reducing dark currents of Ge-on-Si photodetectors," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 238-242 (2007).
  21. S. Tewksbury, L. Hornak, "Optical clock distribution in electronic systems," J. VLSI Signal Process. 16, 225-246 (1997).
  22. V. Stenger, F. Beyette, "Design and analysis of an optical waveguide tap for silicon CMOS circuits," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 277-284 (2002).
  23. S. Wunderlich, J. Schmidt, J. Muller, "Integration of SiON waveguides and photodiodes on silicon substrates," Appl. Opt. 31, 4186-4189 (1992).
  24. U. Hilleringmann, K. Goser, "Optoelectronic system integration on silicon: Waveguides, photodetectors, and VLSI CMOS circuits on one chip," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 42, 841-846 (1995).
  25. K. Kapser, P. Deimel, "Lateral coupling between a silicon-oxinitride waveguide and an amorphous Si photodiode," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3614-3616 (1992).
  26. G. Yuan, R. Pownall, P. Nikkel, C. Thangaraj, T. Chen, K. Lear, "Characterization of CMOS compatible waveguide-coupled leaky-mode photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1657-1659 (2006).
  27. K. Schlereth, M. Tacke, "The complex propagation constant of multilayer waveguides: An algorithm for a personal computer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 627-630 (1990).
  28. D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, "Coupling efficiency of monolithic, waveguide-integrated Si photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009) Art. ID 081108.
  29. J. Michel, J. Liu, D. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Hong, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. Kimerling, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. Rasras, D. Gill, S. Patel, K. Tu, Y. Chen, A. White, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, "Advances in fully CMOS integrated photonic devices," Proc. SPIE 6477, 64 770P-11 (2007).
  30. M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J. Hartmann, S. Laval, "Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 44, (2005) Art. ID 075402.
  31. A. Liu, H. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, M. Paniccia, "Optical amplification and lasing by stimulated Raman scattering in silicon waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1440-1455 (2006).
  32. B. Smith, D. Feng, H. Lei, D. Zheng, J. Fong, P. Zhou, M. Asghari, "Progress in manufactured silicon photonics," Proc. SPIE (2007).

2010

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. Rice, Y. Vlasov, "CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM germanium waveguide photodetector," Opt. Exp. 18, 4986-4999 (2010).

Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, K. Ang, M. Yu, G. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, "WDM multi-channel silicon photonic receiver with 320 Gbps data transmission capability," Opt. Exp. 18, 5106-5113 (2010).

2009

V. Sorianello, M. Balbi, L. Colace, G. Assanto, L. Socci, L. Bolla, G. Mutinati, M. Romagnoli, "Guided-wave photodetectors in germanium on SOI optical chips," Physica E 41, 1090-1093 (2009).

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105-3 (2009).

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, "Coupling efficiency of monolithic, waveguide-integrated Si photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009) Art. ID 081108.

2008

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, T. H. Loh, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, "Evanescent- coupled Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si-waveguide with SEG-Ge and comparative study of lateral and vertical p-i-n configurations," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 445-448 (2008).

L. Chen, P. Dong, M. Lipson, "High performance germanium photodetectors integrated on submicron silicon waveguides by low temperature wafer bonding," Opt. Exp. 16, 11513-11518 (2008).

2007

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, F. Kartner, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors," Opt. Exp. 15, 3916-3921 (2007).

L. Vivien, M. Rouvicre, J. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, J. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. E. Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. L. Roux, D. Pascal, S. Laval, "High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator microwaveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 9843-9848 (2007).

T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, M. Paniccia, "31 GHz Ge nip waveguide photodetectors on silicon-on-insulator substrate," Opt. Exp. 15, 13965-13971 (2007).

R. Kirchain, L. Kimerling, "A roadmap for nanophotonics," Nat Photon 1, 303-305 (2007).

Z. Huang, J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, J. C. Campbell, "Effectiveness of SiGe buffer layers in reducing dark currents of Ge-on-Si photodetectors," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 238-242 (2007).

J. Michel, J. Liu, D. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Hong, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. Kimerling, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. Rasras, D. Gill, S. Patel, K. Tu, Y. Chen, A. White, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, "Advances in fully CMOS integrated photonic devices," Proc. SPIE 6477, 64 770P-11 (2007).

2006

G. Yuan, R. Pownall, P. Nikkel, C. Thangaraj, T. Chen, K. Lear, "Characterization of CMOS compatible waveguide-coupled leaky-mode photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1657-1659 (2006).

A. Liu, H. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, M. Paniccia, "Optical amplification and lasing by stimulated Raman scattering in silicon waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1440-1455 (2006).

2005

Y.-S. Wu, J.-W. Shi, J.-Y. Wu, F.-H. Huang, Y.-J. Chan, Y.-L. Huang, R. Xuan, "High-performance evanescently edge coupled photodiodes with partially p-doped photoabsorption layer at 1.55 $\mu$m wavelength," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 878-880 (2005).

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J. Hartmann, S. Laval, "Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 44, (2005) Art. ID 075402.

2002

V. Stenger, F. Beyette, "Design and analysis of an optical waveguide tap for silicon CMOS circuits," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 277-284 (2002).

1999

H.-C. Luan, D. Lim, K. Lee, K. Chen, J. Sandland, K. Wada, L. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999).

1997

S. Tewksbury, L. Hornak, "Optical clock distribution in electronic systems," J. VLSI Signal Process. 16, 225-246 (1997).

1995

U. Hilleringmann, K. Goser, "Optoelectronic system integration on silicon: Waveguides, photodetectors, and VLSI CMOS circuits on one chip," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 42, 841-846 (1995).

1992

K. Kapser, P. Deimel, "Lateral coupling between a silicon-oxinitride waveguide and an amorphous Si photodiode," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3614-3616 (1992).

S. Wunderlich, J. Schmidt, J. Muller, "Integration of SiON waveguides and photodiodes on silicon substrates," Appl. Opt. 31, 4186-4189 (1992).

1991

R. Deri, W. Doldissen, R. Hawkins, R. Bhat, J. Soole, L. Schiavone, M. Seto, N. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, M. Koza, "Efficient vertical coupling of photodiodes to InGaAsP rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2749-2751 (1991).

1990

K. Schlereth, M. Tacke, "The complex propagation constant of multilayer waveguides: An algorithm for a personal computer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 627-630 (1990).

1989

J. Vinchant, F. Mallecot, D. Decoster, J. Vilcot, "Photodetectors monolithically integrated with optical waveguides: Theoretical and experimental study of absorbing layer effects," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectron. 136, 72-75 (1989).

1988

M. Erman, P. Jarry, R. Gamonal, J.-L. Gentner, P. Stephan, C. Guedon, "Monolithic integration of a GaInAs p-i-n photodiode and an optical waveguide: modeling and realization using chloride vapor phase epitaxy," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 399-412 (1988).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H.-C. Luan, D. Lim, K. Lee, K. Chen, J. Sandland, K. Wada, L. Kimerling, "High-quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2909-2911 (1999).

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, "Coupling efficiency of monolithic, waveguide-integrated Si photodetectors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, (2009) Art. ID 081108.

R. Deri, W. Doldissen, R. Hawkins, R. Bhat, J. Soole, L. Schiavone, M. Seto, N. Andreadakis, Y. Silberberg, M. Koza, "Efficient vertical coupling of photodiodes to InGaAsP rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2749-2751 (1991).

D. Feng, S. Liao, P. Dong, N.-N. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, C.-C. Kung, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, J. Cunningham, A. Krishnamoorthy, M. Asghari, "High-speed Ge photodetector monolithically integrated with large cross-section silicon-on-insulator waveguide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 261105-3 (2009).

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

J. Wang, W. Y. Loh, K. T. Chua, H. Zang, Y. Z. Xiong, T. H. Loh, M. B. Yu, S. J. Lee, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, "Evanescent- coupled Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si-waveguide with SEG-Ge and comparative study of lateral and vertical p-i-n configurations," IEEE Electron Device Lett. 29, 445-448 (2008).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

Z. Huang, J. Oh, S. K. Banerjee, J. C. Campbell, "Effectiveness of SiGe buffer layers in reducing dark currents of Ge-on-Si photodetectors," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 238-242 (2007).

K. Schlereth, M. Tacke, "The complex propagation constant of multilayer waveguides: An algorithm for a personal computer," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 627-630 (1990).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

G. Yuan, R. Pownall, P. Nikkel, C. Thangaraj, T. Chen, K. Lear, "Characterization of CMOS compatible waveguide-coupled leaky-mode photodetectors," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1657-1659 (2006).

Y.-S. Wu, J.-W. Shi, J.-Y. Wu, F.-H. Huang, Y.-J. Chan, Y.-L. Huang, R. Xuan, "High-performance evanescently edge coupled photodiodes with partially p-doped photoabsorption layer at 1.55 $\mu$m wavelength," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 878-880 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

U. Hilleringmann, K. Goser, "Optoelectronic system integration on silicon: Waveguides, photodetectors, and VLSI CMOS circuits on one chip," IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 42, 841-846 (1995).

J. Appl. Phys.

K. Kapser, P. Deimel, "Lateral coupling between a silicon-oxinitride waveguide and an amorphous Si photodiode," J. Appl. Phys. 71, 3614-3616 (1992).

J. Lightw. Technol.

V. Stenger, F. Beyette, "Design and analysis of an optical waveguide tap for silicon CMOS circuits," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 277-284 (2002).

A. Liu, H. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, M. Paniccia, "Optical amplification and lasing by stimulated Raman scattering in silicon waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1440-1455 (2006).

M. Erman, P. Jarry, R. Gamonal, J.-L. Gentner, P. Stephan, C. Guedon, "Monolithic integration of a GaInAs p-i-n photodiode and an optical waveguide: modeling and realization using chloride vapor phase epitaxy," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 399-412 (1988).

J. VLSI Signal Process.

S. Tewksbury, L. Hornak, "Optical clock distribution in electronic systems," J. VLSI Signal Process. 16, 225-246 (1997).

Nat Photon

R. Kirchain, L. Kimerling, "A roadmap for nanophotonics," Nat Photon 1, 303-305 (2007).

Opt. Eng.

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J. Hartmann, S. Laval, "Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 44, (2005) Art. ID 075402.

Opt. Exp.

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, F. Kartner, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors," Opt. Exp. 15, 3916-3921 (2007).

L. Vivien, M. Rouvicre, J. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, J. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. E. Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. L. Roux, D. Pascal, S. Laval, "High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator microwaveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 9843-9848 (2007).

T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, M. Paniccia, "31 GHz Ge nip waveguide photodetectors on silicon-on-insulator substrate," Opt. Exp. 15, 13965-13971 (2007).

L. Chen, P. Dong, M. Lipson, "High performance germanium photodetectors integrated on submicron silicon waveguides by low temperature wafer bonding," Opt. Exp. 16, 11513-11518 (2008).

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. Rice, Y. Vlasov, "CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM germanium waveguide photodetector," Opt. Exp. 18, 4986-4999 (2010).

Q. Fang, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, K. Ang, M. Yu, G. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, "WDM multi-channel silicon photonic receiver with 320 Gbps data transmission capability," Opt. Exp. 18, 5106-5113 (2010).

Physica E

V. Sorianello, M. Balbi, L. Colace, G. Assanto, L. Socci, L. Bolla, G. Mutinati, M. Romagnoli, "Guided-wave photodetectors in germanium on SOI optical chips," Physica E 41, 1090-1093 (2009).

Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectron.

J. Vinchant, F. Mallecot, D. Decoster, J. Vilcot, "Photodetectors monolithically integrated with optical waveguides: Theoretical and experimental study of absorbing layer effects," Proc. Inst. Electr. Eng.—Optoelectron. 136, 72-75 (1989).

Proc. SPIE

J. Michel, J. Liu, D. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Hong, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. Kimerling, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. Rasras, D. Gill, S. Patel, K. Tu, Y. Chen, A. White, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, M. Grove, "Advances in fully CMOS integrated photonic devices," Proc. SPIE 6477, 64 770P-11 (2007).

Other

B. Smith, D. Feng, H. Lei, D. Zheng, J. Fong, P. Zhou, M. Asghari, "Progress in manufactured silicon photonics," Proc. SPIE (2007).

J. Liu, D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, A. T. Pomerene, D. Carothers, C. Hill, M. Jaso, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, S. Patel, M. Rasras, D. M. Gill, A. E. White, "Waveguide integrated Ge p-i-n photodetectors on a silicon-on-insulator platform," Proc. Opt. Valley of China Int. Symp. Optoelectron. (2006) pp. 1-4.

K.-W. Ang, J. W. Ng, A. E.-J. Lim, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, "Waveguide-integrated Ge/Si avalanche photodetector with 105 GHz gain-bandwidth product," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2010).

"Silicon photonics and photonic integrated circuits II," Proc. SPIE (2010).

L. C. Kimerling, L. D. Negro, S. Saini, Y. Yi, D. Ahn, S. Akiyama, D. Cannon, J. Liu, J. G. Sandland, D. Sparacin, J. Michel, K. Wada, M. R. Watts, Silicon Photonics (Springer-Verlag, 2006) pp. 89-119.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.