Abstract

There has been a resurgence of interests in stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical fibers recently. This is largely due to the need to overcome SBS for power scaling of single frequency fiber lasers. Complex acoustic waveguide designs have been proposed for SBS suppression in optical fibers. There is, therefore, a strong need for finding acoustic modes in complex acoustic waveguides. Furthermore, leaky acoustic modes are often ignored in recent works on SBS in optical fiber. Many leaky acoustic modes involved in SBS in optical fibers often have comparable losses to guided acoustic modes. The losses of both guided acoustic modes and many leaky acoustic modes are dominated by the extremely high material loss of acoustic waves in the GHz region in optical fibers. Therefore, it is very important to consider these leaky acoustic modes in SBS in optical fibers, especially for acoustic antiguide designs used for SBS suppressions, where those leaky acoustic modes are often responsible for the peak SBS gain and consequently SBS threshold. Even for optical fibers with guided acoustic waveguide, fine features in SBS gain spectra can be better understood by studying the additional contributions from leaky acoustic modes. In this work, we report, for the first time, a complex vector acoustic mode solver capable of finding both guided and leaky acoustic modes in arbitrary circular acoustic waveguides. The validity of the mode solver is verified by comparing simulated SBS gain spectra in two optical fibers, one with acoustic guide and one with acoustic antiguide, to measured ones. This acoustic mode solver can be used to provide highly accurate SBS gain spectrum in optical fibers. It will be a critical tool in optical fiber designs for SBS suppressions and enhancements. It will also be very important tool for understanding fine spectral details of SBS in optical fibers.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. A. Kobyakov, S. Kumar, D. Q. Chowdhury, A. B. Ruffin, M. Sauer, S. R. Bickham, "Design concept for optical fibers with enhanced threshold," Opt. Exp. 13, 5338-5346 (2005).
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  4. A. Liu, "Suppressing stimulated Brillouin scattering in fiber amplifiers using non-uniform fiber and temperature gradient," Opt. Exp. 15, 977-984 (2007).
  5. M. Hildebrandt, S. Büshe, P. Weßels, M. Frede, D. Kracht, "Brillouin scattering spectra in high power single frequency ytterbium doped fiber amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 16, 15970-15979 (2008).
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  8. T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, K. Shiraki, T. Kurashima, "SBS suppressed fiber with hole-assisted structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4401-4406 (2009).
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2009 (5)

B. Ward, J. Spring, "Finite element analysis of Brillouin gain in SBS suppressing optical fibers with non-uniform acoustic velocity profiles," Opt. Exp. 17, 15685-15699 (2009).

M. D. Mermelstein, "SBS threshold measurements and acoustic beam propagation modeling in guiding and antiguiding single mode optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 17, 16225-16237 (2009).

T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, K. Shiraki, T. Kurashima, "SBS suppressed fiber with hole-assisted structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4401-4406 (2009).

P. D. Dragic, "Estimating the effect of Ge doping on the acoustic damping coefficient via a highly Ge-doped MCVD silica fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 1614-1620 (2009).

I. Dajani, C. Vergien, C. Robin, C. Zeringue, "Experimental and theoretical investigations of photonic crystal fiber amplifier with 260 W output," Opt. Exp. 17, 24317-24333 (2009).

2008 (1)

M. Hildebrandt, S. Büshe, P. Weßels, M. Frede, D. Kracht, "Brillouin scattering spectra in high power single frequency ytterbium doped fiber amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 16, 15970-15979 (2008).

2007 (2)

M. D. Mermelstein, S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, S. Ghalmi, "SBS gain efficiency measurements and modeling in a 1714 m$^2$ effective area LP08 higher-order-mode optical fiber," Opt. Exp. 15, 15952-15963 (2007).

A. Liu, "Suppressing stimulated Brillouin scattering in fiber amplifiers using non-uniform fiber and temperature gradient," Opt. Exp. 15, 977-984 (2007).

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

A. Kobyakov, S. Kumar, D. Q. Chowdhury, A. B. Ruffin, M. Sauer, S. R. Bickham, "Design concept for optical fibers with enhanced threshold," Opt. Exp. 13, 5338-5346 (2005).

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

A. Yeniay, J. M. Delavaux, J. Toulouse, "Spontaneous and stimulated Brillouin scattering gain spectra in optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1425-1432 (2002).

1991 (1)

A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, "Stochastic dynamics of stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," Phy. Rev. A 44, 3205-3209 (1991).

1990 (1)

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzazewski, "Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering," Phy. Rev. A 42, 5514-5521 (1990).

1989 (2)

N. Shibata, Y. Azuma, T. Horiguchi, M. Tateda, "Identification of longitudinal acoustic modes guided in the core region of a single-mode optical fiber by Brillouin scattering gain spectra measurements," Opt. Lett. 13, 595-597 (1989).

N. Shibata, K. Okamoto, Y. Azuma, "Longitudinal acoustic modes and Brillouin-gain spectra for GeO$_2$-doped-core single-mode fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 6, 1167-1174 (1989).

1986 (2)

C. K. Jen, A. Safaai-Jazi, G. W. Farnell, "Leaky modes in weakly guiding fiber acoustic waveguides," IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. UFFC-33, 634-643 (1986).

R. W. Tkwach, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. M. Derosier, "Spontaneous Brillouin scattering for single-mode optical fiber characterization," Elect. Lett. 22, 1011-1013 (1986).

1979 (1)

P. J. Thomas, N. L. Rowell, H. M. Van Driel, G. I. Stegman, "Normal acoustic modes and Brillouin scattering in single-mode optical fibers," Phys. Rev. B 19, 4986-4998 (1979).

1969 (1)

R. A. Waldron, "Some problems in the theory of guided microsonic waves," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. MTT-17, 893-904 (1969).

Elect. Lett. (1)

R. W. Tkwach, A. R. Chraplyvy, R. M. Derosier, "Spontaneous Brillouin scattering for single-mode optical fiber characterization," Elect. Lett. 22, 1011-1013 (1986).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. (1)

R. A. Waldron, "Some problems in the theory of guided microsonic waves," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. MTT-17, 893-904 (1969).

IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. (1)

C. K. Jen, A. Safaai-Jazi, G. W. Farnell, "Leaky modes in weakly guiding fiber acoustic waveguides," IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr. Freq. Contr. UFFC-33, 634-643 (1986).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

A. Yeniay, J. M. Delavaux, J. Toulouse, "Spontaneous and stimulated Brillouin scattering gain spectra in optical fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 1425-1432 (2002).

T. Sakamoto, T. Matsui, K. Shiraki, T. Kurashima, "SBS suppressed fiber with hole-assisted structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4401-4406 (2009).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (2)

P. D. Dragic, "Estimating the effect of Ge doping on the acoustic damping coefficient via a highly Ge-doped MCVD silica fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 1614-1620 (2009).

N. Shibata, K. Okamoto, Y. Azuma, "Longitudinal acoustic modes and Brillouin-gain spectra for GeO$_2$-doped-core single-mode fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 6, 1167-1174 (1989).

Opt. Exp. (7)

I. Dajani, C. Vergien, C. Robin, C. Zeringue, "Experimental and theoretical investigations of photonic crystal fiber amplifier with 260 W output," Opt. Exp. 17, 24317-24333 (2009).

M. D. Mermelstein, S. Ramachandran, J. M. Fini, S. Ghalmi, "SBS gain efficiency measurements and modeling in a 1714 m$^2$ effective area LP08 higher-order-mode optical fiber," Opt. Exp. 15, 15952-15963 (2007).

A. Liu, "Suppressing stimulated Brillouin scattering in fiber amplifiers using non-uniform fiber and temperature gradient," Opt. Exp. 15, 977-984 (2007).

M. Hildebrandt, S. Büshe, P. Weßels, M. Frede, D. Kracht, "Brillouin scattering spectra in high power single frequency ytterbium doped fiber amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 16, 15970-15979 (2008).

B. Ward, J. Spring, "Finite element analysis of Brillouin gain in SBS suppressing optical fibers with non-uniform acoustic velocity profiles," Opt. Exp. 17, 15685-15699 (2009).

M. D. Mermelstein, "SBS threshold measurements and acoustic beam propagation modeling in guiding and antiguiding single mode optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 17, 16225-16237 (2009).

A. Kobyakov, S. Kumar, D. Q. Chowdhury, A. B. Ruffin, M. Sauer, S. R. Bickham, "Design concept for optical fibers with enhanced threshold," Opt. Exp. 13, 5338-5346 (2005).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phy. Rev. A (2)

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzazewski, "Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering," Phy. Rev. A 42, 5514-5521 (1990).

A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, "Stochastic dynamics of stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," Phy. Rev. A 44, 3205-3209 (1991).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. J. Thomas, N. L. Rowell, H. M. Van Driel, G. I. Stegman, "Normal acoustic modes and Brillouin scattering in single-mode optical fibers," Phys. Rev. B 19, 4986-4998 (1979).

Other (1)

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic Press, 2008).

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