Abstract

A major approach investigated recently for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) suppression in fiber amplifiers for high power single frequency fiber lasers is to explore designs of acoustic waveguide in optical fibers. This acoustic waveguide can be implemented to some extent independent of the optical waveguide by using a combination of dopants which modify the host glass by varying levels in acoustic and optical properties. Although this approach provides some SBS suppressions, the new analysis described in this work, considering the often omitted leaky acoustic modes, demonstrates its limit. A complex acoustic mode solver, reported in details elsewhere, was recently developed to find solutions for simultaneous longitudinal and shear acoustic wave equations which satisfy rigorous boundary conditions in an arbitrary circular acoustic waveguide. By taking advantage of this new tool, it is possible to find the leaky acoustic modes for acoustic waveguides designed for SBS suppressions. In these acoustic waveguides, the guided acoustic modes often have a reduced overlap with the optical modes by design and, sometimes, do not exist at all, while the leaky acoustic mode can have a significant stronger overlap with the optical modes and, consequently, can play a dominant role in the SBS gain spectrum. It is, therefore, critical to consider the leaky acoustic modes in these cases. Two prominent transverse acoustic waveguide designs proposed recently for SBS suppression in optical fibers are studied here. This work reports, for the first time, the limits of these designs for SBS suppression. With consideration of the leakage acoustic modes, some new insights are provided on the underlying physics as well as on how to optimize these designs for optimal SBS suppression.

© 2010 IEEE

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2009 (6)

M. J. Li, X. Chen, A. Liu, S. Gray, J. Wang, D. T. Donnell, L. A. Zenteno, "Limit of effective area for single-mode operation in step-index large mode area laser fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3010-3016 (2009).

L. Dong, T. W. Wu, H. A. McKay, L. Fu, J. Li, H. G. Winful, "All-glass large core leakage channel fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 47-53 (2009).

L. Dong, H. A. Mckay, A. Marcinkevicius, L. Fu, J. Li, B. K. Thomas, M. E. Fermann, "Extending effective area of fundamental mode in optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1565-1570 (2009).

M. D. Mermelstein, "SBS threshold measurements and acoustic beam propagation modeling in guiding and antiguiding single mode optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 17, 16225-16237 (2009).

B. J. Ward, J. Spring, "Finite element analysis of Brillouin gain in SBS suppressing optical fibers with non-uniform acoustic velocity profiles," Opt. Exp. 17, 15685-15699 (2009).

P. D. Dragic, "SBS suppressed, single mode Yb-doped fiber amplifiers," Proc. OFC (2009) paper JThA10.

2007 (3)

L. Dong, X. Peng, J. Li, "Leakage channel optical fibers with large effective area," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 24, 1689-1697 (2007).

A. Galvanauskas, M. C. Cheng, K. C. Hou, K. H. Liao, "High peak power pulse amplification in large-core Yb-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 559-566 (2007).

A. Siegman, "Gain-guided, index-anti-guided fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 24, 1677-1682 (2007).

2006 (3)

C. D. Brooks, F. Teodoro, "Multi-MW peak-power, single-transverse-mode operation of a 100 $\mu$m core diameter, Yb-doped rodlike photonic crystal fiber amplifier," Appl. Phys. 89, 111-119 (2006).

J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, "Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 14, 2715-2720 (2006).

S. Ramachandra, J. W. Nicholson, S. Ghalmi, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, E. Monberg, F. V. Dimarcello, "Light propagation with ultra-large modal areas in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 31, 1797-1799 (2006).

2005 (1)

A. Kobyakov, S. Kumar, D. Q. Chowdhury, A. B. Ruffin, M. Sauer, S. R. Bickham, "Design concept for optical fibers with enhanced SBS threshold," Opt. Exp. 13, 5335-5346 (2005).

2004 (1)

Y. Koyamada, S. Sato, S. Nakamura, H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, "Simulation and designing Brillouin gain spectrum in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 631-639 (2004).

1991 (1)

A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, "Stochastic dynamics of stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. A 44, 3205-3209 (1991).

1990 (1)

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzazewski, "Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering," Phys. Rev. A 42, 5514-5521 (1990).

1989 (1)

N. Shibata, K. Okamoto, Y. Azuma, "Longitudinal acoustic modes and Brillouin gain spectra for GeO2-doped core single mode fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 6, 1167-1174 (1989).

1988 (2)

1979 (1)

P. J. Thomas, N. L. Rowell, H. M. Driel, G. I. Stegeman, "Normal acoustic modes and Brillouin scattering in single-mode fibers," Phys. Rev. B 19, 4986-4998 (1979).

1969 (1)

R. A. Waldron, "Some problems in the theory of guided microsonic waves," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. MTT-17, 893-904 (1969).

Appl. Phys. (1)

C. D. Brooks, F. Teodoro, "Multi-MW peak-power, single-transverse-mode operation of a 100 $\mu$m core diameter, Yb-doped rodlike photonic crystal fiber amplifier," Appl. Phys. 89, 111-119 (2006).

IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

L. Dong, H. A. Mckay, A. Marcinkevicius, L. Fu, J. Li, B. K. Thomas, M. E. Fermann, "Extending effective area of fundamental mode in optical fibers," IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1565-1570 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Galvanauskas, M. C. Cheng, K. C. Hou, K. H. Liao, "High peak power pulse amplification in large-core Yb-doped fiber amplifiers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 559-566 (2007).

L. Dong, T. W. Wu, H. A. McKay, L. Fu, J. Li, H. G. Winful, "All-glass large core leakage channel fibers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 47-53 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. (1)

R. A. Waldron, "Some problems in the theory of guided microsonic waves," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Techn. MTT-17, 893-904 (1969).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

L. Dong, "Formulation of a complex mode solver for arbitrary circular acoustic waveguides," J. Lightw. Technol. .

M. J. Li, X. Chen, A. Liu, S. Gray, J. Wang, D. T. Donnell, L. A. Zenteno, "Limit of effective area for single-mode operation in step-index large mode area laser fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3010-3016 (2009).

Y. Koyamada, S. Sato, S. Nakamura, H. Sotobayashi, W. Chujo, "Simulation and designing Brillouin gain spectrum in single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 631-639 (2004).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (3)

N. Shibata, K. Okamoto, Y. Azuma, "Longitudinal acoustic modes and Brillouin gain spectra for GeO2-doped core single mode fibers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 6, 1167-1174 (1989).

A. Siegman, "Gain-guided, index-anti-guided fiber lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 24, 1677-1682 (2007).

L. Dong, X. Peng, J. Li, "Leakage channel optical fibers with large effective area," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 24, 1689-1697 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (4)

J. Limpert, O. Schmidt, J. Rothhardt, F. Röser, T. Schreiber, A. Tünnermann, "Extended single-mode photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Exp. 14, 2715-2720 (2006).

A. Kobyakov, S. Kumar, D. Q. Chowdhury, A. B. Ruffin, M. Sauer, S. R. Bickham, "Design concept for optical fibers with enhanced SBS threshold," Opt. Exp. 13, 5335-5346 (2005).

M. D. Mermelstein, "SBS threshold measurements and acoustic beam propagation modeling in guiding and antiguiding single mode optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 17, 16225-16237 (2009).

B. J. Ward, J. Spring, "Finite element analysis of Brillouin gain in SBS suppressing optical fibers with non-uniform acoustic velocity profiles," Opt. Exp. 17, 15685-15699 (2009).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

R. W. Boyd, K. Rzazewski, "Noise initiation of stimulated Brillouin scattering," Phys. Rev. A 42, 5514-5521 (1990).

A. L. Gaeta, R. W. Boyd, "Stochastic dynamics of stimulated Brillouin scattering in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. A 44, 3205-3209 (1991).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. J. Thomas, N. L. Rowell, H. M. Driel, G. I. Stegeman, "Normal acoustic modes and Brillouin scattering in single-mode fibers," Phys. Rev. B 19, 4986-4998 (1979).

Proc. OFC (1)

P. D. Dragic, "SBS suppressed, single mode Yb-doped fiber amplifiers," Proc. OFC (2009) paper JThA10.

Other (2)

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Elsevier, 2008).

D. Guertin, N. Jacobsen, K. Tankala, A. Galvanauskas, "33 $\mu$m core effectively single-mode chirally-coupled-core fiber laser at 1064 nm," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2008).

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