Abstract

We present the first demonstration of an optical sampling system, using the optical Kerr effect in a chip-scale device, enabling combined capability for femtosecond resolution and broadband signal wavelength tunability. A temporal resolution ${ < }500$ fs is achieved using four-wave mixing in a 7-cm-short chalcogenide planar waveguide. The use of a short length, dispersion-shifted waveguide with ultrahigh nonlinearity ($10^4\;{\rm W}^{-1}{\cdot}{\rm{km}}^{-1}$) enables high-resolution optical sampling without the detrimental effect of chromatic dispersion on the temporal distortion of the signal and sampling pulses, as well as their phase mismatch. Using the device, we successfully monitor a 640-Gb/s optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) datastream, showcasing its potential for integrated chip-based monitoring of signals at bitrates approaching and beyond Tb/s. We discuss fundamental limitations and potential improvements.

© 2010 IEEE

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  3. N. Yamada, S. Nogiwa, H. Ohta, "640-Gb/s OTDM signal measurement with high-resolution optical sampling using wavelength-tunable soliton pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1125-1127 (2004).
  4. M. Shirane, Y. Hashimoto, H. Yamada, H. Yokoyama, "A compact optical sampling measurement system using mode-locked laser-diode modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1537-1539 (2000).
  5. B. P. Nelson, N. J. Doran, "Optical sampling oscilloscope using nonlinear fiber loop mirror," Electron. Lett. 27, 204-205 (1991).
  6. M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, H. Sunnerud, J. Hansryd, J. Li, "High-performance optical-fiber-nonlinearity-based optical waveform monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2012-2022 (2005).
  7. R. L. Jungerman, G. Lee, O. Buccafusca, Y. Kaneko, N. Itagaki, R. Shioda, A. Harada, Y. Nihei, G. Sucha, "1-THz bandwidth C- and L-band optical sampling with a bit rate agile timebase," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1148-1150 (2002).
  8. M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, "Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope," Nature 456, 81-85 (2008).
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  10. K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).
  11. S. Ayotte, S. Xu, H. Rong, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, "Dispersion compensation by optical phase conjugation in silicon waveguide," Electron. Lett. 43, 1037-1039 (2007).
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  15. PSO-101 Optical Sampling Oscilloscope Datasheet 2009 http://documents.exfo.com/specsheets/PSO-100-angHR.pdf.
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  18. F. Luan, M. D. Pelusi, M. R. E. Lamont, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersion engineered As$_2$S$_3$ planar waveguides for broadband four-wave mixing based wavelength conversion of 40 Gb/s signals," Opt. Exp. 17, 3514-3520 (2009).
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  20. T. Inoue, S. Namiki, "Pulse compression techniques using highly nonlinear fibers," Lasers Photon. Rev. 2, 83-99 (2008).
  21. V. G. Ta'eed, M. D. Pelusi, B. J. Eggleton, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, "Broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s using long serpentine As$_2$S$_3$ planar waveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 15047-15052 (2007).

2009 (2)

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, "Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyzer with terahertz bandwidth," Nature Photon. 3, 139-143 (2009).

F. Luan, M. D. Pelusi, M. R. E. Lamont, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersion engineered As$_2$S$_3$ planar waveguides for broadband four-wave mixing based wavelength conversion of 40 Gb/s signals," Opt. Exp. 17, 3514-3520 (2009).

2008 (5)

T. Inoue, S. Namiki, "Pulse compression techniques using highly nonlinear fibers," Lasers Photon. Rev. 2, 83-99 (2008).

M. D. Pelusi, V. G. Ta'eed, L. Fu, E. Mägi, M. R. E. Lamont, S. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, "Applications of highly-nonlinear chalcogenide glass devices tailored for high-speed all-optical signal processing," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 529-539 (2008).

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, "Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope," Nature 456, 81-85 (2008).

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nature Photon. 2, 35-38 (2008).

M. R. E. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, X. Gai, B. J. Eggleton, "Net-gain from a parametric amplifier on a chalcogenide optical chip," Opt. Exp. 16, 20374-20381 (2008).

2007 (4)

S. Ayotte, S. Xu, H. Rong, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, "Dispersion compensation by optical phase conjugation in silicon waveguide," Electron. Lett. 43, 1037-1039 (2007).

M. R. E. Lamont, C. M. de Sterke, B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersion engineering of highly nonlinear As$_2$S$_3$ waveguides for parametric gain and wavelength conversion," Opt. Exp. 15, 9458-9463 (2007).

V. G. Ta'eed, M. D. Pelusi, B. J. Eggleton, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, "Broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s using long serpentine As$_2$S$_3$ planar waveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 15047-15052 (2007).

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta'eed, M. D. Pelusi, B. J. Eggleton, "Long, low loss etched As$_2$S$_3$ chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration," Opt. Exp. 15, 14414-14421 (2007).

2006 (1)

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).

2005 (2)

M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, H. Sunnerud, J. Hansryd, J. Li, "High-performance optical-fiber-nonlinearity-based optical waveform monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2012-2022 (2005).

C. Schmidt-Langhorst, H.-G. Weber, "Optical sampling techniques," J. Opt. Fiber. Commun. Rep. 2, 86-114 (2005).

2004 (1)

N. Yamada, S. Nogiwa, H. Ohta, "640-Gb/s OTDM signal measurement with high-resolution optical sampling using wavelength-tunable soliton pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1125-1127 (2004).

2002 (1)

R. L. Jungerman, G. Lee, O. Buccafusca, Y. Kaneko, N. Itagaki, R. Shioda, A. Harada, Y. Nihei, G. Sucha, "1-THz bandwidth C- and L-band optical sampling with a bit rate agile timebase," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1148-1150 (2002).

2001 (1)

H. Ohta, N. Banjo, N. Yamada, S. Nogiwa, Y. Yanagisawa, "Measuring eye diagram of 320 Gbit/s optical signal by optical sampling using passively mode-locked fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 37, 1541-1542 (2001).

2000 (1)

M. Shirane, Y. Hashimoto, H. Yamada, H. Yokoyama, "A compact optical sampling measurement system using mode-locked laser-diode modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1537-1539 (2000).

1991 (1)

B. P. Nelson, N. J. Doran, "Optical sampling oscilloscope using nonlinear fiber loop mirror," Electron. Lett. 27, 204-205 (1991).

Electron. Lett. (3)

H. Ohta, N. Banjo, N. Yamada, S. Nogiwa, Y. Yanagisawa, "Measuring eye diagram of 320 Gbit/s optical signal by optical sampling using passively mode-locked fiber laser," Electron. Lett. 37, 1541-1542 (2001).

B. P. Nelson, N. J. Doran, "Optical sampling oscilloscope using nonlinear fiber loop mirror," Electron. Lett. 27, 204-205 (1991).

S. Ayotte, S. Xu, H. Rong, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, "Dispersion compensation by optical phase conjugation in silicon waveguide," Electron. Lett. 43, 1037-1039 (2007).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. D. Pelusi, V. G. Ta'eed, L. Fu, E. Mägi, M. R. E. Lamont, S. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. P. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, "Applications of highly-nonlinear chalcogenide glass devices tailored for high-speed all-optical signal processing," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 529-539 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

N. Yamada, S. Nogiwa, H. Ohta, "640-Gb/s OTDM signal measurement with high-resolution optical sampling using wavelength-tunable soliton pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1125-1127 (2004).

M. Shirane, Y. Hashimoto, H. Yamada, H. Yokoyama, "A compact optical sampling measurement system using mode-locked laser-diode modules," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 1537-1539 (2000).

R. L. Jungerman, G. Lee, O. Buccafusca, Y. Kaneko, N. Itagaki, R. Shioda, A. Harada, Y. Nihei, G. Sucha, "1-THz bandwidth C- and L-band optical sampling with a bit rate agile timebase," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1148-1150 (2002).

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

M. Westlund, P. A. Andrekson, H. Sunnerud, J. Hansryd, J. Li, "High-performance optical-fiber-nonlinearity-based optical waveform monitoring," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2012-2022 (2005).

J. Opt. Fiber. Commun. Rep. (1)

C. Schmidt-Langhorst, H.-G. Weber, "Optical sampling techniques," J. Opt. Fiber. Commun. Rep. 2, 86-114 (2005).

Lasers Photon. Rev. (1)

T. Inoue, S. Namiki, "Pulse compression techniques using highly nonlinear fibers," Lasers Photon. Rev. 2, 83-99 (2008).

Nature (1)

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, "Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope," Nature 456, 81-85 (2008).

Nature Photon. (2)

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, "Signal regeneration using low-power four-wave mixing on silicon chip," Nature Photon. 2, 35-38 (2008).

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, "Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyzer with terahertz bandwidth," Nature Photon. 3, 139-143 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (5)

M. R. E. Lamont, C. M. de Sterke, B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersion engineering of highly nonlinear As$_2$S$_3$ waveguides for parametric gain and wavelength conversion," Opt. Exp. 15, 9458-9463 (2007).

M. R. E. Lamont, B. Luther-Davies, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, X. Gai, B. J. Eggleton, "Net-gain from a parametric amplifier on a chalcogenide optical chip," Opt. Exp. 16, 20374-20381 (2008).

F. Luan, M. D. Pelusi, M. R. E. Lamont, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersion engineered As$_2$S$_3$ planar waveguides for broadband four-wave mixing based wavelength conversion of 40 Gb/s signals," Opt. Exp. 17, 3514-3520 (2009).

S. J. Madden, D. Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta'eed, M. D. Pelusi, B. J. Eggleton, "Long, low loss etched As$_2$S$_3$ chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration," Opt. Exp. 15, 14414-14421 (2007).

V. G. Ta'eed, M. D. Pelusi, B. J. Eggleton, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, "Broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s using long serpentine As$_2$S$_3$ planar waveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 15047-15052 (2007).

Other (2)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

PSO-101 Optical Sampling Oscilloscope Datasheet 2009 http://documents.exfo.com/specsheets/PSO-100-angHR.pdf.

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