Abstract

We developed and demonstrated a highly sensitive fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensor by using the PbO-GeO$_{2}$-SiO$_{2}$ glass optical fiber. Temperature sensitivity of the FBG sensor based on the PbO-GeO$_{2}$-SiO$_{2}$ glass optical fiber was about 40% improved to the 0.0173 nm/$^{\circ}$C by the thermal expansion increase of the fiber.

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  1. Optical Fiber Sensors: Principles and Components (Artech House, 1988).
  2. A. D. Kersey, "A review of recent developments in fiber optic sensor technology," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 291-317 (1996).
  3. K. T. V. Grattan, T. Sun, "Fiber optic sensor technology: An overview," Sensors and Actuators a: Physical 82, 40-61 (2000).
  4. J. Jung, H. Nam, B. Lee, J. O. Byun, N. S. Kim, "Fiber Bragg grating temperature sensor with controllable sensitivity," Appl. Opt. 38, 2752-2754 (1999).
  5. A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).
  6. W. W. Morey, J. R. Dunphy, G. Meltz, "Multiplexing fiber Bragg grating sensors," Proc. SPIE Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors (1991) pp. 216.
  7. F. Chiadini, A. Paolillo, A. Scaglione, "A reflectometric optical fiber temperature sensor," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 80-86 (2003).
  8. C. E. Lee, W. N. Gibler, R. A. Atkins, H. F. Taylor, "In-line fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer with high-reflectance internal mirrors," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1376-1379 (1992).
  9. K. W. Quoi, R. A. Lieberman, L. G. Cohen, D. S. Shenk, J. R. Simpson, "Rare-earth doped optical fibers for temperature sensing," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 847-852 (1992).
  10. S. C. Tjin, J. Hao, Y.-Z. Lam, Y. C. Ho, B. K. Ng, "A pressure sensor using fiber Bragg grating," Fiber Integr. Opt 20, 59-69 (2001).
  11. M. G. Xu, L. Dong, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, J. L. Cruz, "Temperature-independent strain sensor using a chirped Bragg grating in a tapered optical fiber," Electron. Lett. 31, 823-823 (1995).
  12. S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, R. P. Tatam, "Simultaneous independent temperature and strain measurement using in-fiber Bragg grating sensors," Electron. Lett. 32, 1133-1134 (1996).
  13. H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. P. Pedrazzani, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223-1225 (1996).
  14. G. Chen, L. Liu, H. Jia, J. Yu, L. Xu, W. Wang, "Simultaneous strain and temperature measurements with fiber Bragg grating written in novel hi-bi optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 221-223 (2004).
  15. N. P. Bansal, R. H. Doremus, Handbook of Glass Properties (Academic Press, 1986) pp. 137-175.
  16. P. Childs, A. C. L. Wong, N. Gowripalan, G. D. Peng, "Measurement of the coefficient of thermal expansion of ultra-high strength cementitious composites using fiber optic sensors," Cem. Concr. Res. 37, 789-795 (2007).
  17. K. O. Hill, G. Meltz, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263-1276 (1997).
  18. G. Ghosh, Handbook of Thermo-Optic Coefficients of Optical Materials With Applications (Academic Press, 1998) pp. 129-255.
  19. P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, W.-T. Han, "Determination of the non-resonant nonlinear refractive index of germano-silicate glass fiber with an arbitrary GeO$_{2}$ concentration profile," J. Noncrystalline Solids 354, 431-434 (2008).
  20. L. R. P. Kassab, F. A. Bomfim, J. R. Martinelli, N. U. Wetter, J. J. Neto, C. B. de Araújo, "Energy transfer and frequency upconversion in Yb$^{3+}$–Er$^{3+}$-doped PbO-GeO$_{2}$ Glass containing silver nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. B 94, 239-242 (2009).
  21. X.-C. Long, S. R. J. Brueck, "Large photosensitivity in lead–silicate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2110-2112 (1999).
  22. V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, J. Feinberg, "Effect of molecular water on thermal stability of gratings in hydrogen-loaded optical fibers," Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (1999) pp. 53-55.
  23. H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, A. Lidgard, M. D. Gallagher, "Annealing of Bragg gratings in hydrogen-loaded optical fiber," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2940-2945 (1995).

2009 (1)

L. R. P. Kassab, F. A. Bomfim, J. R. Martinelli, N. U. Wetter, J. J. Neto, C. B. de Araújo, "Energy transfer and frequency upconversion in Yb$^{3+}$–Er$^{3+}$-doped PbO-GeO$_{2}$ Glass containing silver nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. B 94, 239-242 (2009).

2008 (1)

P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, W.-T. Han, "Determination of the non-resonant nonlinear refractive index of germano-silicate glass fiber with an arbitrary GeO$_{2}$ concentration profile," J. Noncrystalline Solids 354, 431-434 (2008).

2007 (1)

P. Childs, A. C. L. Wong, N. Gowripalan, G. D. Peng, "Measurement of the coefficient of thermal expansion of ultra-high strength cementitious composites using fiber optic sensors," Cem. Concr. Res. 37, 789-795 (2007).

2004 (1)

G. Chen, L. Liu, H. Jia, J. Yu, L. Xu, W. Wang, "Simultaneous strain and temperature measurements with fiber Bragg grating written in novel hi-bi optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 221-223 (2004).

2003 (1)

F. Chiadini, A. Paolillo, A. Scaglione, "A reflectometric optical fiber temperature sensor," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 80-86 (2003).

2001 (1)

S. C. Tjin, J. Hao, Y.-Z. Lam, Y. C. Ho, B. K. Ng, "A pressure sensor using fiber Bragg grating," Fiber Integr. Opt 20, 59-69 (2001).

2000 (1)

K. T. V. Grattan, T. Sun, "Fiber optic sensor technology: An overview," Sensors and Actuators a: Physical 82, 40-61 (2000).

1999 (2)

J. Jung, H. Nam, B. Lee, J. O. Byun, N. S. Kim, "Fiber Bragg grating temperature sensor with controllable sensitivity," Appl. Opt. 38, 2752-2754 (1999).

X.-C. Long, S. R. J. Brueck, "Large photosensitivity in lead–silicate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2110-2112 (1999).

1997 (2)

K. O. Hill, G. Meltz, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263-1276 (1997).

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

1996 (3)

S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, R. P. Tatam, "Simultaneous independent temperature and strain measurement using in-fiber Bragg grating sensors," Electron. Lett. 32, 1133-1134 (1996).

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. P. Pedrazzani, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223-1225 (1996).

A. D. Kersey, "A review of recent developments in fiber optic sensor technology," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 291-317 (1996).

1995 (2)

H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, A. Lidgard, M. D. Gallagher, "Annealing of Bragg gratings in hydrogen-loaded optical fiber," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2940-2945 (1995).

M. G. Xu, L. Dong, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, J. L. Cruz, "Temperature-independent strain sensor using a chirped Bragg grating in a tapered optical fiber," Electron. Lett. 31, 823-823 (1995).

1992 (2)

C. E. Lee, W. N. Gibler, R. A. Atkins, H. F. Taylor, "In-line fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer with high-reflectance internal mirrors," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1376-1379 (1992).

K. W. Quoi, R. A. Lieberman, L. G. Cohen, D. S. Shenk, J. R. Simpson, "Rare-earth doped optical fibers for temperature sensing," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 847-852 (1992).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

L. R. P. Kassab, F. A. Bomfim, J. R. Martinelli, N. U. Wetter, J. J. Neto, C. B. de Araújo, "Energy transfer and frequency upconversion in Yb$^{3+}$–Er$^{3+}$-doped PbO-GeO$_{2}$ Glass containing silver nanoparticles," Appl. Phys. B 94, 239-242 (2009).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

X.-C. Long, S. R. J. Brueck, "Large photosensitivity in lead–silicate glasses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2110-2112 (1999).

Cem. Concr. Res. (1)

P. Childs, A. C. L. Wong, N. Gowripalan, G. D. Peng, "Measurement of the coefficient of thermal expansion of ultra-high strength cementitious composites using fiber optic sensors," Cem. Concr. Res. 37, 789-795 (2007).

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. G. Xu, L. Dong, L. Reekie, J. A. Tucknott, J. L. Cruz, "Temperature-independent strain sensor using a chirped Bragg grating in a tapered optical fiber," Electron. Lett. 31, 823-823 (1995).

S. W. James, M. L. Dockney, R. P. Tatam, "Simultaneous independent temperature and strain measurement using in-fiber Bragg grating sensors," Electron. Lett. 32, 1133-1134 (1996).

Fiber Integr. Opt (1)

S. C. Tjin, J. Hao, Y.-Z. Lam, Y. C. Ho, B. K. Ng, "A pressure sensor using fiber Bragg grating," Fiber Integr. Opt 20, 59-69 (2001).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. P. Pedrazzani, A. M. Vengsarkar, "Hybrid fiber Bragg grating/long period fiber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1223-1225 (1996).

G. Chen, L. Liu, H. Jia, J. Yu, L. Xu, W. Wang, "Simultaneous strain and temperature measurements with fiber Bragg grating written in novel hi-bi optical fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 221-223 (2004).

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

F. Chiadini, A. Paolillo, A. Scaglione, "A reflectometric optical fiber temperature sensor," IEEE Sens. J. 3, 80-86 (2003).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Patrick, S. L. Gilbert, A. Lidgard, M. D. Gallagher, "Annealing of Bragg gratings in hydrogen-loaded optical fiber," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2940-2945 (1995).

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

K. O. Hill, G. Meltz, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1263-1276 (1997).

C. E. Lee, W. N. Gibler, R. A. Atkins, H. F. Taylor, "In-line fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer with high-reflectance internal mirrors," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 1376-1379 (1992).

K. W. Quoi, R. A. Lieberman, L. G. Cohen, D. S. Shenk, J. R. Simpson, "Rare-earth doped optical fibers for temperature sensing," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 847-852 (1992).

A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, E. J. Friebele, "Fiber grating sensors," J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1442-1463 (1997).

J. Noncrystalline Solids (1)

P. R. Watekar, S. Ju, W.-T. Han, "Determination of the non-resonant nonlinear refractive index of germano-silicate glass fiber with an arbitrary GeO$_{2}$ concentration profile," J. Noncrystalline Solids 354, 431-434 (2008).

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

A. D. Kersey, "A review of recent developments in fiber optic sensor technology," Opt. Fiber Technol. 2, 291-317 (1996).

Sensors and Actuators a: Physical (1)

K. T. V. Grattan, T. Sun, "Fiber optic sensor technology: An overview," Sensors and Actuators a: Physical 82, 40-61 (2000).

Other (5)

G. Ghosh, Handbook of Thermo-Optic Coefficients of Optical Materials With Applications (Academic Press, 1998) pp. 129-255.

Optical Fiber Sensors: Principles and Components (Artech House, 1988).

V. Grubsky, D. S. Starodubov, J. Feinberg, "Effect of molecular water on thermal stability of gratings in hydrogen-loaded optical fibers," Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication Conference (1999) pp. 53-55.

W. W. Morey, J. R. Dunphy, G. Meltz, "Multiplexing fiber Bragg grating sensors," Proc. SPIE Distributed and Multiplexed Fiber Optic Sensors (1991) pp. 216.

N. P. Bansal, R. H. Doremus, Handbook of Glass Properties (Academic Press, 1986) pp. 137-175.

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