Abstract

An RF-photonic filter and down-converter system based on a compact and fully tunable silicon optical filter has been demonstrated and analyzed. Its frequency down-conversion was implemented using optical heterodyne detection with an injection locked laser. This system filters a 1.25 GHz-wide signal with $>20$ dB filter rejection and a very broad 20 GHz center tuning range. The frequency down-conversion process is operated in a low-IF mode to avoid laser low frequency noises. Measured system Spurious-Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) of 94.3 dB*Hz$^{2/3}$ has been limited by the optical losses from I/O coupling and measurement setup. We examined experimentally that 105.3 dB*Hz$^{2/3}$ SFDR is achievable if the encountered optical loss were reduced to the filter's intrinsic loss. Based on the excellent agreements between measured and simulated results, we explore the critical improvements of the silicon photonic devices needed for the system to achieve 118 dB*Hz$^{2/3}$ SFDR and briefly review the status of the component technologies.

© 2010 IEEE

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  7. M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, A. T. Pomerene, D. N. Carothers, M. J. Grove, D. K. Sparacin, J. Michel, M. A. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, "Demonstration of a fourth-order pole-zero optical filter integrated using CMOS processes," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 87-92 (2007).
  8. Y. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, M. Trakalo, "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).
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  11. B. Analui, D. Gukenberger, D. Kucharski, A. Narasimha, "Fully integrated 20 Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 um CMOS SOI technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2945-2955 (2006).
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  14. E. I. Ackerman, C. Cox, IIIG. Betts, H. Roussell, K. Ray, F. O'Donnell, "Input impedance conditions for minimizing the noise figure of an analog optical lLink," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46, 2025-2031 (1998).
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  18. A. S. Daryoush, E. Ackerman, N. R. Samant, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, "Interfaces for high speed fiber-optics links: Analysis and experiment," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 39, 2031-2044 (1991).
  19. L. Vivien, M. Rouviere, J. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, J. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. El Mehaoui, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, S. Laval, "High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator microwaveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 9843-9848 (2007).
  20. D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, F. X. Kaertner, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge. photo detectors," Opt. Exp. 15, 3916-3921 (2007).
  21. K.-W. Ang, S. Zhu, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, "High performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with novel silicon-carbon schottky barrier enhancement layer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 754-756 (2008).
  22. E. I. Ackerman, W. K. Burns, G. E. Betts, J. X. Chen, J. L. Prince, M. D. Regan, H. V. Roussell, C. H. Cox, "RF-Over-Fiber links with very low noise figure," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2441-2448 (2008).
  23. L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications," Electron. Lett. 43, 1196-1197 (2007).
  24. D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, A. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerere, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, J. Battie, "Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible Si ring modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 200-202 (2009).
  25. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shaya, M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbits/s carrier injection-based silicon microring modulators," Opt. Exp. 15, 430-436 (2007).
  26. J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, S. Wada, J. C. Kimerling, J. michel, "Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electroabsoption modulators and photodetectors on an SOI platform," Opt. Exp. 15, (2007).
  27. H. W. Chen, Y. H. Kuo, J. E. Bowers, "High speed hybrid silicon evanescent Mach–Zehnder modulator and switch," Opt. Exp. 16, 20571-20576 (2008).
  28. D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, S. Laval, "Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure," Opt. Exp. 16, 334-339 (2008).
  29. V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell'Olio, "Scaling and optimization of MOS optical modulators in Nanometer SOI waveguides," IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7, 401-408 (2008).

2009 (1)

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, A. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerere, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, J. Battie, "Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible Si ring modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 200-202 (2009).

2008 (5)

H. W. Chen, Y. H. Kuo, J. E. Bowers, "High speed hybrid silicon evanescent Mach–Zehnder modulator and switch," Opt. Exp. 16, 20571-20576 (2008).

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, S. Laval, "Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure," Opt. Exp. 16, 334-339 (2008).

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell'Olio, "Scaling and optimization of MOS optical modulators in Nanometer SOI waveguides," IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7, 401-408 (2008).

K.-W. Ang, S. Zhu, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, "High performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with novel silicon-carbon schottky barrier enhancement layer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 754-756 (2008).

E. I. Ackerman, W. K. Burns, G. E. Betts, J. X. Chen, J. L. Prince, M. D. Regan, H. V. Roussell, C. H. Cox, "RF-Over-Fiber links with very low noise figure," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2441-2448 (2008).

2007 (6)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications," Electron. Lett. 43, 1196-1197 (2007).

L. Vivien, M. Rouviere, J. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, J. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. El Mehaoui, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, S. Laval, "High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator microwaveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 9843-9848 (2007).

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, F. X. Kaertner, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge. photo detectors," Opt. Exp. 15, 3916-3921 (2007).

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, A. T. Pomerene, D. N. Carothers, M. J. Grove, D. K. Sparacin, J. Michel, M. A. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, "Demonstration of a fourth-order pole-zero optical filter integrated using CMOS processes," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 87-92 (2007).

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shaya, M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbits/s carrier injection-based silicon microring modulators," Opt. Exp. 15, 430-436 (2007).

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, S. Wada, J. C. Kimerling, J. michel, "Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electroabsoption modulators and photodetectors on an SOI platform," Opt. Exp. 15, (2007).

2006 (3)

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, H. I. Smith, "Fabrication of add-drop filters based on frequency-matched microring resonators," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2207-2218 (2006).

B. Analui, D. Gukenberger, D. Kucharski, A. Narasimha, "Fully integrated 20 Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 um CMOS SOI technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2945-2955 (2006).

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, "A tutorial on microwave photonic filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 201-229 (2006).

2005 (4)

M. S. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, D. M. Gill, Y. K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, M. Beals, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, "Demonstration of a tunable microwave-photonic notch filter using low-loss silicon ring resonators," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2105-2110 (2005).

D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, L. C. Kimerling, "Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2455-2461 (2005).

K. Entesari, G. M. Rebeiz, "A 12–18 GHz three-pole RF MEMS tunable filter," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53, 2566-2571 (2005).

K. Entesari, G. M. Rebeiz, "A differential 4-bit 6.5–10 GHz RF MEMS tunable filter," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53, 1103-1110 (2005).

2004 (1)

Y. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, M. Trakalo, "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).

2001 (1)

D. M. Sabido, L. G. Kazovsky, "Dynamic range of optically amplified RF optical links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1950-1955 (2001).

1998 (1)

E. I. Ackerman, C. Cox, IIIG. Betts, H. Roussell, K. Ray, F. O'Donnell, "Input impedance conditions for minimizing the noise figure of an analog optical lLink," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46, 2025-2031 (1998).

1994 (1)

S. Yamashita, T. Okoshi, "Suppression of beat noise from optical amplifiers using coherent receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1029-1035 (1994).

1991 (2)

S. Ryu, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, Y. Yoshida, H. Wakabayashi, "Long haul coherent optical fiber communication systems using optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 251-260 (1991).

A. S. Daryoush, E. Ackerman, N. R. Samant, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, "Interfaces for high speed fiber-optics links: Analysis and experiment," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 39, 2031-2044 (1991).

1989 (1)

N. A. Olsson, "Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1071-1082 (1989).

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, M. Paniccia, "40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications," Electron. Lett. 43, 1196-1197 (2007).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

B. Analui, D. Gukenberger, D. Kucharski, A. Narasimha, "Fully integrated 20 Gb/s optoelectronic transceiver implemented in a standard 0.13 um CMOS SOI technology," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 41, 2945-2955 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Y. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, P. P. Absil, J. V. Hryniewicz, F. G. Johnson, F. Seiferth, D. Gill, V. Van, O. King, M. Trakalo, "Very high-order microring resonator filters for WDM applications," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2263-2265 (2004).

D. M. Gill, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, A. White, S. S. Patel, D. Carothers, A. Pomerere, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, J. Battie, "Internal bandwidth equalization in a CMOS compatible Si ring modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 200-202 (2009).

K.-W. Ang, S. Zhu, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, D.-L. Kwong, "High performance waveguided Ge-on-SOI metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with novel silicon-carbon schottky barrier enhancement layer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 754-756 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (5)

K. Entesari, G. M. Rebeiz, "A 12–18 GHz three-pole RF MEMS tunable filter," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53, 2566-2571 (2005).

K. Entesari, G. M. Rebeiz, "A differential 4-bit 6.5–10 GHz RF MEMS tunable filter," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53, 1103-1110 (2005).

A. S. Daryoush, E. Ackerman, N. R. Samant, S. Wanuga, D. Kasemset, "Interfaces for high speed fiber-optics links: Analysis and experiment," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 39, 2031-2044 (1991).

E. I. Ackerman, C. Cox, IIIG. Betts, H. Roussell, K. Ray, F. O'Donnell, "Input impedance conditions for minimizing the noise figure of an analog optical lLink," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 46, 2025-2031 (1998).

D. M. Sabido, L. G. Kazovsky, "Dynamic range of optically amplified RF optical links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1950-1955 (2001).

IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (1)

V. M. N. Passaro, F. Dell'Olio, "Scaling and optimization of MOS optical modulators in Nanometer SOI waveguides," IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 7, 401-408 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (9)

E. I. Ackerman, W. K. Burns, G. E. Betts, J. X. Chen, J. L. Prince, M. D. Regan, H. V. Roussell, C. H. Cox, "RF-Over-Fiber links with very low noise figure," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2441-2448 (2008).

S. Ryu, S. Yamamoto, H. Taga, Y. Yoshida, H. Wakabayashi, "Long haul coherent optical fiber communication systems using optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 251-260 (1991).

N. A. Olsson, "Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 7, 1071-1082 (1989).

M. S. Rasras, K. Y. Tu, D. M. Gill, Y. K. Chen, A. E. White, S. S. Patel, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, M. Beals, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, "Demonstration of a tunable microwave-photonic notch filter using low-loss silicon ring resonators," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2105-2110 (2005).

S. Yamashita, T. Okoshi, "Suppression of beat noise from optical amplifiers using coherent receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1029-1035 (1994).

J. Capmany, B. Ortega, D. Pastor, "A tutorial on microwave photonic filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 201-229 (2006).

T. Barwicz, M. A. Popovic, M. R. Watts, P. T. Rakich, E. P. Ippen, H. I. Smith, "Fabrication of add-drop filters based on frequency-matched microring resonators," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2207-2218 (2006).

D. K. Sparacin, S. J. Spector, L. C. Kimerling, "Silicon waveguide sidewall smoothing by wet chemical oxidation," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2455-2461 (2005).

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K.-Y. Tu, Y.-K. Chen, A. E. White, A. T. Pomerene, D. N. Carothers, M. J. Grove, D. K. Sparacin, J. Michel, M. A. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, "Demonstration of a fourth-order pole-zero optical filter integrated using CMOS processes," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 87-92 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (6)

L. Vivien, M. Rouviere, J. Fedeli, D. Marris-Morini, J. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. El Mehaoui, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, S. Laval, "High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator microwaveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 9843-9848 (2007).

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, F. X. Kaertner, "High performance, waveguide integrated Ge. photo detectors," Opt. Exp. 15, 3916-3921 (2007).

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shaya, M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbits/s carrier injection-based silicon microring modulators," Opt. Exp. 15, 430-436 (2007).

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, S. Wada, J. C. Kimerling, J. michel, "Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electroabsoption modulators and photodetectors on an SOI platform," Opt. Exp. 15, (2007).

H. W. Chen, Y. H. Kuo, J. E. Bowers, "High speed hybrid silicon evanescent Mach–Zehnder modulator and switch," Opt. Exp. 16, 20571-20576 (2008).

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, J. M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, P. Lyan, S. Laval, "Low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator based on a lateral carrier depletion structure," Opt. Exp. 16, 334-339 (2008).

Other (3)

S. A. Pappert, B. Krantz, "RF photonics for radar front-ends," Proc. Radar Conference (2007) pp. 965-970.

M. E. Manka, "Microwave photonics for electronic warfare applications," Proc. IEEE MWP'08 Conf. (2008) pp. 175-178.

H. Joshi, H. H. Sigmarsson, D. Peroulis, W. J. Chappell, "Highly loaded evanescent cavities for widely tunable high-Q filters," Proc. IEEE MTT Microwave Symp. (2007) pp. 2133-2136.

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