Abstract

We present an analytical study of multipath interference (MPI) in pulse-pumped fiber Raman amplifiers (FRAs), caused by the internal reflections from the fiber facets and the effect of Rayleigh backscattering. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we derive a generalized expression for the MPI-induced noise on signal in counter-pumped FRAs. The obtained result takes into account four major sources of MPI, suggests their physically transparent classification, and enables us to predict the FRA's noise performance for an arbitrary modulated pump. Using the derived expression, we characterize the MPI-induced noise in a typical 80-km span of single-mode optical fiber. Specifically, we examine the noise enhancement in the pulse-pumped amplifier as compared to the amplifier operating in the continuous-wave regime, and analyze its dependence on the on-off gain and the pump-pulse duty cycle. We also estimate the impact of the MPI-induced noise transfer on the amplifier's performance, and discuss the optimal choice of pump modulation for different values of Q-penalty. The results of our study are important for the design optimization of FRAs with time-division-multiplexed pumping.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. J. Bromage, "Raman amplification for fiber communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 79-93 (2004).
  2. M. Premaratne, "Analytical characterization of optical power and noise figure of forward pumped Raman amplifiers," Opt. Express 15, 4235-4245 (2004).
  3. A. C. O. Chan, M. Premaratne, "Dispersion-compensating fiber Raman amplifiers with step, parabolic, and triangular refractive index profiles," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1190-1197 (2007).
  4. S. Namiki, Y. Emori, "Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by wavelength-division-multiplexed high-power laser diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 3-16 (2001).
  5. L. F. Mollenauer, A. R. Grant, P. V. Mamyshev, "Time-division multiplexing of pump wavelengths to achieve ultrabroadband, flat, backward-pumped Raman gain," Opt. Lett. 27, 592-594 (2002).
  6. M. A. Mahdi, S. J. Sheih, "Effects of time-division multiplexing of two-pump wavelengths on a counter-pumped Raman-fiber amplifier," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 42, 238-239 (2004).
  7. P. J. Winzer, K. Sherman, M. Zirngibl, "Time-division multiplexed Raman pump experiment using a tunable $C$-band laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 789-791 (2002).
  8. C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek, N. Jolley, R. J. Mears, "Novel ultra-broadband high performance distributed Raman amplifier employing pump modulation," Proc. OFC (2002) pp. 183-184.
  9. M. Karasek, J. Kanka, J. Radil, J. Vojtech, "Large signal model of TDM-pumped Raman fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1848-1850 (2005).
  10. A. R. Grant, "Calculating the Raman pump distribution to achieve minimum gain ripple," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1503-1509 (2002).
  11. P. J. Winzer, J. Bromage, R. T. Kane, P. A. Sammer, C. H. Headley, "Repetition rate requirements for time division multiplexed Raman pumping," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 401-408 (2004).
  12. J. Bromage, P. J. Winzer, L. E. Nelson, M. D. Mermelstein, C. Horn, C. H. Headley, "Amplified spontaneous emission in pulse-pumped Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 667-669 (2003).
  13. V. Kalavally, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, T. Win, "Analytical study of RIN transfer in pulse-pumped Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4536-4543 (2009).
  14. G. Bolognini, S. Sugliani, F. Di Pasquale, "Double Rayleigh scattering noise in Raman amplifiers using pump time-division-multiplexing schemes," IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. 16, 1286-1288 (2004).
  15. S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, "Characterisation of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 528-530 (2000).
  16. M. Nissov, K. Rottwitt, H. D. Kidorf, M. X. Ma, "Rayleigh crosstalk in long cascades of distributed unsaturated Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 35, 997-998 (1999).
  17. C. R. S. Fludger, R. J. Mears, "Electrical measurements of multipath interference in distributed Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 536-545 (2001).
  18. C. H. Kim, J. Bromage, R. M. Jopson, "Reflection-induced penalty in Raman amplified systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 573-575 (2002).
  19. G. Bolognini, A. Bononi, "Reduction of double Rayleigh scattering noise in distributed Raman amplifiers employing higher-order pumping," Opt. Exp. 17, 6996-7003 (2009).
  20. P. Parolari, L. Marazzi, L. Bernardini, M. Martinelli, "Double Rayleigh scattering noise in lumped and distributed Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2224-2228 (2003).
  21. R. J. Essiambre, "Effects of Raman noise and double Rayleigh backscattering on bidirectionally Raman-pumped systems at constant fibre nonlinearity," Proc. ECOC (2001) pp. 108-109.
  22. S. Jiang, B. Bristiel, Y. Jaouen, P. Gallion, E. Pincemin, "Bit-error-rate evaluation of the distributed Raman amplified transmission systems in the presence of double Rayleigh backscattering noise," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 468-470 (2007).
  23. W. Zhang, J. Peng, X. Liu, C. Fan, "An analytical expression of equivalent noise figure for distributed Raman amplifiers with Rayleigh scattering," Opt. Commun. 199, 231-236 (2001).
  24. C. H. Kim, "Analysis of combined effect of pump-intensity noise and reflection in counter-pumped Raman amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 13, 6099-6104 (2005).
  25. A. Artamonov, V. Smokovdin, M. Kleshov, S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, "Enhancement of double Rayleigh scattering by pump intensity noise in fiber Raman amplifiers," Proc. OFC (2002) pp. 186.
  26. M. N. Islam, Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications 2: Sub-Systems and Systems (Springer, 2004).
  27. C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek, R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1140-1148 (2001).
  28. M. V. Dashkov, "Investigation of noise performance in Raman amplifiers of various design," Proc. SPIE (2006) pp. 627701(1)-627701(10).
  29. P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, D. J. DiGiovanni, "Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplfiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 159-161 (1998).
  30. S. Faralli, F. Di Pasquale, "Impact of double Rayleigh scattering noise in distributed higher order Raman pumping schemes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 804-806 (2003).
  31. E. Desurvire, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Theory and implementation of a Raman active fiber delay line," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 426-443 (1986).
  32. A. Kobyakov, S. Gray, M. Vasilyev, "Quantitative analysis of Rayleigh crosstalk in Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 732-733 (2003).

2009 (2)

V. Kalavally, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, T. Win, "Analytical study of RIN transfer in pulse-pumped Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4536-4543 (2009).

G. Bolognini, A. Bononi, "Reduction of double Rayleigh scattering noise in distributed Raman amplifiers employing higher-order pumping," Opt. Exp. 17, 6996-7003 (2009).

2007 (2)

S. Jiang, B. Bristiel, Y. Jaouen, P. Gallion, E. Pincemin, "Bit-error-rate evaluation of the distributed Raman amplified transmission systems in the presence of double Rayleigh backscattering noise," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 468-470 (2007).

A. C. O. Chan, M. Premaratne, "Dispersion-compensating fiber Raman amplifiers with step, parabolic, and triangular refractive index profiles," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1190-1197 (2007).

2005 (2)

C. H. Kim, "Analysis of combined effect of pump-intensity noise and reflection in counter-pumped Raman amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 13, 6099-6104 (2005).

M. Karasek, J. Kanka, J. Radil, J. Vojtech, "Large signal model of TDM-pumped Raman fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1848-1850 (2005).

2004 (5)

M. A. Mahdi, S. J. Sheih, "Effects of time-division multiplexing of two-pump wavelengths on a counter-pumped Raman-fiber amplifier," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 42, 238-239 (2004).

G. Bolognini, S. Sugliani, F. Di Pasquale, "Double Rayleigh scattering noise in Raman amplifiers using pump time-division-multiplexing schemes," IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. 16, 1286-1288 (2004).

P. J. Winzer, J. Bromage, R. T. Kane, P. A. Sammer, C. H. Headley, "Repetition rate requirements for time division multiplexed Raman pumping," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 401-408 (2004).

J. Bromage, "Raman amplification for fiber communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 79-93 (2004).

M. Premaratne, "Analytical characterization of optical power and noise figure of forward pumped Raman amplifiers," Opt. Express 15, 4235-4245 (2004).

2003 (4)

S. Faralli, F. Di Pasquale, "Impact of double Rayleigh scattering noise in distributed higher order Raman pumping schemes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 804-806 (2003).

A. Kobyakov, S. Gray, M. Vasilyev, "Quantitative analysis of Rayleigh crosstalk in Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 732-733 (2003).

J. Bromage, P. J. Winzer, L. E. Nelson, M. D. Mermelstein, C. Horn, C. H. Headley, "Amplified spontaneous emission in pulse-pumped Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 667-669 (2003).

P. Parolari, L. Marazzi, L. Bernardini, M. Martinelli, "Double Rayleigh scattering noise in lumped and distributed Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2224-2228 (2003).

2002 (4)

C. H. Kim, J. Bromage, R. M. Jopson, "Reflection-induced penalty in Raman amplified systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 573-575 (2002).

P. J. Winzer, K. Sherman, M. Zirngibl, "Time-division multiplexed Raman pump experiment using a tunable $C$-band laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 789-791 (2002).

A. R. Grant, "Calculating the Raman pump distribution to achieve minimum gain ripple," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1503-1509 (2002).

L. F. Mollenauer, A. R. Grant, P. V. Mamyshev, "Time-division multiplexing of pump wavelengths to achieve ultrabroadband, flat, backward-pumped Raman gain," Opt. Lett. 27, 592-594 (2002).

2001 (4)

C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek, R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1140-1148 (2001).

S. Namiki, Y. Emori, "Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by wavelength-division-multiplexed high-power laser diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 3-16 (2001).

C. R. S. Fludger, R. J. Mears, "Electrical measurements of multipath interference in distributed Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 536-545 (2001).

W. Zhang, J. Peng, X. Liu, C. Fan, "An analytical expression of equivalent noise figure for distributed Raman amplifiers with Rayleigh scattering," Opt. Commun. 199, 231-236 (2001).

2000 (1)

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, "Characterisation of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 528-530 (2000).

1999 (1)

M. Nissov, K. Rottwitt, H. D. Kidorf, M. X. Ma, "Rayleigh crosstalk in long cascades of distributed unsaturated Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 35, 997-998 (1999).

1998 (1)

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, D. J. DiGiovanni, "Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplfiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 159-161 (1998).

1986 (1)

E. Desurvire, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Theory and implementation of a Raman active fiber delay line," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 426-443 (1986).

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. Nissov, K. Rottwitt, H. D. Kidorf, M. X. Ma, "Rayleigh crosstalk in long cascades of distributed unsaturated Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 35, 997-998 (1999).

A. Kobyakov, S. Gray, M. Vasilyev, "Quantitative analysis of Rayleigh crosstalk in Raman amplifiers," Electron. Lett. 39, 732-733 (2003).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. R. Grant, "Calculating the Raman pump distribution to achieve minimum gain ripple," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 1503-1509 (2002).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Namiki, Y. Emori, "Ultrabroad-band Raman amplifiers pumped and gain-equalized by wavelength-division-multiplexed high-power laser diodes," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 3-16 (2001).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (8)

S. Jiang, B. Bristiel, Y. Jaouen, P. Gallion, E. Pincemin, "Bit-error-rate evaluation of the distributed Raman amplified transmission systems in the presence of double Rayleigh backscattering noise," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 468-470 (2007).

P. B. Hansen, L. Eskildsen, J. Stentz, T. A. Strasser, J. Judkins, J. J. DeMarco, R. Pedrazzani, D. J. DiGiovanni, "Rayleigh scattering limitations in distributed Raman pre-amplfiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 159-161 (1998).

S. Faralli, F. Di Pasquale, "Impact of double Rayleigh scattering noise in distributed higher order Raman pumping schemes," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 804-806 (2003).

J. Bromage, P. J. Winzer, L. E. Nelson, M. D. Mermelstein, C. Horn, C. H. Headley, "Amplified spontaneous emission in pulse-pumped Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 667-669 (2003).

P. J. Winzer, K. Sherman, M. Zirngibl, "Time-division multiplexed Raman pump experiment using a tunable $C$-band laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 789-791 (2002).

M. Karasek, J. Kanka, J. Radil, J. Vojtech, "Large signal model of TDM-pumped Raman fiber amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1848-1850 (2005).

S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, J. R. Taylor, "Characterisation of double Rayleigh scatter noise in Raman amplifiers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 528-530 (2000).

C. H. Kim, J. Bromage, R. M. Jopson, "Reflection-induced penalty in Raman amplified systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 573-575 (2002).

IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. (1)

G. Bolognini, S. Sugliani, F. Di Pasquale, "Double Rayleigh scattering noise in Raman amplifiers using pump time-division-multiplexing schemes," IEEE Photon. Techol. Lett. 16, 1286-1288 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (8)

C. R. S. Fludger, R. J. Mears, "Electrical measurements of multipath interference in distributed Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 536-545 (2001).

P. Parolari, L. Marazzi, L. Bernardini, M. Martinelli, "Double Rayleigh scattering noise in lumped and distributed Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2224-2228 (2003).

V. Kalavally, I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, T. Win, "Analytical study of RIN transfer in pulse-pumped Raman amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4536-4543 (2009).

P. J. Winzer, J. Bromage, R. T. Kane, P. A. Sammer, C. H. Headley, "Repetition rate requirements for time division multiplexed Raman pumping," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 401-408 (2004).

E. Desurvire, M. J. F. Digonnet, H. J. Shaw, "Theory and implementation of a Raman active fiber delay line," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-4, 426-443 (1986).

C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek, R. J. Mears, "Pump to signal RIN transfer in Raman fiber amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1140-1148 (2001).

J. Bromage, "Raman amplification for fiber communication systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 79-93 (2004).

A. C. O. Chan, M. Premaratne, "Dispersion-compensating fiber Raman amplifiers with step, parabolic, and triangular refractive index profiles," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1190-1197 (2007).

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. A. Mahdi, S. J. Sheih, "Effects of time-division multiplexing of two-pump wavelengths on a counter-pumped Raman-fiber amplifier," Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 42, 238-239 (2004).

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Zhang, J. Peng, X. Liu, C. Fan, "An analytical expression of equivalent noise figure for distributed Raman amplifiers with Rayleigh scattering," Opt. Commun. 199, 231-236 (2001).

Opt. Exp. (2)

C. H. Kim, "Analysis of combined effect of pump-intensity noise and reflection in counter-pumped Raman amplifiers," Opt. Exp. 13, 6099-6104 (2005).

G. Bolognini, A. Bononi, "Reduction of double Rayleigh scattering noise in distributed Raman amplifiers employing higher-order pumping," Opt. Exp. 17, 6996-7003 (2009).

Opt. Express (1)

M. Premaratne, "Analytical characterization of optical power and noise figure of forward pumped Raman amplifiers," Opt. Express 15, 4235-4245 (2004).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

A. Artamonov, V. Smokovdin, M. Kleshov, S. A. E. Lewis, S. V. Chernikov, "Enhancement of double Rayleigh scattering by pump intensity noise in fiber Raman amplifiers," Proc. OFC (2002) pp. 186.

M. N. Islam, Raman Amplifiers for Telecommunications 2: Sub-Systems and Systems (Springer, 2004).

M. V. Dashkov, "Investigation of noise performance in Raman amplifiers of various design," Proc. SPIE (2006) pp. 627701(1)-627701(10).

R. J. Essiambre, "Effects of Raman noise and double Rayleigh backscattering on bidirectionally Raman-pumped systems at constant fibre nonlinearity," Proc. ECOC (2001) pp. 108-109.

C. R. S. Fludger, V. Handerek, N. Jolley, R. J. Mears, "Novel ultra-broadband high performance distributed Raman amplifier employing pump modulation," Proc. OFC (2002) pp. 183-184.

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