L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, R. W. Kelsall, "Design of Ge–SiGe quantum-confined Stark
effect modulators for CMOS compatible photonics," Proc. SPIE 7606, (2010).

D. Miller, "Device requirements for optical interconnects to
silicon chips," Proc. IEEE 97, 1166-1185 (2009).

V. V. Afanas'ev, A. Stesmans, L. Souriau, R. Loo, M. Meuris, "Valence band energy in confined Si$_{1-x}$Ge$_x$$(0.28 < x < 0.93)$ layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 172106 (2009).

C. Lange, N. S. Köster, S. Chatterjee, H. Sigg, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Känel, M. Schäfer, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, "Ultrafast nonlinear optical response of photoexcited
Ge–SiGe quantum wells: Evidence for a femtosecond
transient population inversion," Phys. Rev. B 79, 201306 (2009).

M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, "Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge–SiGe
quantum wells: A tight-binding description," Phys. Rev. B 77, 165315 (2008).

D. J. Paul, "8-band {\bf k}$\cdot{\bf p}$ modeling of the quantum confined stark effect in Ge
quantum wells on Si substrates," Phys. Rev. B 77, 155323 (2008).

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, D. A. Miller, "Material properties of Si-Ge–Ge quantum
wells," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 1082-1089 (2008).

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, "C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption
modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing," Electron. Lett. 44, (2008).

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "40 gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed
applications," Electron. Lett. 43, (2007).

K. Driscoll, R. Paiella, "Silicon-based injection lasers using electronic
intersubband transitions in the $L$ valleys," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191110 (2006).

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, J. S. Harris, "Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge–SiGe
quantum wells on Si for optical modulators," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1503-1513 (2006).

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H.-C. Luan, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption
in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013501 (2005).

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, S. Laval, "Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for
intrachip optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 44, 075402 (2005).

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium
quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).

R. Lewén, S. Irmscher, U. Westergren, L. Thylén, U. Eriksson, "Segmented transmission-line electroabsorption
modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 172-179 (2004).

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, "Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile
stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si(100)," Phys. Rev. B 70, 155309 (2004).

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J. M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, S. Laval, "Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition
of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3–1.55-$\mu$m photodetection," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5905-5913 (2004).

D. J. Paul, "Si/SiGe heterostructures: From material and physics to
devices and circuits," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, R75R108 (2004).

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced bandgap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si
substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044-2046 (2003).

E. Peiner, A. Guttzeit, H.-H. Wehmann, "The effect of threading dislocations on optical
absorption and electron scattering in strongly mismatched
heteroepitaxial IIIV compound semiconductors on silicon," J. Phys.: Conden. Matt. 14, 13195 (2002).

F. Tekia, M. Ferhat, A. Zaoui, "Band-gap bowing in ${\rm Si}_x{\rm Ge}_{1-x}$ alloy," Phys. B: Cond. Matt. 293, 183-186 (2000).

S.-H. Wei, A. Zunger, "Predicted bandgap pressure coefficients of all diamond
and zinc-blende semiconductors: Chemical trends," Phys. Rev. B 60, 5404-5411 (1999).

T. H. Wood, "Multiple quantum well (MQW) waveguide modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 743-757 (1998).

D. J. Dunstan, "Strain and strain relaxation in semiconductors," J. Materi. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 8, 337-375 (1997).

M. E. Brenchley, M. Hopkinson, A. Kelly, P. Kidd, D. J. Dunstan, "Coherency strain as an athermal strengthening
mechanism," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3912-3914 (1997).

A. Ramdane, F. Devaux, N. Souli, D. Delprat, A. Ougazzaden, "Monolithic integration of multiple-quantum-well lasers
and modulators for high-speed transmission," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 326-335 (1996).

M. V. Fischetti, S. E. Laux, "Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier
mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 2234-2252 (1996).

E. Li, B. Weiss, K.-S. Chan, "Eigenstates and absorption spectra of interdiffused
AlGaAs-GaAs multiple-quantum-well structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1399-1416 (1996).

T. Ido, S. Tanaka, M. Suzuki, H. Inoue, "MQW electroabsorption optical modulator for 40 Gbit/s
modulation," Electron. Lett. 31, 2124-2125 (1995).

M. Kahan, M. Chi, L. Friedman, "Infrared transitions in strained-layer Ge$_x$Si$_{1-x}$/Si," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 8012-8021 (1994).

X. Q. Zhou, H. M. van Driel, G. Mak, "Femtosecond kinetics of photoexcited carriers in
germanium," Phys. Rev. B 50, 5226-5230 (1994).

A. McLean, C. Mitchell, D. Swanston, "Implementation of an efficient analytical
approximation to the voigt function for photoemission lineshape
analysis," J. Electron. Spectr. Related Phenom. 69, 125-132 (1994).

N. Susa, "Improvement in electroabsorption and the effects of
parameter variations in the three-step asymmetric coupled quantum
well," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 932-942 (1993).

M. M. Rieger, P. Vogl, "Electronic-band parameters in strained $si1-xgex$ alloys on $si1-ygey$ substrates," Phys. Rev. B 48, 14 276-14 287 (1993).

M. E. Chin, W. S. C. Chang, "Theoretical design optimization of
multiple-quantum-well electroabsorption waveguide modulators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2476-2488 (1993).

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, "Excitonic effects in coupled quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 44, 6231-6242 (1991).

M. Fischetti, "Monte Carlo simulation of transport in technologically
significant semiconductors of the diamond and zinc-blende
structures. I. Homogeneous transport," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 38, 634-649 (1991).

C. G. Van de Walle, "Band lineups and deformation potentials in the
model-solid theory," Phys. Rev. B 39, 1871-1883 (1989).

J. Weber, M. I. Alonso, "Near-band-gap photoluminescence of Si-Ge alloys," Phys. Rev. B 40, 5683-5693 (1989).

D. Y. K. Ko, J. C. Inkson, "Matrix method for tunneling in heterostructures:
Resonant tunneling in multilayer systems," Phys. Rev. B 38, 9945-9951 (1988).

D. F. Nelson, R. C. Miller, D. A. Kleinman, "Band nonparabolicity effects in semiconductor quantum
wells," Phys. Rev. B 35, 7770-7773 (1987).

C. G. Van de Walle, R. M. Martin, "Theoretical calculations of heterojunction
discontinuities in the Si/Ge system," Phys. Rev. B 34, 5621-5634 (1986).

M. A. Ordal, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, L. L. Long, M. R. Querry, "Optical properties of fourteen metals in the infrared
and far infrared: Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Mo, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, V,
and W.," Appl. Opt. 24, 4493 (1985).

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, "Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well
structures: The quantum-confined Stark effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173-2176 (1984).

D. Chemla, D. Miller, P. Smith, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, "Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and
refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265-275 (1984).

L. D. Laude, F. H. Pollak, M. Cardona, "Effects of uniaxial stress on the indirect exciton
spectrum of silicon," Phys. Rev. B 3, 2623-2636 (1971).

A. Frova, P. Handler, F. A. Germano, D. E. Aspnes, "Electro-absorption effects at the band edges of
silicon and germanium," Phys. Rev. 145, 575-583 (1966).

M. Cardona, F. H. Pollak, "Energy-band structure of germanium and silicon: The ${\bf k}\cdot{\bf p}$ method," Phys. Rev. 142, 530-543 (1966).

R. Braunstein, A. R. Moore, F. Herman, "Intrinsic optical absorption in germanium-silicon
alloys," Phys. Rev. 109, 695-710 (1958).

B. Lax, J. G. Mavroides, "Statistics and galvanomagnetic effects in germanium
and silicon with warped energy surfaces," Phys. Rev. 100, 1650-1657 (1955).

M. A. Ordal, R. J. Bell, R. W. Alexander, L. L. Long, M. R. Querry, "Optical properties of fourteen metals in the infrared
and far infrared: Al, Co, Cu, Au, Fe, Pb, Mo, Ni, Pd, Pt, Ag, Ti, V,
and W.," Appl. Opt. 24, 4493 (1985).

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H.-C. Luan, L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced bandgap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si
substrate," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2044-2046 (2003).

V. V. Afanas'ev, A. Stesmans, L. Souriau, R. Loo, M. Meuris, "Valence band energy in confined Si$_{1-x}$Ge$_x$$(0.28 < x < 0.93)$ layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 172106 (2009).

K. Driscoll, R. Paiella, "Silicon-based injection lasers using electronic
intersubband transitions in the $L$ valleys," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 191110 (2006).

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "40 gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed
applications," Electron. Lett. 43, (2007).

T. Ido, S. Tanaka, M. Suzuki, H. Inoue, "MQW electroabsorption optical modulator for 40 Gbit/s
modulation," Electron. Lett. 31, 2124-2125 (1995).

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, E. H. Edwards, R. K. Schaevitz, Y.-H. Kuo, N. C. Helman, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, D. A. B. Miller, "C-band side-entry Ge quantum-well electroabsorption
modulator on SOI operating at 1 V swing," Electron. Lett. 44, (2008).

M. E. Chin, W. S. C. Chang, "Theoretical design optimization of
multiple-quantum-well electroabsorption waveguide modulators," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2476-2488 (1993).

E. Li, B. Weiss, K.-S. Chan, "Eigenstates and absorption spectra of interdiffused
AlGaAs-GaAs multiple-quantum-well structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1399-1416 (1996).

D. Chemla, D. Miller, P. Smith, A. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, "Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and
refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265-275 (1984).

A. Ramdane, F. Devaux, N. Souli, D. Delprat, A. Ougazzaden, "Monolithic integration of multiple-quantum-well lasers
and modulators for high-speed transmission," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 326-335 (1996).

R. K. Schaevitz, J. E. Roth, S. Ren, O. Fidaner, D. A. Miller, "Material properties of Si-Ge–Ge quantum
wells," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 1082-1089 (2008).

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, J. S. Harris, "Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge–SiGe
quantum wells on Si for optical modulators," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1503-1513 (2006).

M. Fischetti, "Monte Carlo simulation of transport in technologically
significant semiconductors of the diamond and zinc-blende
structures. I. Homogeneous transport," IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices 38, 634-649 (1991).

M. Kahan, M. Chi, L. Friedman, "Infrared transitions in strained-layer Ge$_x$Si$_{1-x}$/Si," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 8012-8021 (1994).

M. V. Fischetti, S. E. Laux, "Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier
mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys," J. Appl. Phys. 80, 2234-2252 (1996).

N. Susa, "Improvement in electroabsorption and the effects of
parameter variations in the three-step asymmetric coupled quantum
well," J. Appl. Phys. 73, 932-942 (1993).

J. M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J. M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, S. Laval, "Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition
of Ge thick layers on Si(001) for 1.3–1.55-$\mu$m photodetection," J. Appl. Phys. 95, 5905-5913 (2004).

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H.-C. Luan, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, "Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption
in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 013501 (2005).

A. McLean, C. Mitchell, D. Swanston, "Implementation of an efficient analytical
approximation to the voigt function for photoemission lineshape
analysis," J. Electron. Spectr. Related Phenom. 69, 125-132 (1994).

T. H. Wood, "Multiple quantum well (MQW) waveguide modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 743-757 (1998).

R. Lewén, S. Irmscher, U. Westergren, L. Thylén, U. Eriksson, "Segmented transmission-line electroabsorption
modulators," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 172-179 (2004).

D. J. Dunstan, "Strain and strain relaxation in semiconductors," J. Materi. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 8, 337-375 (1997).

E. Peiner, A. Guttzeit, H.-H. Wehmann, "The effect of threading dislocations on optical
absorption and electron scattering in strongly mismatched
heteroepitaxial IIIV compound semiconductors on silicon," J. Phys.: Conden. Matt. 14, 13195 (2002).

Y.-H. Kuo, Y. K. Lee, Y. Ge, S. Ren, J. E. Roth, T. I. Kamins, D. A. B. Miller, J. S. Harris, "Strong quantum-confined Stark effect in germanium
quantum-well structures on silicon," Nature 437, 1334-1336 (2005).

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, S. Laval, "Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for
intrachip optical interconnects," Opt. Eng. 44, 075402 (2005).

F. Tekia, M. Ferhat, A. Zaoui, "Band-gap bowing in ${\rm Si}_x{\rm Ge}_{1-x}$ alloy," Phys. B: Cond. Matt. 293, 183-186 (2000).

M. Cardona, F. H. Pollak, "Energy-band structure of germanium and silicon: The ${\bf k}\cdot{\bf p}$ method," Phys. Rev. 142, 530-543 (1966).

A. Frova, P. Handler, F. A. Germano, D. E. Aspnes, "Electro-absorption effects at the band edges of
silicon and germanium," Phys. Rev. 145, 575-583 (1966).

B. Lax, J. G. Mavroides, "Statistics and galvanomagnetic effects in germanium
and silicon with warped energy surfaces," Phys. Rev. 100, 1650-1657 (1955).

R. Braunstein, A. R. Moore, F. Herman, "Intrinsic optical absorption in germanium-silicon
alloys," Phys. Rev. 109, 695-710 (1958).

D. Y. K. Ko, J. C. Inkson, "Matrix method for tunneling in heterostructures:
Resonant tunneling in multilayer systems," Phys. Rev. B 38, 9945-9951 (1988).

A. M. Fox, D. A. B. Miller, G. Livescu, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, "Excitonic effects in coupled quantum wells," Phys. Rev. B 44, 6231-6242 (1991).

C. Lange, N. S. Köster, S. Chatterjee, H. Sigg, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Känel, M. Schäfer, M. Kira, S. W. Koch, "Ultrafast nonlinear optical response of photoexcited
Ge–SiGe quantum wells: Evidence for a femtosecond
transient population inversion," Phys. Rev. B 79, 201306 (2009).

J. Weber, M. I. Alonso, "Near-band-gap photoluminescence of Si-Ge alloys," Phys. Rev. B 40, 5683-5693 (1989).

X. Q. Zhou, H. M. van Driel, G. Mak, "Femtosecond kinetics of photoexcited carriers in
germanium," Phys. Rev. B 50, 5226-5230 (1994).

S.-H. Wei, A. Zunger, "Predicted bandgap pressure coefficients of all diamond
and zinc-blende semiconductors: Chemical trends," Phys. Rev. B 60, 5404-5411 (1999).

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, "Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile
stressed Ge epitaxial films on Si(100)," Phys. Rev. B 70, 155309 (2004).

L. D. Laude, F. H. Pollak, M. Cardona, "Effects of uniaxial stress on the indirect exciton
spectrum of silicon," Phys. Rev. B 3, 2623-2636 (1971).

M. M. Rieger, P. Vogl, "Electronic-band parameters in strained $si1-xgex$ alloys on $si1-ygey$ substrates," Phys. Rev. B 48, 14 276-14 287 (1993).

D. F. Nelson, R. C. Miller, D. A. Kleinman, "Band nonparabolicity effects in semiconductor quantum
wells," Phys. Rev. B 35, 7770-7773 (1987).

C. G. Van de Walle, R. M. Martin, "Theoretical calculations of heterojunction
discontinuities in the Si/Ge system," Phys. Rev. B 34, 5621-5634 (1986).

C. G. Van de Walle, "Band lineups and deformation potentials in the
model-solid theory," Phys. Rev. B 39, 1871-1883 (1989).

M. Virgilio, G. Grosso, "Quantum-confined stark effect in Ge–SiGe
quantum wells: A tight-binding description," Phys. Rev. B 77, 165315 (2008).

D. J. Paul, "8-band {\bf k}$\cdot{\bf p}$ modeling of the quantum confined stark effect in Ge
quantum wells on Si substrates," Phys. Rev. B 77, 155323 (2008).

D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, T. C. Damen, A. C. Gossard, W. Wiegmann, T. H. Wood, C. A. Burrus, "Band-edge electroabsorption in quantum well
structures: The quantum-confined Stark effect," Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2173-2176 (1984).

M. E. Brenchley, M. Hopkinson, A. Kelly, P. Kidd, D. J. Dunstan, "Coherency strain as an athermal strengthening
mechanism," Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3912-3914 (1997).

D. Miller, "Device requirements for optical interconnects to
silicon chips," Proc. IEEE 97, 1166-1185 (2009).

L. Lever, Z. Ikonić, A. Valavanis, R. W. Kelsall, "Design of Ge–SiGe quantum-confined Stark
effect modulators for CMOS compatible photonics," Proc. SPIE 7606, (2010).

D. J. Paul, "Si/SiGe heterostructures: From material and physics to
devices and circuits," Semicond. Sci. Technol. 19, R75R108 (2004).

W. L. Bloss, "Linewidths of quantum well eigenstates with finite
barriers," Superlattices Microstruct. 7, 63-67 (1990).

Comsol Multiphysics, www.comsol.com.

J. S. H. Yu-Hsuan Kuo, Thin Buffer Layer for SiGe Growth on Mis-Matched
Substrates US Patent 077 734 (2007).

C. Lam, Passive Optical Networks Principles and Practice (Elsevier, 2007).

P. Harrison, Quantum Wells, Wires and Dots: Theoretical and
Computational Physics of Semiconductor Nanostructures (Wiley, 2009).

S. L. Chuang, Physics of Optoelectronic Devices (Wiley, 1995).

H. Haug, S. W. Koch, Quantum Theory of the Optical and Electronic Properties of
Semiconductors (World Scientific, 1990).

B. K. Ridley, Quantum Processes in Semiconductors (Oxford Univ. Press, 1999).

A. Valavanis, $n$-Type Silicon-Germanium Based Terahertz Quantum Cascade
Lasers Ph.D. dissertation University of Leeds (2009).