Abstract

In this paper, a 2$\,\times\,$2 split cross-bar optical switch which employs a hybrid actuation configuration is presented. The main advantages of this proposed switch include low actuation voltage, low power consumption, and easy fiber alignment. This optical switch consists of a micromachined micro-mirror structure and a mini-actuator module. The micro-mirror structure, which comprises two movable vertical mirrors with cantilevers, two fixed vertical mirrors, and light-path trenches, is realized by using a simple KOH silicon etching process. The mini-actuator module, which includes two commercially-available electromagnetic bistable actuators attached with L-shaped arms, is used to actuate micro-mirrors. The measured insertion losses of the proposed switch is between ${-}1\hbox{--}-1.2$ dB, the cross-talk is about ${-}60$ dB, and the switching time is less than 13 ms. The long-term reliability test of the SCB switch is performed by continuously actuating the device for 10 000 cycles at 1 Hz, and the deviation of the measured insertion loss is less than 0.05 dB.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. M. C. Wu, A. Solgaard, J. E. Ford, "Optical MEMS for lightwave communication," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4433-4454 (2006).
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  11. H. Maekoba, P. Helin, G. Reyne, T. Bourouina, H. Fujita, "Self-aligned vertical mirror and V-grooves applied to an optical-switch: Modeling and optimization of bistable operation by electromagnetic actuation," Sens. Actuators A-Phys. 87, 172-178 (2001).
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  14. D. M. Sun, W. Dong, G. D. Wang, C. X. Liu, X. Yan, B. K. Xu, W. Y. Chen, "Study of a 2$\,\times\,$2 MOEMS optical switch with electrostatic actuating," Sens. Actuators A-Phys. 120, 249-256 (2005).
  15. Z. L. Huang, J. Shen, "Latching micromagnetic optical switch," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 16-23 (2006).
  16. H. Toshiyoshi, H. Fujita, "Electrostatic micro torsion mirrors for an optical switch matrix," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 5, 231-237 (1996).
  17. G. Zhu, G.-S. Kuo, "A novel integrated multistage 2-D MEMS optical switch with spanke-benes architecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 560-568 (2008).
  18. Y.-J. Yang, B.-T. Liao, W.-C. Kuo, "A novel 2$\,\times\,$2 MEMS optical switch using the split cross-bar design," J. Micromech. Microeng. 17, 875-882 (2007).
  19. S.-H. Chen, K.-C. Fan, T.-T. Chung, Y.-J. Yang, "A ${\rm N} \times {\rm N}$ architecture for 2-D mirror-type optical switches," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2843-2851 (2009).
  20. O. Powell, H. B. Harrison, "Anisotropic etching of $\{100\}$ and $\{110\}$ planes in (100) silicon," J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 217-220 (2001).
  21. G. Ensell, "Alignment of mask patterns to crystal orientation," Sens. Actuators A-Phys. 53, 345-348 (1996).
  22. J. M. Lai, W. H. Chieng, Y. C. Huang, "Precision alignment of mask etching with respect to crystal orientation," J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 327-329 (1998).
  23. K.-C. Fan, W.-L. Lin, L.-H. Chiang, S.-H. Chen, T.-T. Chung, Y.-J. Yang, "A 2$\,\times\,$2 mechanical optical switch with a thin MEMS mirror," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1155-1161 (2009).
  24. Technical Reference TR-NWT-001073: Generic Requirements for Fiber Optic Switches, (1994).

2009 (2)

S.-H. Chen, K.-C. Fan, T.-T. Chung, Y.-J. Yang, "A ${\rm N} \times {\rm N}$ architecture for 2-D mirror-type optical switches," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2843-2851 (2009).

K.-C. Fan, W.-L. Lin, L.-H. Chiang, S.-H. Chen, T.-T. Chung, Y.-J. Yang, "A 2$\,\times\,$2 mechanical optical switch with a thin MEMS mirror," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1155-1161 (2009).

2008 (2)

G. Zhu, G.-S. Kuo, "A novel integrated multistage 2-D MEMS optical switch with spanke-benes architecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 560-568 (2008).

Q. H. Chen, W. G. Wu, G. Z. Yan, Z. Q. Wang, Y. L. Hao, "Novel multifunctional device for optical power splitting, switching, and attenuating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 632-634 (2008).

2007 (2)

M. A. Basha, N. Dechev, S. Safavi-Naeini, S. K. Chaudhuri, "A scalable $1 \times {\rm N}$ optical MEMS switch architecture utilizing a microassembled rotating micromirror," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 336-347 (2007).

Y.-J. Yang, B.-T. Liao, W.-C. Kuo, "A novel 2$\,\times\,$2 MEMS optical switch using the split cross-bar design," J. Micromech. Microeng. 17, 875-882 (2007).

2006 (2)

Z. L. Huang, J. Shen, "Latching micromagnetic optical switch," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 16-23 (2006).

M. C. Wu, A. Solgaard, J. E. Ford, "Optical MEMS for lightwave communication," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4433-4454 (2006).

2005 (2)

R. Guerre, C. Hibert, Y. Burri, P. Fluckiger, P. Renaud, "Fabrication of vertical digital silicon optical micromirrors on suspended electrode for guided-wave optical switching applications," Sens. Actuators A-Phys. 123โ€“124, 570-583 (2005).

D. M. Sun, W. Dong, G. D. Wang, C. X. Liu, X. Yan, B. K. Xu, W. Y. Chen, "Study of a 2$\,\times\,$2 MOEMS optical switch with electrostatic actuating," Sens. Actuators A-Phys. 120, 249-256 (2005).

2004 (3)

J. J. Bernstein, W. P. Taylor, J. D. Brazzle, C. J. Corcoran, G. Kirkos, J. E. Odhner, A. Pareek, M. Waelti, M. Zai, "Electromagnetically actuated mirror arrays for use in 3-D optical switching applications," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 13, 526-535 (2004).

D. T. Neilson, R. Frahm, P. Kolodner, C. A. Bolle, R. Ryf, J. Kim, A. R. Papazian, C. J. Nuzman, A. Gasparyan, N. R. Basavanhally, V. A. Aksyuk, J. V. Gates, "256$\,\times\,$256 port optical cross-connect subsystem," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1499-1509 (2004).

C. H. Ji, Y. Yee, J. Choi, S. H. Kim, J. U. Bu, "Electromagnetic 2$\,\times\,$2 MEMS optical switch," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 545-550 (2004).

2003 (3)

J. Li, Q. X. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, "Advanced fiber optical switches using deep RIE (DRIE) fabrication," Sens. Actuators A-Phys. 102, 286-295 (2003).

V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, D. Carr, D. Greywall, H. B. Chan, M. E. Simon, A. Gasparyan, H. Shea, V. Lifton, C. Bolle, S. Arney, R. Frahm, M. Paczkowski, M. Haueis, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. Kim, C. R. Giles, D. Bishop, "Beam-steering micromirrors for large optical cross-connects," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 634-642 (2003).

X. Z. Zheng, V. Kaman, S. F. Yuan, Y. J. Xu, O. Jerphagnon, A. Keating, R. C. Anderson, H. N. Poulsen, B. Liu, J. R. Sechrist, C. Pusarla, R. Helkey, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, "Three-dimensional MEMS photonic cross-connect switch design and performance," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 571-578 (2003).

2002 (1)

D. J. Bishop, C. R. Giles, G. P. Austin, "The lucent LambdaRouter: MEMS technology of the future here today," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 75-79 (2002).

2001 (2)

H. Maekoba, P. Helin, G. Reyne, T. Bourouina, H. Fujita, "Self-aligned vertical mirror and V-grooves applied to an optical-switch: Modeling and optimization of bistable operation by electromagnetic actuation," Sens. Actuators A-Phys. 87, 172-178 (2001).

O. Powell, H. B. Harrison, "Anisotropic etching of $\{100\}$ and $\{110\}$ planes in (100) silicon," J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 217-220 (2001).

1998 (1)

J. M. Lai, W. H. Chieng, Y. C. Huang, "Precision alignment of mask etching with respect to crystal orientation," J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 327-329 (1998).

1997 (1)

C. Marxer, C. Thio, M. A. Gretillat, N. F. deRooij, R. Battig, O. Anthamatten, B. Valk, P. Vogel, "Vertical mirrors fabricated by deep reactive ion etching for fiber-optic switching applications," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 6, 277-285 (1997).

1996 (2)

G. Ensell, "Alignment of mask patterns to crystal orientation," Sens. Actuators A-Phys. 53, 345-348 (1996).

H. Toshiyoshi, H. Fujita, "Electrostatic micro torsion mirrors for an optical switch matrix," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 5, 231-237 (1996).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

D. J. Bishop, C. R. Giles, G. P. Austin, "The lucent LambdaRouter: MEMS technology of the future here today," IEEE Commun. Mag. 40, 75-79 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. A. Basha, N. Dechev, S. Safavi-Naeini, S. K. Chaudhuri, "A scalable $1 \times {\rm N}$ optical MEMS switch architecture utilizing a microassembled rotating micromirror," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 336-347 (2007).

X. Z. Zheng, V. Kaman, S. F. Yuan, Y. J. Xu, O. Jerphagnon, A. Keating, R. C. Anderson, H. N. Poulsen, B. Liu, J. R. Sechrist, C. Pusarla, R. Helkey, D. J. Blumenthal, J. E. Bowers, "Three-dimensional MEMS photonic cross-connect switch design and performance," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 571-578 (2003).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

C. H. Ji, Y. Yee, J. Choi, S. H. Kim, J. U. Bu, "Electromagnetic 2$\,\times\,$2 MEMS optical switch," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 545-550 (2004).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Q. H. Chen, W. G. Wu, G. Z. Yan, Z. Q. Wang, Y. L. Hao, "Novel multifunctional device for optical power splitting, switching, and attenuating," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 632-634 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

M. C. Wu, A. Solgaard, J. E. Ford, "Optical MEMS for lightwave communication," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4433-4454 (2006).

D. T. Neilson, R. Frahm, P. Kolodner, C. A. Bolle, R. Ryf, J. Kim, A. R. Papazian, C. J. Nuzman, A. Gasparyan, N. R. Basavanhally, V. A. Aksyuk, J. V. Gates, "256$\,\times\,$256 port optical cross-connect subsystem," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1499-1509 (2004).

V. A. Aksyuk, F. Pardo, D. Carr, D. Greywall, H. B. Chan, M. E. Simon, A. Gasparyan, H. Shea, V. Lifton, C. Bolle, S. Arney, R. Frahm, M. Paczkowski, M. Haueis, R. Ryf, D. T. Neilson, J. Kim, C. R. Giles, D. Bishop, "Beam-steering micromirrors for large optical cross-connects," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 634-642 (2003).

G. Zhu, G.-S. Kuo, "A novel integrated multistage 2-D MEMS optical switch with spanke-benes architecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 560-568 (2008).

S.-H. Chen, K.-C. Fan, T.-T. Chung, Y.-J. Yang, "A ${\rm N} \times {\rm N}$ architecture for 2-D mirror-type optical switches," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2843-2851 (2009).

K.-C. Fan, W.-L. Lin, L.-H. Chiang, S.-H. Chen, T.-T. Chung, Y.-J. Yang, "A 2$\,\times\,$2 mechanical optical switch with a thin MEMS mirror," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1155-1161 (2009).

J. Microelectromech. Syst. (4)

Z. L. Huang, J. Shen, "Latching micromagnetic optical switch," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 15, 16-23 (2006).

H. Toshiyoshi, H. Fujita, "Electrostatic micro torsion mirrors for an optical switch matrix," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 5, 231-237 (1996).

J. J. Bernstein, W. P. Taylor, J. D. Brazzle, C. J. Corcoran, G. Kirkos, J. E. Odhner, A. Pareek, M. Waelti, M. Zai, "Electromagnetically actuated mirror arrays for use in 3-D optical switching applications," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 13, 526-535 (2004).

C. Marxer, C. Thio, M. A. Gretillat, N. F. deRooij, R. Battig, O. Anthamatten, B. Valk, P. Vogel, "Vertical mirrors fabricated by deep reactive ion etching for fiber-optic switching applications," J. Microelectromech. Syst. 6, 277-285 (1997).

J. Micromech. Microeng. (3)

Y.-J. Yang, B.-T. Liao, W.-C. Kuo, "A novel 2$\,\times\,$2 MEMS optical switch using the split cross-bar design," J. Micromech. Microeng. 17, 875-882 (2007).

O. Powell, H. B. Harrison, "Anisotropic etching of $\{100\}$ and $\{110\}$ planes in (100) silicon," J. Micromech. Microeng. 11, 217-220 (2001).

J. M. Lai, W. H. Chieng, Y. C. Huang, "Precision alignment of mask etching with respect to crystal orientation," J. Micromech. Microeng. 8, 327-329 (1998).

Sens. Actuators A-Phys. (5)

G. Ensell, "Alignment of mask patterns to crystal orientation," Sens. Actuators A-Phys. 53, 345-348 (1996).

D. M. Sun, W. Dong, G. D. Wang, C. X. Liu, X. Yan, B. K. Xu, W. Y. Chen, "Study of a 2$\,\times\,$2 MOEMS optical switch with electrostatic actuating," Sens. Actuators A-Phys. 120, 249-256 (2005).

H. Maekoba, P. Helin, G. Reyne, T. Bourouina, H. Fujita, "Self-aligned vertical mirror and V-grooves applied to an optical-switch: Modeling and optimization of bistable operation by electromagnetic actuation," Sens. Actuators A-Phys. 87, 172-178 (2001).

J. Li, Q. X. Zhang, A. Q. Liu, "Advanced fiber optical switches using deep RIE (DRIE) fabrication," Sens. Actuators A-Phys. 102, 286-295 (2003).

R. Guerre, C. Hibert, Y. Burri, P. Fluckiger, P. Renaud, "Fabrication of vertical digital silicon optical micromirrors on suspended electrode for guided-wave optical switching applications," Sens. Actuators A-Phys. 123โ€“124, 570-583 (2005).

Other (1)

Technical Reference TR-NWT-001073: Generic Requirements for Fiber Optic Switches, (1994).

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