Abstract

This paper describes the 10-Gb/s, full $C$-band (1530 to 1565 nm) operation of 1.55-$\mu$m electroabsorption modulators (EAMs) designed to eliminate the cost of a back up light source for a 10-Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system. We employ InGaAlAs as the material for the EAM multiple-quantum well (MQW), and design it to achieve a sufficient extinction ratio and a low chirp $(\alpha)$ parameter over a wide wavelength range. A ridge waveguide buried in benzocyclobutene (BCB) is also introduced for the EAM waveguide. We design the width of the ridge waveguide and the thickness of a core layer that includes an MQW and separate confinement hetero-structure (SCH) layers by calculating the EAM capacitance. 6-well and 12-well based EAMs are fabricated to allow us to compare the wavelength dependence of their static/dynamic extinction ratios (SER/DER), and their small-signal electrical to optical (E/O) responses. We confirm that the 12-well based EAM provides a sufficient DER over the $C$ band. We also determine that the wavelength detuning $(\Delta \lambda)$ between an input light wavelength and an EA absorption peak is 100 nm at an input wavelength of 1530 nm, and evaluate the wavelength dependence of the chirp parameter, and the 40-km SMF transmission characteristics such as eye diagrams and the power penalty (PP). These experiments were conducted using a wavelength tunable laser while maintaining the input power of the EAM at about 13 dBm and changing the input wavelength over the $C$ band. The EAM was also driven with a constant modulation voltage swing $(V_{\rm pp})$ of 2.0 V while changing only the EAM bias voltage $(V_{b})$. We also measured the input power dependence of the chirp parameter. These results show that the 12-well based InGaAlAs EAM is a promising candidate for an optical modulator that can be used over the $C$ band in a low cost 10-Gb/s optical network system.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. ITUT. G. 959. 1, http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-G.959.1-200803-S.
  2. H. Oohashi, Y. Shibata, H. Ishii, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Kondo, Y. Yoshikuni, Y. Tohmori, "46.9-nm wavelength-selectable arrayed DFB lasers with integrated MMI coupler and SOA," Proc. Indium Phosphide Relat. Mater. (IPRM 2001) pp. 575-578.
  3. H. Ishii, K. Kasaya, H. Oohashi, H. Shibata, H. Yasaka, K. Okamoto, "Widely wavelength-tunable DFB laser array integrated with funnel combiner," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 1089-1094 (2007).
  4. T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, T. Kakitsuka, T. Sato, Y. Kondo, H. Suzuki, "Full $C$-band tuning operation of semiconductor double-ring resonator coupled laser with low tuning current," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1322-1324 (2007).
  5. H. Ishii, H. Tanobe, F. Kano, Y. Tohmori, Y. Kondo, Y. Yoshikuni, "Quasicontinuous wavelength tuning in super-structure-grating (SSG) DBR lasers," J. Quantum Electron. 32, 433-441 (1996).
  6. N. Fujiwara, T. Kakitsuka, M. Ishikawa, F. Kano, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Kondo, Y. Yoshikuni, Y. Tohmori, "Inherently mode-hop-free distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser array," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 1132-1137 (2003).
  7. N. Nunoya, H. Ishii, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Kondo, H. Oohashi, "Wideband tuning of tunable distributed amplification distributed feedback laser array," Electron. Lett. 44, 205-206 (2008).
  8. W. Choi, N. Frateschi, J. Zhang, H. Gebretsadik, R. Jambunathan, A. E. Bond, J. V. Norman, D. Vandegrift, C. Wanamaker, "Full $C$-band tunable high fibre output power electroabsorption modulator integrated with semiconductor optical amplifier," Electron. Lett. 39, 1271-1272 (2003).
  9. T. Ishikawa, J. E. Bowers, "Band lineup and in-plane effective mass of InGaAsP or InGaAlAs on InP strained-layer quantum well," J. Quantum Electron. 30, 562-570 (1994).
  10. M. Matsuda, K. Morito, K. Yamaji, T. Fujii, Y. Kotaki, "Novel method for designing chirp characteristics in electroabsorption MQW optical modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 364-366 (1998).
  11. W. Kobayashi, M. Arai, T. Yamanaka, N. Fujiwara, T. Fujisawa, T. Tadokoro, K. Tsuzuki, Y. Kondo, F. Kano, "Design and fabrication of 10-/40-Gb/s, uncooled electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser with butt-joint structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 164-171 (2010).
  12. J. Shimizu, M. Aoki, T. Tsuchiya, M. Shirai, A. Taike, T. Ohtoshi, S. Tsuji, "Advantages of optical modulators with InGaAlAs/InGaAlAs MQW structure," Electron. Lett. 38, 821-822 (2002).
  13. G. Bastard, E. E. Mendez, L. L. Chang, L. Esaki, "Variational calculation on a quantum well in an electric field," Phys. Rev. B 28, 3241 (1983).
  14. F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, J. F. Kerdiles, "Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and of chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1937-1940 (1993).
  15. T. Yamanaka, K. Wakita, K. Yokoyama, "Potential chirp-free characteristics (negative chirp parameter) in electroabsorption modulation using a wide tensile-strained quantum well structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3114-3116 (1996).
  16. T. Ido, H. Sano, S. Tanaka, H. Inoue, "Frequency-domain measurement of carrier escape time in MQW electro-absorption optical modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1421-1423 (1995).

2010 (1)

W. Kobayashi, M. Arai, T. Yamanaka, N. Fujiwara, T. Fujisawa, T. Tadokoro, K. Tsuzuki, Y. Kondo, F. Kano, "Design and fabrication of 10-/40-Gb/s, uncooled electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser with butt-joint structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 164-171 (2010).

2008 (1)

N. Nunoya, H. Ishii, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Kondo, H. Oohashi, "Wideband tuning of tunable distributed amplification distributed feedback laser array," Electron. Lett. 44, 205-206 (2008).

2007 (2)

H. Ishii, K. Kasaya, H. Oohashi, H. Shibata, H. Yasaka, K. Okamoto, "Widely wavelength-tunable DFB laser array integrated with funnel combiner," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 1089-1094 (2007).

T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, T. Kakitsuka, T. Sato, Y. Kondo, H. Suzuki, "Full $C$-band tuning operation of semiconductor double-ring resonator coupled laser with low tuning current," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1322-1324 (2007).

2003 (2)

W. Choi, N. Frateschi, J. Zhang, H. Gebretsadik, R. Jambunathan, A. E. Bond, J. V. Norman, D. Vandegrift, C. Wanamaker, "Full $C$-band tunable high fibre output power electroabsorption modulator integrated with semiconductor optical amplifier," Electron. Lett. 39, 1271-1272 (2003).

N. Fujiwara, T. Kakitsuka, M. Ishikawa, F. Kano, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Kondo, Y. Yoshikuni, Y. Tohmori, "Inherently mode-hop-free distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser array," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 1132-1137 (2003).

2002 (1)

J. Shimizu, M. Aoki, T. Tsuchiya, M. Shirai, A. Taike, T. Ohtoshi, S. Tsuji, "Advantages of optical modulators with InGaAlAs/InGaAlAs MQW structure," Electron. Lett. 38, 821-822 (2002).

1998 (1)

M. Matsuda, K. Morito, K. Yamaji, T. Fujii, Y. Kotaki, "Novel method for designing chirp characteristics in electroabsorption MQW optical modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 364-366 (1998).

1996 (2)

H. Ishii, H. Tanobe, F. Kano, Y. Tohmori, Y. Kondo, Y. Yoshikuni, "Quasicontinuous wavelength tuning in super-structure-grating (SSG) DBR lasers," J. Quantum Electron. 32, 433-441 (1996).

T. Yamanaka, K. Wakita, K. Yokoyama, "Potential chirp-free characteristics (negative chirp parameter) in electroabsorption modulation using a wide tensile-strained quantum well structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3114-3116 (1996).

1995 (1)

T. Ido, H. Sano, S. Tanaka, H. Inoue, "Frequency-domain measurement of carrier escape time in MQW electro-absorption optical modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1421-1423 (1995).

1994 (1)

T. Ishikawa, J. E. Bowers, "Band lineup and in-plane effective mass of InGaAsP or InGaAlAs on InP strained-layer quantum well," J. Quantum Electron. 30, 562-570 (1994).

1993 (1)

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, J. F. Kerdiles, "Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and of chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1937-1940 (1993).

1983 (1)

G. Bastard, E. E. Mendez, L. L. Chang, L. Esaki, "Variational calculation on a quantum well in an electric field," Phys. Rev. B 28, 3241 (1983).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Yamanaka, K. Wakita, K. Yokoyama, "Potential chirp-free characteristics (negative chirp parameter) in electroabsorption modulation using a wide tensile-strained quantum well structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3114-3116 (1996).

Electron. Lett. (3)

J. Shimizu, M. Aoki, T. Tsuchiya, M. Shirai, A. Taike, T. Ohtoshi, S. Tsuji, "Advantages of optical modulators with InGaAlAs/InGaAlAs MQW structure," Electron. Lett. 38, 821-822 (2002).

N. Nunoya, H. Ishii, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Kondo, H. Oohashi, "Wideband tuning of tunable distributed amplification distributed feedback laser array," Electron. Lett. 44, 205-206 (2008).

W. Choi, N. Frateschi, J. Zhang, H. Gebretsadik, R. Jambunathan, A. E. Bond, J. V. Norman, D. Vandegrift, C. Wanamaker, "Full $C$-band tunable high fibre output power electroabsorption modulator integrated with semiconductor optical amplifier," Electron. Lett. 39, 1271-1272 (2003).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2)

H. Ishii, K. Kasaya, H. Oohashi, H. Shibata, H. Yasaka, K. Okamoto, "Widely wavelength-tunable DFB laser array integrated with funnel combiner," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 13, 1089-1094 (2007).

N. Fujiwara, T. Kakitsuka, M. Ishikawa, F. Kano, H. Okamoto, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Kondo, Y. Yoshikuni, Y. Tohmori, "Inherently mode-hop-free distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser array," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 1132-1137 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

T. Ido, H. Sano, S. Tanaka, H. Inoue, "Frequency-domain measurement of carrier escape time in MQW electro-absorption optical modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 7, 1421-1423 (1995).

T. Segawa, S. Matsuo, T. Kakitsuka, T. Sato, Y. Kondo, H. Suzuki, "Full $C$-band tuning operation of semiconductor double-ring resonator coupled laser with low tuning current," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1322-1324 (2007).

M. Matsuda, K. Morito, K. Yamaji, T. Fujii, Y. Kotaki, "Novel method for designing chirp characteristics in electroabsorption MQW optical modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 364-366 (1998).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

W. Kobayashi, M. Arai, T. Yamanaka, N. Fujiwara, T. Fujisawa, T. Tadokoro, K. Tsuzuki, Y. Kondo, F. Kano, "Design and fabrication of 10-/40-Gb/s, uncooled electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB laser with butt-joint structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 28, 164-171 (2010).

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, J. F. Kerdiles, "Simple measurement of fiber dispersion and of chirp parameter of intensity modulated light emitter," J. Lightw. Technol. 11, 1937-1940 (1993).

J. Quantum Electron. (2)

T. Ishikawa, J. E. Bowers, "Band lineup and in-plane effective mass of InGaAsP or InGaAlAs on InP strained-layer quantum well," J. Quantum Electron. 30, 562-570 (1994).

H. Ishii, H. Tanobe, F. Kano, Y. Tohmori, Y. Kondo, Y. Yoshikuni, "Quasicontinuous wavelength tuning in super-structure-grating (SSG) DBR lasers," J. Quantum Electron. 32, 433-441 (1996).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

G. Bastard, E. E. Mendez, L. L. Chang, L. Esaki, "Variational calculation on a quantum well in an electric field," Phys. Rev. B 28, 3241 (1983).

Other (2)

ITUT. G. 959. 1, http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-G.959.1-200803-S.

H. Oohashi, Y. Shibata, H. Ishii, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Kondo, Y. Yoshikuni, Y. Tohmori, "46.9-nm wavelength-selectable arrayed DFB lasers with integrated MMI coupler and SOA," Proc. Indium Phosphide Relat. Mater. (IPRM 2001) pp. 575-578.

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