Abstract

In this paper, we characterize the impact of laser phase noise (PN) in direct-detection optical OFDM (DDO-OFDM) and identify its many differences from those in coherent optical OFDM (CO-OFDM). The analytical models for the diverse PN effects, including power degradation, phase rotation term (PRT), and inter-carrier interference (ICI), are given in terms of critical system parameters with or without the small PN assumption. In particular, the analytical upper-bound of the ICI power with a simple form is also provided. We also present a bit error rate (BER) estimation approach which is proven to be reliable for an optical signal-to-noise-ratio (OSNR) penalty lower than ${\sim} {\hbox {2}}$ dB. In addition, the PN tolerances, in terms of OSNR penalty, are also numerically analyzed and discussed with different QAM formats, data rates, laser linewdiths, and subcarrier numbers.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. B. J. C. Schmidt, Z. Zan, L. B. Du, A. J. Lowery, "100 Gbit/s transmission using single-band direct-detection optical OFDM," Proc. OFC (2009).
  2. Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, W. Shieh, "1-Tbps per channel coherent optical OFDM transmission with sub-wavelength bandwidth access," Proc. OFC (2009).
  3. H. Takahashi, A. Amin, S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, "DWDM transmission with 7.0-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using 8$\,\times\,$65.1-Gb/s coherent PDM-OFDM signals," Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (2009).
  4. S. L. Jansen, A. Amin, H. Takahashi, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, "132.2-Gb/s PDM-8QAM-OFDM transmission at 4-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 802-804 (2009).
  5. Z. Zan, M. Premaratne, A. J. Lowery, "Laser RIN and linewidth requirements for direct detection optical OFDM," CLEO'08 Paper CWN2.
  6. X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Ma, "Phase noise effects on high spectral efficiency coherent optical OFDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1309-1316 (2008).
  7. A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, J. Armstrong, "Performance of optical OFDM in ultra long haul WDM lightwave systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 131-138 (2007) OWM4.
  8. W.-R. Peng, X. Wu, V. R. Arbab, K.-M. Feng, B. Shamee, L. C. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, A. E. Willner, S. Chi, "Theoretical and experimental investigations of direct-detected RF-tone assisted optical OFDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1332-1339 (2009).
  9. B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, "Low sampling rate transmitter for direct-detection optical OFDM system," Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (2009).
  10. G. Qi, J. Yao, J. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, C. Belisle, X. Zhang, K. Wu, R. Kashyap, "Phase-noise analysis of optically generated millimeter-wave signals with external optical modulation techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4861-4875 (2006).
  11. P. Liu, Y. Bar-Ness, "Closed-form expressions for BER performance in OFDM systems with phase noise," IEEE Proc. ICC (2006) pp. 5366-5370.
  12. L. Tomba, "On the effect of Wiener phase noise in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 46, 580-583 (1998).
  13. W.-R. Peng, K.-M. Feng, A. E. Willner, S. Chi, "Estimation of the bit error rate for direct-detected OFDM signals with optically pre-amplified receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1340-1346 (2009).
  14. S. Wu, Y. Bar-Ness, "OFDM systems in the presence of phase noise: Consequences and solutions," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 1988-1996 (2004).
  15. M. S. El-Tanany, Y. Wu, L. Hazy, "Analytical modeling and simulation of phase noise interference in OFDM-based digital television terrestrial broadcasting systems," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 47, 20-31 (2001).
  16. S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8 Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).
  17. R. Corvaja, S. Puolin, "Phase noise spectral limits in OFDM systems," Wireless Pers. Commun. 36, 229-244 (2006).
  18. A. Amin, H. Takahashi, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, "Polarization multiplexed 100-Gbps direct detection OFDM transmission without MIMO processing," Proc. ECOC'09 .
  19. W.-R. Peng, B. Zhang, K.-M. Feng, X. Wu, A. E. Willner, S. Chi, "Spectrally efficient direct-detected optical OFDM transmission using a tunable gap and an iterative detection schemes," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5723-5735 (2009).
  20. A. G. Armada, M. Calvo, "Phase noise and subcarrier spacing effects on the performance of an OFDM communication system," IEEE Commun. Lett. 2, 11-13 (1998).
  21. D. Qian, J. Yu, J. Hu, L. Zong, L. Xu, T. Wang, "10 Gb/s WDM-SSB-OFDM transmission over 1000 km SSMF using conventional DFB lasers and direct-detection," Electron. Lett. 44, 223-225 (2008).

2009

S. L. Jansen, A. Amin, H. Takahashi, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, "132.2-Gb/s PDM-8QAM-OFDM transmission at 4-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 802-804 (2009).

W.-R. Peng, X. Wu, V. R. Arbab, K.-M. Feng, B. Shamee, L. C. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, A. E. Willner, S. Chi, "Theoretical and experimental investigations of direct-detected RF-tone assisted optical OFDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1332-1339 (2009).

W.-R. Peng, K.-M. Feng, A. E. Willner, S. Chi, "Estimation of the bit error rate for direct-detected OFDM signals with optically pre-amplified receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1340-1346 (2009).

W.-R. Peng, B. Zhang, K.-M. Feng, X. Wu, A. E. Willner, S. Chi, "Spectrally efficient direct-detected optical OFDM transmission using a tunable gap and an iterative detection schemes," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5723-5735 (2009).

2008

D. Qian, J. Yu, J. Hu, L. Zong, L. Xu, T. Wang, "10 Gb/s WDM-SSB-OFDM transmission over 1000 km SSMF using conventional DFB lasers and direct-detection," Electron. Lett. 44, 223-225 (2008).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8 Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).

X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Ma, "Phase noise effects on high spectral efficiency coherent optical OFDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1309-1316 (2008).

2007

A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, J. Armstrong, "Performance of optical OFDM in ultra long haul WDM lightwave systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 131-138 (2007) OWM4.

2006

G. Qi, J. Yao, J. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, C. Belisle, X. Zhang, K. Wu, R. Kashyap, "Phase-noise analysis of optically generated millimeter-wave signals with external optical modulation techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4861-4875 (2006).

R. Corvaja, S. Puolin, "Phase noise spectral limits in OFDM systems," Wireless Pers. Commun. 36, 229-244 (2006).

2004

S. Wu, Y. Bar-Ness, "OFDM systems in the presence of phase noise: Consequences and solutions," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 1988-1996 (2004).

2001

M. S. El-Tanany, Y. Wu, L. Hazy, "Analytical modeling and simulation of phase noise interference in OFDM-based digital television terrestrial broadcasting systems," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 47, 20-31 (2001).

1998

L. Tomba, "On the effect of Wiener phase noise in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 46, 580-583 (1998).

A. G. Armada, M. Calvo, "Phase noise and subcarrier spacing effects on the performance of an OFDM communication system," IEEE Commun. Lett. 2, 11-13 (1998).

Electron. Lett.

D. Qian, J. Yu, J. Hu, L. Zong, L. Xu, T. Wang, "10 Gb/s WDM-SSB-OFDM transmission over 1000 km SSMF using conventional DFB lasers and direct-detection," Electron. Lett. 44, 223-225 (2008).

IEEE Commun. Lett.

A. G. Armada, M. Calvo, "Phase noise and subcarrier spacing effects on the performance of an OFDM communication system," IEEE Commun. Lett. 2, 11-13 (1998).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. L. Jansen, A. Amin, H. Takahashi, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, "132.2-Gb/s PDM-8QAM-OFDM transmission at 4-b/s/Hz spectral efficiency," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 802-804 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Broadcast.

M. S. El-Tanany, Y. Wu, L. Hazy, "Analytical modeling and simulation of phase noise interference in OFDM-based digital television terrestrial broadcasting systems," IEEE Trans. Broadcast. 47, 20-31 (2001).

IEEE Trans. Commun.

L. Tomba, "On the effect of Wiener phase noise in OFDM systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 46, 580-583 (1998).

S. Wu, Y. Bar-Ness, "OFDM systems in the presence of phase noise: Consequences and solutions," IEEE Trans. Commun. 52, 1988-1996 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol.

W.-R. Peng, B. Zhang, K.-M. Feng, X. Wu, A. E. Willner, S. Chi, "Spectrally efficient direct-detected optical OFDM transmission using a tunable gap and an iterative detection schemes," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5723-5735 (2009).

W.-R. Peng, K.-M. Feng, A. E. Willner, S. Chi, "Estimation of the bit error rate for direct-detected OFDM signals with optically pre-amplified receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1340-1346 (2009).

G. Qi, J. Yao, J. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, C. Belisle, X. Zhang, K. Wu, R. Kashyap, "Phase-noise analysis of optically generated millimeter-wave signals with external optical modulation techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4861-4875 (2006).

S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, T. C. W. Schenk, N. Takeda, H. Tanaka, "Coherent optical 25.8 Gb/s OFDM transmission over 4160-km SSMF," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 6-15 (2008).

X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Ma, "Phase noise effects on high spectral efficiency coherent optical OFDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1309-1316 (2008).

A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, J. Armstrong, "Performance of optical OFDM in ultra long haul WDM lightwave systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 131-138 (2007) OWM4.

W.-R. Peng, X. Wu, V. R. Arbab, K.-M. Feng, B. Shamee, L. C. Christen, J.-Y. Yang, A. E. Willner, S. Chi, "Theoretical and experimental investigations of direct-detected RF-tone assisted optical OFDM systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1332-1339 (2009).

Wireless Pers. Commun.

R. Corvaja, S. Puolin, "Phase noise spectral limits in OFDM systems," Wireless Pers. Commun. 36, 229-244 (2006).

Other

A. Amin, H. Takahashi, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, "Polarization multiplexed 100-Gbps direct detection OFDM transmission without MIMO processing," Proc. ECOC'09 .

P. Liu, Y. Bar-Ness, "Closed-form expressions for BER performance in OFDM systems with phase noise," IEEE Proc. ICC (2006) pp. 5366-5370.

B. J. C. Schmidt, A. J. Lowery, L. B. Du, "Low sampling rate transmitter for direct-detection optical OFDM system," Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (2009).

Z. Zan, M. Premaratne, A. J. Lowery, "Laser RIN and linewidth requirements for direct detection optical OFDM," CLEO'08 Paper CWN2.

B. J. C. Schmidt, Z. Zan, L. B. Du, A. J. Lowery, "100 Gbit/s transmission using single-band direct-detection optical OFDM," Proc. OFC (2009).

Y. Ma, Q. Yang, Y. Tang, S. Chen, W. Shieh, "1-Tbps per channel coherent optical OFDM transmission with sub-wavelength bandwidth access," Proc. OFC (2009).

H. Takahashi, A. Amin, S. L. Jansen, I. Morita, H. Tanaka, "DWDM transmission with 7.0-bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency using 8$\,\times\,$65.1-Gb/s coherent PDM-OFDM signals," Proc. Optical Fiber Commun. Conf. (2009).

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