Abstract

We report the first experimental demonstration of simultaneous multi-impairment monitoring of phase-modulated 40 Gbit/s nonreturn to zero differential phase-shift keying (NRZ-DPSK) and 640 Gbit/s return-to-zero (RZ)-DPSK optical signals. Our approach exploits the femtosecond response time of the Kerr nonlinearity in a centimeter-scale, highly nonlinear, dispersion engineered chalcogenide planar waveguide to perform THz bandwidth RF spectrum analysis. The features observed on the radio-frequency (RF) spectrum are directly utilized to perform simultaneous group velocity dispersion and in-band optical signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) monitoring. We also numerically investigate the measurement accuracy of this monitoring technique, highlighting the advantages, and suitability of the chalcogenide rib waveguide.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).
  2. C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, D.-D. Groß, L. Molle, M. Seimetz, R. Freund, C. Schubert, "Generation and coherent time-division demultiplexing of up to 5.1 Tb/s single-channel 8-PSK and 16-QAM signals," presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conference San DiegoCA (2009) Paper PDPC6, (Postdeadline Paper).
  3. H. C. H. Mulvad, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, H. Hu, A. T. Clausen, J. B. Jensen, C. Peucheret, P. Jeppesen, "Demonstration of 5.1 Tbit/s data capacity on a single-wavelength channel," Opt. Exp. 18, 1438-1443 (2010).
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  5. A. Sano, H. Masuda, T. Kobayashi, M. Fujiwara, K. Horikoshi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Matsui, M. Mizoguchi, H. Yamazaki, Y. Sakamaki, H. Ishii, "69.1-Tb/s (432$\,\times\,$171-Gb/s) C- and extended L-band transmission over 240 Km using PDM-16-QAM modulation and digital coherent detection," presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conference San DiegoCA (2010) Paper PDPB7, (Postdeadline Paper).
  6. A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, "10$\,\times\,$224-Gb/s WDM transmission of 28-Gbaud PDM 16-QAM on a 50-GHz grid over 1, 200 Km of fiber," presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conference San DiegoCA (2010) Paper PDPB8, (Postdeadline Paper).
  7. X. Zhou, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, R. Lingle, "64-Tb/s (640$\,\times\,$107-Gb/s) PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-transmission digital equalization," presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conference San DiegoCA (2010) Paper PDPB9, (Postdeadline Paper).
  8. J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. Davidson, D. Foursa, A. Lucero, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, N. Bergano, "Transmission of 96$\,\times\,$100 G pre-filtered PDM-RZ-QPSK channels with 300% spectral efficiency over 10 608 km and 400% spectral efficiency over 4, 368 km," presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Confeence San DiegoCA (2010) Paper PDPB10, (Postdeadline Paper).
  9. D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, A. E. Willner, "Optical performance monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 294-304 (2004).
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  19. J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, X. Wu, O. F. Yilmaz, B. Zhang, A. E. Willner, "All-optical chromatic dispersion monitoring for phase-modulated signals utilizing cross-phase modulation in a highly nonlinear fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1642-1644 (2008).
  20. T. D. Vo, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, B. Corcoran, B. J. Eggleton, "Multi-impairment monitoring at 320 Gb/s based on cross phase modulation radio-frequency spectrum analyzer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 428-430 (2010).
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  22. T. D. Vo, H. Hu, M. Galili, E. Palushani, J. Xu, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, "Photonic chip based transmitter optimization and receiver demultiplexing of a 1.28 Tbit/s OTDM signal," Opt. Exp. 18, 17252-17261 (2010).
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  24. C. Dorrer, D. N. Maywar, "RF spectrum analysis of optical signals using nonlinear optics," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 266-274 (2004).
  25. A. F. Elrefaie, R. E. Wagner, D. A. Atlas, D. G. Daut, "Chromatic dispersion limitations in coherent lightwave transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 704-709 (1988).
  26. M. D. Pelusi, T. D. Vo, F. Luan, S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, "Terahertz bandwidth RF spectrum analysis of femtosecond pulses using a chalcogenide chip," Opt. Exp. 17, 9314-9322 (2009).
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  28. D.-Y. C. S. Madden, D. A. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, "Submicrometer-thick low-loss As$_{2}$S$_{3}$ planar waveguides for nonlinear optical devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 495-497 (2010).
  29. M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, "Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth," Nature Photon. 3, 139-143 (2009).
  30. M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, E. Magi, M. R. Lamont, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, "High bit rate all-optical signal processing in a fiber photonic wire," Opt. Exp. 16, 11506-11512 (2008).
  31. M. A. F. Roelens, S. Frisken, J. A. Bolger, D. Abakoumov, G. Baxter, S. Poole, B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersion trimming in a reconfigurable wavelength selective switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 73-78 (2008).
  32. M. D. Pelusi, T. D. Vo, B. J. Eggleton, "Accuracy of waveform spectrum analysis for ultra-short optical pulses," J. Lightw. Technol. .

2010 (8)

H. C. H. Mulvad, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, H. Hu, A. T. Clausen, J. B. Jensen, C. Peucheret, P. Jeppesen, "Demonstration of 5.1 Tbit/s data capacity on a single-wavelength channel," Opt. Exp. 18, 1438-1443 (2010).

A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, D. Cotter, "Approaching the non-linear shannon limit," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 423-433 (2010).

Z. Pan, C. Yu, A. E. Willner, "Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks," Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 20-45 (2010).

D. A. Reid, K. Bondarczuk, K. J. Dexter, K. Shi, P. M. Anandarajah, L. P. Barry, W.-H. Guo, J. O'Dowd, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, J. F. Donegan, "Two-photon-absorption-based OSNR monitor for NRZ-PSK transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 275-277 (2010).

T. D. Vo, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, B. Corcoran, B. J. Eggleton, "Multi-impairment monitoring at 320 Gb/s based on cross phase modulation radio-frequency spectrum analyzer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 428-430 (2010).

T. D. Vo, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, F. Luan, S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, "Simultaneous multi-impairment monitoring of 640 Gb/s signals using photonic chip based RF spectrum analyzer," Opt. Exp. 18, 3938-3945 (2010).

T. D. Vo, H. Hu, M. Galili, E. Palushani, J. Xu, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, "Photonic chip based transmitter optimization and receiver demultiplexing of a 1.28 Tbit/s OTDM signal," Opt. Exp. 18, 17252-17261 (2010).

D.-Y. C. S. Madden, D. A. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, "Submicrometer-thick low-loss As$_{2}$S$_{3}$ planar waveguides for nonlinear optical devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 495-497 (2010).

2009 (5)

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, "Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth," Nature Photon. 3, 139-143 (2009).

M. D. Pelusi, T. D. Vo, F. Luan, S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, "Terahertz bandwidth RF spectrum analysis of femtosecond pulses using a chalcogenide chip," Opt. Exp. 17, 9314-9322 (2009).

T. B. Anderson, A. Kowalczyk, K. Clarke, S. D. Dods, D. Hewitt, J. C. Li, "Multi impairment monitoring for optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3729-3736 (2009).

J. Zhao, A. P. T. Lau, K. K. Qureshi, Z. Li, C. Lu, H. Y. Tam, "Chromatic dispersion monitoring for DPSK systems using RF power spectrum," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5704-5709 (2009).

H. Y. Choi, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Optical performance monitoring technique using asynchronous amplitude and phase histograms," Opt. Exp. 17, 23953-23958 (2009).

2008 (3)

J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, X. Wu, O. F. Yilmaz, B. Zhang, A. E. Willner, "All-optical chromatic dispersion monitoring for phase-modulated signals utilizing cross-phase modulation in a highly nonlinear fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1642-1644 (2008).

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, E. Magi, M. R. Lamont, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, "High bit rate all-optical signal processing in a fiber photonic wire," Opt. Exp. 16, 11506-11512 (2008).

M. A. F. Roelens, S. Frisken, J. A. Bolger, D. Abakoumov, G. Baxter, S. Poole, B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersion trimming in a reconfigurable wavelength selective switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 73-78 (2008).

2007 (1)

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, L. L. Buhl, "OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172-1174 (2007).

2006 (1)

Z. Li, G. Li, "Chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals based on asynchronous amplitude-histogram evaluation," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2859-2866 (2006).

2005 (2)

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

Z. Li, C. Lu, Y. Wang, G. Li, "In-service signal quality monitoring and multi-impairment discrimination based on asynchronous amplitude histogram evaluation for NRZ-DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1998-2000 (2005).

2004 (3)

C. Dorrer, X. Liu, "Noise monitoring of optical signals using RF spectrum analysis and its application to phase-shift-keyed signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1781-1783 (2004).

D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, A. E. Willner, "Optical performance monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 294-304 (2004).

C. Dorrer, D. N. Maywar, "RF spectrum analysis of optical signals using nonlinear optics," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 266-274 (2004).

2002 (1)

1988 (1)

A. F. Elrefaie, R. E. Wagner, D. A. Atlas, D. G. Daut, "Chromatic dispersion limitations in coherent lightwave transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 704-709 (1988).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (7)

C. Dorrer, X. Liu, "Noise monitoring of optical signals using RF spectrum analysis and its application to phase-shift-keyed signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1781-1783 (2004).

D. A. Reid, K. Bondarczuk, K. J. Dexter, K. Shi, P. M. Anandarajah, L. P. Barry, W.-H. Guo, J. O'Dowd, M. Lynch, A. L. Bradley, J. F. Donegan, "Two-photon-absorption-based OSNR monitor for NRZ-PSK transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 275-277 (2010).

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, L. L. Buhl, "OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172-1174 (2007).

J.-Y. Yang, L. Zhang, X. Wu, O. F. Yilmaz, B. Zhang, A. E. Willner, "All-optical chromatic dispersion monitoring for phase-modulated signals utilizing cross-phase modulation in a highly nonlinear fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1642-1644 (2008).

T. D. Vo, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, B. Corcoran, B. J. Eggleton, "Multi-impairment monitoring at 320 Gb/s based on cross phase modulation radio-frequency spectrum analyzer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 428-430 (2010).

Z. Li, C. Lu, Y. Wang, G. Li, "In-service signal quality monitoring and multi-impairment discrimination based on asynchronous amplitude histogram evaluation for NRZ-DPSK systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1998-2000 (2005).

D.-Y. C. S. Madden, D. A. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, "Submicrometer-thick low-loss As$_{2}$S$_{3}$ planar waveguides for nonlinear optical devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 495-497 (2010).

J. Lightw. Technol. (10)

Z. Li, G. Li, "Chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion monitoring for RZ-DPSK signals based on asynchronous amplitude-histogram evaluation," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2859-2866 (2006).

T. B. Anderson, A. Kowalczyk, K. Clarke, S. D. Dods, D. Hewitt, J. C. Li, "Multi impairment monitoring for optical networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3729-3736 (2009).

C. Dorrer, D. N. Maywar, "RF spectrum analysis of optical signals using nonlinear optics," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 266-274 (2004).

A. F. Elrefaie, R. E. Wagner, D. A. Atlas, D. G. Daut, "Chromatic dispersion limitations in coherent lightwave transmission systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 6, 704-709 (1988).

M. A. F. Roelens, S. Frisken, J. A. Bolger, D. Abakoumov, G. Baxter, S. Poole, B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersion trimming in a reconfigurable wavelength selective switch," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 73-78 (2008).

M. D. Pelusi, T. D. Vo, B. J. Eggleton, "Accuracy of waveform spectrum analysis for ultra-short optical pulses," J. Lightw. Technol. .

J. Zhao, A. P. T. Lau, K. K. Qureshi, Z. Li, C. Lu, H. Y. Tam, "Chromatic dispersion monitoring for DPSK systems using RF power spectrum," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5704-5709 (2009).

A. D. Ellis, J. Zhao, D. Cotter, "Approaching the non-linear shannon limit," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 423-433 (2010).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, "Optical phase-shift-keyed transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 115-130 (2005).

D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, A. E. Willner, "Optical performance monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 294-304 (2004).

Nature Photon. (1)

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D. Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, "Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyser with terahertz bandwidth," Nature Photon. 3, 139-143 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (6)

M. D. Pelusi, F. Luan, E. Magi, M. R. Lamont, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, "High bit rate all-optical signal processing in a fiber photonic wire," Opt. Exp. 16, 11506-11512 (2008).

M. D. Pelusi, T. D. Vo, F. Luan, S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, "Terahertz bandwidth RF spectrum analysis of femtosecond pulses using a chalcogenide chip," Opt. Exp. 17, 9314-9322 (2009).

H. C. H. Mulvad, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, H. Hu, A. T. Clausen, J. B. Jensen, C. Peucheret, P. Jeppesen, "Demonstration of 5.1 Tbit/s data capacity on a single-wavelength channel," Opt. Exp. 18, 1438-1443 (2010).

H. Y. Choi, Y. Takushima, Y. C. Chung, "Optical performance monitoring technique using asynchronous amplitude and phase histograms," Opt. Exp. 17, 23953-23958 (2009).

T. D. Vo, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, F. Luan, S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, "Simultaneous multi-impairment monitoring of 640 Gb/s signals using photonic chip based RF spectrum analyzer," Opt. Exp. 18, 3938-3945 (2010).

T. D. Vo, H. Hu, M. Galili, E. Palushani, J. Xu, L. K. Oxenløwe, S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, M. D. Pelusi, J. Schröder, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, "Photonic chip based transmitter optimization and receiver demultiplexing of a 1.28 Tbit/s OTDM signal," Opt. Exp. 18, 17252-17261 (2010).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

Z. Pan, C. Yu, A. E. Willner, "Optical performance monitoring for the next generation optical communication networks," Opt. Fiber Technol. 16, 20-45 (2010).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (6)

C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, D.-D. Groß, L. Molle, M. Seimetz, R. Freund, C. Schubert, "Generation and coherent time-division demultiplexing of up to 5.1 Tb/s single-channel 8-PSK and 16-QAM signals," presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conference San DiegoCA (2009) Paper PDPC6, (Postdeadline Paper).

A. Sano, H. Masuda, T. Kobayashi, M. Fujiwara, K. Horikoshi, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, M. Matsui, M. Mizoguchi, H. Yamazaki, Y. Sakamaki, H. Ishii, "69.1-Tb/s (432$\,\times\,$171-Gb/s) C- and extended L-band transmission over 240 Km using PDM-16-QAM modulation and digital coherent detection," presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conference San DiegoCA (2010) Paper PDPB7, (Postdeadline Paper).

A. H. Gnauck, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, X. Liu, B. Zhu, D. W. Peckham, "10$\,\times\,$224-Gb/s WDM transmission of 28-Gbaud PDM 16-QAM on a 50-GHz grid over 1, 200 Km of fiber," presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conference San DiegoCA (2010) Paper PDPB8, (Postdeadline Paper).

X. Zhou, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, Y. Shao, T. Wang, L. Nelson, P. Magill, M. Birk, P. I. Borel, D. W. Peckham, R. Lingle, "64-Tb/s (640$\,\times\,$107-Gb/s) PDM-36QAM transmission over 320 km using both pre- and post-transmission digital equalization," presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Conference San DiegoCA (2010) Paper PDPB9, (Postdeadline Paper).

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. Davidson, D. Foursa, A. Lucero, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, N. Bergano, "Transmission of 96$\,\times\,$100 G pre-filtered PDM-RZ-QPSK channels with 300% spectral efficiency over 10 608 km and 400% spectral efficiency over 4, 368 km," presented at the Optical Fiber Communications Confeence San DiegoCA (2010) Paper PDPB10, (Postdeadline Paper).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

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