Abstract

We report on the simulation and characterisation of compound phase-shifted fiber Bragg structures for use as novel in-fiber magneto-optical point sensors. Through simulation we show that the Faraday rotation spectra of phase-shifted gratings can be tailored by tuning the ratio of substructure lengths. A design process for tailoring the magneto-optical spectrum is illustrated, and it is shown that a general optimum structure exists for producing a region of total reflection incorporating magneto-optical Faraday rotation that is enhanced both in strength and spectral width. A practical optical fiber system that exploits the proposed distributed feedback (DFB) structures to enable novel all-fiber sensors for the dual measurement of magnetic field strength and temperature is described in detail, and the sensor response is simulated. The study is supported by laboratory fabrication of the proposed fiber DFB structures which demonstrates the principle of enhancement in terms of tailored group delay spectra and highlights practical issues for sensor packaging.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. P. Niewczas, J. R. McDonald, "Advanced optical sensors for power and energy systems," IEEE Instrum. Meas. Mag. 10, 18-28 (2007).
  2. V. N. M. Passaro, F. Dell'Ollio, F. De Leonardis, "Electromagnetic field photonic sensors," Prog. Quantum Electron. 30, 45-73 (2006).
  3. M. Sedlar, V. Matejec, I. Paulicka, "Optical fiber magnetic field sensors using ceramic magnetostrictive jackets," Sens. Actuators A: Phys. 84, 297-302 (2000).
  4. G. A. Cranch, G. M. H. Flockhart, C. K. Kirkendall, "High-resolution distributed-feedback fiber laser dc magnetometer based on the lorentzian force," Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, (2009).
  5. A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, "Fiber Bragg grating high-magnetic-field probe," Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Optical Fiber Sensors (1994) pp. 53-56.
  6. M. J. Steel, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, "Large magnetooptical kerr rotation from photonic bandgap structures with defects," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1289-1296 (2000).
  7. M. Vasiliev, K. E. Alameh, V. I. Belotelov, V. A. Kotov, A. K. Zvezdin, "Magnetic photonic crystals: 1-D optimization and applications for the integrated optics devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2156-2162 (2006).
  8. J. Canning, M. G. Sceats, "$\pi$-phase-shifted periodic distributed structures in germanosilicate fiber by UV post-processing," Electron. Lett. 30, 1344-1345 (1994).
  9. A. Asseh, H. Storoy, J. T. Kringlebotn, W. Margulis, B. Sahlgren, S. Sandgren, R. Stubbe, G. Edwall, "10 cm Yb3+ DFB fiber laser with permanent phase shifted grating," Electron. Lett. 31, 969-970 (1995).
  10. J. Canning, H. J. Deyerl, H. R. Sørensen, M. Kristensen, "Ultraviolet-induced birefringence in hydrogen-loaded optical fiber," J. Appl. Phys. 97, (2005).
  11. A. H. Rose, S. M. Etzel, C. M. Wang, "Verdet constant dispersion in annealed optical fiber current sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 803-807 (1997).
  12. P. A. Williams, A. H. Rose, G. W. Day, T. E. Milner, M. N. Deeter, "Temperature dependence of the verdet constant in several diamagnetic glasses," App. Optics 30, (1991).
  13. J. Ballato, E. Snitzer, "Fabrication of fibers with high rare-earth concentrations for faraday isolator applications," App. Opt. 34, 6848-6854 (1995).
  14. K. Bonhert, P. Gabus, J. Kostovic, H. Brändle, "Optical fiber sensors for the electric power industry," Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 511-526 (2005).
  15. M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, R. Le Naour, M. Oger, "The malus fabry-perot interferometer," Opt. Commun. 168, 423-443 (1999).
  16. M. Inoue, T. Fujii, "A theoretical analysis of magneto-optical Faraday effect of YIG films with random multilayer structures," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5659-5661 (1997).
  17. L. Wei, J. W. Y. Lit, "Phase-shifted Bragg grating filters with symmetrical structures," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1405-1410 (1997).
  18. R. Zengerle, O. Leminger, "Phase-shifted Bragg-grating filters with improved transmission characteristics," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 2354-2358 (1995).
  19. A. Sugimura, K. Daikoku, "Wavelength dispersion of optical fibers directly measured by ‘difference method’ in the 0.8–1.6 $\mu$m range," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, (1979).
  20. M. D. Todd, M. Seaver, F. Bucholtz, "Improved, operationally-passive interferometric demodulation method using 3$\, \times \,$3 coupler," Elec. Lett. 38, 784-786 (2002).
  21. G. Fusiek, P. Niewczas, J. R. McDonald, "Extended step-out length fiber Bragg grating interrogation system for condition monitoring of electrical submersible pumps," Opt. Eng. 44, (2005).

2009

G. A. Cranch, G. M. H. Flockhart, C. K. Kirkendall, "High-resolution distributed-feedback fiber laser dc magnetometer based on the lorentzian force," Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, (2009).

2007

P. Niewczas, J. R. McDonald, "Advanced optical sensors for power and energy systems," IEEE Instrum. Meas. Mag. 10, 18-28 (2007).

2006

V. N. M. Passaro, F. Dell'Ollio, F. De Leonardis, "Electromagnetic field photonic sensors," Prog. Quantum Electron. 30, 45-73 (2006).

M. Vasiliev, K. E. Alameh, V. I. Belotelov, V. A. Kotov, A. K. Zvezdin, "Magnetic photonic crystals: 1-D optimization and applications for the integrated optics devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2156-2162 (2006).

2005

J. Canning, H. J. Deyerl, H. R. Sørensen, M. Kristensen, "Ultraviolet-induced birefringence in hydrogen-loaded optical fiber," J. Appl. Phys. 97, (2005).

K. Bonhert, P. Gabus, J. Kostovic, H. Brändle, "Optical fiber sensors for the electric power industry," Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 511-526 (2005).

G. Fusiek, P. Niewczas, J. R. McDonald, "Extended step-out length fiber Bragg grating interrogation system for condition monitoring of electrical submersible pumps," Opt. Eng. 44, (2005).

2002

M. D. Todd, M. Seaver, F. Bucholtz, "Improved, operationally-passive interferometric demodulation method using 3$\, \times \,$3 coupler," Elec. Lett. 38, 784-786 (2002).

2000

M. Sedlar, V. Matejec, I. Paulicka, "Optical fiber magnetic field sensors using ceramic magnetostrictive jackets," Sens. Actuators A: Phys. 84, 297-302 (2000).

M. J. Steel, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, "Large magnetooptical kerr rotation from photonic bandgap structures with defects," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1289-1296 (2000).

1999

M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, R. Le Naour, M. Oger, "The malus fabry-perot interferometer," Opt. Commun. 168, 423-443 (1999).

1997

M. Inoue, T. Fujii, "A theoretical analysis of magneto-optical Faraday effect of YIG films with random multilayer structures," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5659-5661 (1997).

L. Wei, J. W. Y. Lit, "Phase-shifted Bragg grating filters with symmetrical structures," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1405-1410 (1997).

A. H. Rose, S. M. Etzel, C. M. Wang, "Verdet constant dispersion in annealed optical fiber current sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 803-807 (1997).

1995

R. Zengerle, O. Leminger, "Phase-shifted Bragg-grating filters with improved transmission characteristics," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 2354-2358 (1995).

A. Asseh, H. Storoy, J. T. Kringlebotn, W. Margulis, B. Sahlgren, S. Sandgren, R. Stubbe, G. Edwall, "10 cm Yb3+ DFB fiber laser with permanent phase shifted grating," Electron. Lett. 31, 969-970 (1995).

J. Ballato, E. Snitzer, "Fabrication of fibers with high rare-earth concentrations for faraday isolator applications," App. Opt. 34, 6848-6854 (1995).

1994

J. Canning, M. G. Sceats, "$\pi$-phase-shifted periodic distributed structures in germanosilicate fiber by UV post-processing," Electron. Lett. 30, 1344-1345 (1994).

1991

P. A. Williams, A. H. Rose, G. W. Day, T. E. Milner, M. N. Deeter, "Temperature dependence of the verdet constant in several diamagnetic glasses," App. Optics 30, (1991).

1979

A. Sugimura, K. Daikoku, "Wavelength dispersion of optical fibers directly measured by ‘difference method’ in the 0.8–1.6 $\mu$m range," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, (1979).

App. Opt.

J. Ballato, E. Snitzer, "Fabrication of fibers with high rare-earth concentrations for faraday isolator applications," App. Opt. 34, 6848-6854 (1995).

App. Optics

P. A. Williams, A. H. Rose, G. W. Day, T. E. Milner, M. N. Deeter, "Temperature dependence of the verdet constant in several diamagnetic glasses," App. Optics 30, (1991).

Elec. Lett.

M. D. Todd, M. Seaver, F. Bucholtz, "Improved, operationally-passive interferometric demodulation method using 3$\, \times \,$3 coupler," Elec. Lett. 38, 784-786 (2002).

Electron. Lett.

J. Canning, M. G. Sceats, "$\pi$-phase-shifted periodic distributed structures in germanosilicate fiber by UV post-processing," Electron. Lett. 30, 1344-1345 (1994).

A. Asseh, H. Storoy, J. T. Kringlebotn, W. Margulis, B. Sahlgren, S. Sandgren, R. Stubbe, G. Edwall, "10 cm Yb3+ DFB fiber laser with permanent phase shifted grating," Electron. Lett. 31, 969-970 (1995).

IEEE Instrum. Meas. Mag.

P. Niewczas, J. R. McDonald, "Advanced optical sensors for power and energy systems," IEEE Instrum. Meas. Mag. 10, 18-28 (2007).

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Canning, H. J. Deyerl, H. R. Sørensen, M. Kristensen, "Ultraviolet-induced birefringence in hydrogen-loaded optical fiber," J. Appl. Phys. 97, (2005).

M. Inoue, T. Fujii, "A theoretical analysis of magneto-optical Faraday effect of YIG films with random multilayer structures," J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5659-5661 (1997).

J. Lightw. Technol.

L. Wei, J. W. Y. Lit, "Phase-shifted Bragg grating filters with symmetrical structures," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1405-1410 (1997).

R. Zengerle, O. Leminger, "Phase-shifted Bragg-grating filters with improved transmission characteristics," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 2354-2358 (1995).

M. J. Steel, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, "Large magnetooptical kerr rotation from photonic bandgap structures with defects," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1289-1296 (2000).

M. Vasiliev, K. E. Alameh, V. I. Belotelov, V. A. Kotov, A. K. Zvezdin, "Magnetic photonic crystals: 1-D optimization and applications for the integrated optics devices," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2156-2162 (2006).

A. H. Rose, S. M. Etzel, C. M. Wang, "Verdet constant dispersion in annealed optical fiber current sensors," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 803-807 (1997).

Meas. Sci. Technol.

G. A. Cranch, G. M. H. Flockhart, C. K. Kirkendall, "High-resolution distributed-feedback fiber laser dc magnetometer based on the lorentzian force," Meas. Sci. Technol. 20, (2009).

Opt. Commun.

M. Vallet, F. Bretenaker, A. Le Floch, R. Le Naour, M. Oger, "The malus fabry-perot interferometer," Opt. Commun. 168, 423-443 (1999).

Opt. Eng.

G. Fusiek, P. Niewczas, J. R. McDonald, "Extended step-out length fiber Bragg grating interrogation system for condition monitoring of electrical submersible pumps," Opt. Eng. 44, (2005).

Opt. Lasers Eng.

K. Bonhert, P. Gabus, J. Kostovic, H. Brändle, "Optical fiber sensors for the electric power industry," Opt. Lasers Eng. 43, 511-526 (2005).

Prog. Quantum Electron.

V. N. M. Passaro, F. Dell'Ollio, F. De Leonardis, "Electromagnetic field photonic sensors," Prog. Quantum Electron. 30, 45-73 (2006).

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

A. Sugimura, K. Daikoku, "Wavelength dispersion of optical fibers directly measured by ‘difference method’ in the 0.8–1.6 $\mu$m range," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, (1979).

Sens. Actuators A: Phys.

M. Sedlar, V. Matejec, I. Paulicka, "Optical fiber magnetic field sensors using ceramic magnetostrictive jackets," Sens. Actuators A: Phys. 84, 297-302 (2000).

Other

A. D. Kersey, M. J. Marrone, "Fiber Bragg grating high-magnetic-field probe," Proc. 10th Int. Conf. Optical Fiber Sensors (1994) pp. 53-56.

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