Abstract

Dynamic response of a Q-modulated semiconductor laser is simulated based on a rate equation model. Numerical results from both small-signal and large-signal analyses show that the Q-modulation has much higher bandwidth limit and smaller wavelength chirp than the direct modulation. It is shown that a high-extinction-ratio, low-chirp modulation of 40 GHz RZ signal can be achieved and the effects of various parameters on the Q-modulation are discussed. In addition to high-speed communications, the Q-modulated laser is particularly suitable for microwave carrier generation in radio-over-fiber systems.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. M. Marciniak, "Next generation networking in transparent optical networks—Challenges and opportunities," Proc. 8th Int. Conf. Laser Fiber-Optical Netw. Modeling (2006) pp. 76-79.
  2. R. M. Spencer, "High speed direct modulation of semiconductor laser," Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 8, 377-416 (1997).
  3. K. Takagi, "120$^{\circ}$C 10 Gb/s uncooled direct modulated 1.3 $\mu$m AlGaInAs MQW DFB laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2415-241 (2004).
  4. C. W. Chow, C. S. Wong, H. K. Tsang, "Reduction of amplitude transients and BER of direct modulation laser using birefringent fiber loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 693-695 (2005).
  5. M. Minakata, "Recent progress of 40 GHz high-speed LiNbO$_{3}$ optical modulator (invited paper)," Proc. SPIE Active Passive Opt. Components WDM Commun. (2001) pp. 16-27.
  6. H. Zhou, Z. Meng, Q. Yao, Y. Liao, "Research on measurement of frequency shift characteristics based on LiNbO$_{3}$ waveguide electro-optic intensity modulator," Proc. 2008 Asia-Pacific Opt. Fiber Sensors Conf. (2008) pp. 1-5.
  7. P. Tang, A. L. Meier, D. J. Towner, B. W. Wessels, "High-speed travelling-wave BaTiO$_{3}$ thin-film electro-optic modulators," Electron. Lett. 41, 1296-1297 (2005).
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  9. H. Takeuchi, "Ultra-fast electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB lasers," IEEE International Conference on Indium Phosphidend Related Materials, IPRM (2001) pp. 428-431.
  10. M. Suzuki, Y. Noda, H. Tanaka, S. Akiba, Y. Kushiro, H. Isshiki, "Monolithic integration of InGaAsP/InP distributed feedback laser and electroabsorption modulator by vapor phase epitaxy," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 1277-1285 (1987).
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  13. E. A. Avrutina, V. B. Gorfinkel, S. Luryi, K. A. Shore, "Control of surface-emitting laser diodes by modulating the distributed Bragg mirror reflectivity: Small-signal analysis," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2460-2462 (1993).
  14. D. Dai, A. Fang, J. E. Bowers, "Hybrid silicon lasers for optical interconnects," New J. Phys. 11, 125016 (2009).
  15. D. Liu, J.-J. He, "Monolithically integrated channel-selectable wavelength converter based on XAM and Q-modulation principle," Proc. Photonics (2008) pp. C13-C14.
  16. S. Hansmann, H. Walter, H. Hillmer, H. Burkhard, "Static and dynamic properties of InGaAsP-InP distributed feedback lasers-A detailed comparison between experiment and theory," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2477-2484 (1994).
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  18. J. E. Bowers, B. R. Hemenway, A. H. Gnauck, D. P. Wilt, "High-speed InGaAsP constricted-mesa lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 833-843 (1986).
  19. J.-W. Shi, Y.-S. Wu, "Impact-ionization-induced bandwidth- enhancement of a Si -SiGe-based avalanche photodiode operating at a wavelength of 830 nm with a gain-bandwidth product of 428 GHz," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 474-476 (2007).
  20. W. Zheng, G. W. Taylor, "Determination of the photon lifetime for DFB lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 295-302 (2007).
  21. T. Yu, L. Wang, J.-J. He, "Bloch wave formalism of photon lifetime in distributed feedback lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 1780-1788 (2009).
  22. X. Li, Optoelectronic Devices—Design, Modeling and Simulation (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009).

2009 (3)

U. Westergren, M. Chaciński, L. Thylén, "Compact and efficient modulators for 100 Gb/s ETDM for telecom and interconnect applications," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 1039-1044 (2009).

D. Dai, A. Fang, J. E. Bowers, "Hybrid silicon lasers for optical interconnects," New J. Phys. 11, 125016 (2009).

T. Yu, L. Wang, J.-J. He, "Bloch wave formalism of photon lifetime in distributed feedback lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 1780-1788 (2009).

2007 (3)

J.-W. Shi, Y.-S. Wu, "Impact-ionization-induced bandwidth- enhancement of a Si -SiGe-based avalanche photodiode operating at a wavelength of 830 nm with a gain-bandwidth product of 428 GHz," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 474-476 (2007).

W. Zheng, G. W. Taylor, "Determination of the photon lifetime for DFB lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 295-302 (2007).

J.-J. He, "Proposal for Q-modulated semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 285-287 (2007).

2005 (2)

C. W. Chow, C. S. Wong, H. K. Tsang, "Reduction of amplitude transients and BER of direct modulation laser using birefringent fiber loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 693-695 (2005).

P. Tang, A. L. Meier, D. J. Towner, B. W. Wessels, "High-speed travelling-wave BaTiO$_{3}$ thin-film electro-optic modulators," Electron. Lett. 41, 1296-1297 (2005).

2004 (1)

K. Takagi, "120$^{\circ}$C 10 Gb/s uncooled direct modulated 1.3 $\mu$m AlGaInAs MQW DFB laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2415-241 (2004).

2000 (1)

Y. Kim, "Chirp characteristics of 10-Gb/s electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 900-908 (2000).

1997 (1)

R. M. Spencer, "High speed direct modulation of semiconductor laser," Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 8, 377-416 (1997).

1994 (1)

S. Hansmann, H. Walter, H. Hillmer, H. Burkhard, "Static and dynamic properties of InGaAsP-InP distributed feedback lasers-A detailed comparison between experiment and theory," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2477-2484 (1994).

1993 (1)

E. A. Avrutina, V. B. Gorfinkel, S. Luryi, K. A. Shore, "Control of surface-emitting laser diodes by modulating the distributed Bragg mirror reflectivity: Small-signal analysis," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2460-2462 (1993).

1987 (1)

M. Suzuki, Y. Noda, H. Tanaka, S. Akiba, Y. Kushiro, H. Isshiki, "Monolithic integration of InGaAsP/InP distributed feedback laser and electroabsorption modulator by vapor phase epitaxy," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 1277-1285 (1987).

1986 (1)

J. E. Bowers, B. R. Hemenway, A. H. Gnauck, D. P. Wilt, "High-speed InGaAsP constricted-mesa lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 833-843 (1986).

Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

U. Westergren, M. Chaciński, L. Thylén, "Compact and efficient modulators for 100 Gb/s ETDM for telecom and interconnect applications," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process. 95, 1039-1044 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. A. Avrutina, V. B. Gorfinkel, S. Luryi, K. A. Shore, "Control of surface-emitting laser diodes by modulating the distributed Bragg mirror reflectivity: Small-signal analysis," Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2460-2462 (1993).

Electron. Lett. (1)

P. Tang, A. L. Meier, D. J. Towner, B. W. Wessels, "High-speed travelling-wave BaTiO$_{3}$ thin-film electro-optic modulators," Electron. Lett. 41, 1296-1297 (2005).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

Y. Kim, "Chirp characteristics of 10-Gb/s electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 900-908 (2000).

S. Hansmann, H. Walter, H. Hillmer, H. Burkhard, "Static and dynamic properties of InGaAsP-InP distributed feedback lasers-A detailed comparison between experiment and theory," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2477-2484 (1994).

J. E. Bowers, B. R. Hemenway, A. H. Gnauck, D. P. Wilt, "High-speed InGaAsP constricted-mesa lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 833-843 (1986).

W. Zheng, G. W. Taylor, "Determination of the photon lifetime for DFB lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43, 295-302 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

J.-W. Shi, Y.-S. Wu, "Impact-ionization-induced bandwidth- enhancement of a Si -SiGe-based avalanche photodiode operating at a wavelength of 830 nm with a gain-bandwidth product of 428 GHz," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 474-476 (2007).

J.-J. He, "Proposal for Q-modulated semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 285-287 (2007).

K. Takagi, "120$^{\circ}$C 10 Gb/s uncooled direct modulated 1.3 $\mu$m AlGaInAs MQW DFB laser diodes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2415-241 (2004).

C. W. Chow, C. S. Wong, H. K. Tsang, "Reduction of amplitude transients and BER of direct modulation laser using birefringent fiber loop," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 693-695 (2005).

Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. (1)

R. M. Spencer, "High speed direct modulation of semiconductor laser," Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst. 8, 377-416 (1997).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

M. Suzuki, Y. Noda, H. Tanaka, S. Akiba, Y. Kushiro, H. Isshiki, "Monolithic integration of InGaAsP/InP distributed feedback laser and electroabsorption modulator by vapor phase epitaxy," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-5, 1277-1285 (1987).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

T. Yu, L. Wang, J.-J. He, "Bloch wave formalism of photon lifetime in distributed feedback lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 26, 1780-1788 (2009).

New J. Phys. (1)

D. Dai, A. Fang, J. E. Bowers, "Hybrid silicon lasers for optical interconnects," New J. Phys. 11, 125016 (2009).

Other (7)

D. Liu, J.-J. He, "Monolithically integrated channel-selectable wavelength converter based on XAM and Q-modulation principle," Proc. Photonics (2008) pp. C13-C14.

G. P. Agrawal, N. K. Dutta, Long-Wavelength Semiconductor Lasers (Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1986).

M. Marciniak, "Next generation networking in transparent optical networks—Challenges and opportunities," Proc. 8th Int. Conf. Laser Fiber-Optical Netw. Modeling (2006) pp. 76-79.

H. Takeuchi, "Ultra-fast electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB lasers," IEEE International Conference on Indium Phosphidend Related Materials, IPRM (2001) pp. 428-431.

M. Minakata, "Recent progress of 40 GHz high-speed LiNbO$_{3}$ optical modulator (invited paper)," Proc. SPIE Active Passive Opt. Components WDM Commun. (2001) pp. 16-27.

H. Zhou, Z. Meng, Q. Yao, Y. Liao, "Research on measurement of frequency shift characteristics based on LiNbO$_{3}$ waveguide electro-optic intensity modulator," Proc. 2008 Asia-Pacific Opt. Fiber Sensors Conf. (2008) pp. 1-5.

X. Li, Optoelectronic Devices—Design, Modeling and Simulation (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2009).

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