Abstract

Tunable wavelength conversion of a 10-Gb/s, return-to-zero on-off-keyed (RZ-OOK) signal has been carried out in a silicon (Si) nanowire waveguide (Si nanowire) using a pump-probe configuration and cross-phase modulation (XPM), followed by a tunable filter. This filter spectrally emulated the pass-band of a commercial 50-GHz DWDM arrayed waveguide grating (AWG). The tunability of the wavelength conversion process was demonstrated over a range of 20 nm, limited only by the amplifiers and the filter, while keeping the $10^{- 9}$-BER receiver sensitivity penalty of the converted signal to a 0.5-dB maximum. A comprehensive model of wavelength conversion by XPM (XPM-WC) was developed, which took into account two-photon absorption, the Kerr effect, and free-carrier generation. The results of the model demonstrate good agreement with the experiment, especially with respect to the observed spectral broadening. The numerical model was also used to assess the dominant contribution among the various mechanisms within the context of XPM-WC, and to investigate the potential of multicasting by XPM in the nanowire.

© 2010 IEEE

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  8. M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 12949-12958 (2007).
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  32. A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, K. Bergman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, "First demonstration of on-chip wavelength multicasting," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2009).
  33. Y. Hibino, "Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1090-1101 (2002).
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  35. Y. Hida, Y. Hibino, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, M. Itoh, T. Shibata, A. Sugita, A. Himeno, "400-channel arrayed-waveguide grating with 25 GHz spacing using 1.5%-delta waveguides on 6-inch Si wafer," Electron. Lett. 37, 576-577 (2001).
  36. W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, R. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator nanowires," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1394-1401 (2006).
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2010 (1)

J. B. Driscoll, W. Astar, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, G. M. Carter, R. M. Osgood Jr., "All-optical wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s RZ-OOK data in a silicon nanowire via cross-phase modulation: Experiment and theoretical investigation," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2010).

2009 (6)

J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, X. Liu, S. Assefa, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, "Silicon-nitride surface passivation of submicrometer silicon waveguides for low-power optical switches," Opt. Lett. 14, 1534-1536 (2009).

J. B. Driscoll, X. Liu, S. Yasseri, I.-.W. Hsieh, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood Jr., "Large longitudinal electric fields $({\rm E}_{\rm z})$ in silicon nanowire waveguides," Opt. Exp. 17, 2797-2804 (2009).

F. Luan, M. D. Pelusi, M. R. E. Lamont, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersion engineered As$_{2}$ S$_{3}$ planar waveguides for broadband four-wave mixing wavelength conversion of 40 Gb/s signals," Opt. Exp. 17, 3514-3520 (2009).

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, K. Bergman, "Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 182-184 (2009).

M. Lipson, "Silicon photonics: The optical spice rack," Electron. Lett. 45, 576-578 (2009).

R. M. Osgood Jr., N. C. Panoiu, J. I. Dadap, X. Liu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, E. Dulkeith, W. M. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, "Engineering nonlinearities in nanoscale optical systems: Physics and applications in dispersion-engineered silicon nanonanowires," Adv. Opt. Photon. 1, 162-235 (2009).

2008 (2)

J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, X. Liu, C.-Y. Chou, E. Dulkeith, S. J. McNab, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood Jr., "Nonlinear-optical phase modification in dispersion-engineered Si nanowires," Opt. Exp. 16, 1280-1299 (2008).

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires," Opt. Exp. 16, 1300-1320 (2008).

2007 (3)

Y. Liu, E. Tangdiongga, Z. Li, S. Zang, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoue, H. J. S. Dorren, "Error-free 320-Gb/s all-optical wavelength conversion using a single semiconductor optical amplifier," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 103-109 (2007).

V. G. Ta'eed, M. Pelusi, B. J. Eggleton, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, "Broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s using long serpentine As$_{2}$S$_{3}$ planar waveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 15047-15053 (2007).

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 12949-12958 (2007).

2006 (7)

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, G. P. Agrawal, "Ultrabroadband parametric generation and wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides," Opt. Exp. 14, 4786-4799 (2006).

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon nanowire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).

H. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, "High efficiency wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s data in silicon waveguides," Opt. Exp. 14, 1182-1188 (2006).

S. Fu, J. Dong, P. Shum, L. Zhang, X. Zhang, D. Huang, "Experimental observations of inverted and non-inverted wavelength conversion based on transient cross phase modulation of SOA," Opt. Exp. 14, 7587-7593 (2006).

Y. Liu, E. Tangdiongga, Z. Li, S. Zang, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoue, H. J. S. Dorren, "Error-free all-optical wavelength conversion at 160 Gb/s using a semiconductor optical amplifier and an optical bandpass filter," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 230-236 (2006).

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood Jr., "Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160-170 (2006).

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, R. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator nanowires," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1394-1401 (2006).

2005 (1)

R. Espinola, J. Dadap, R. M. Osgood Jr., S. McNab, Y. Vlasov, "C-band wavelength conversion in silicon nanowire waveguides," Opt. Exp. 13, 4341-4349 (2005).

2004 (4)

J. Leuthold, D. M. Marom, S. Cabot, J. J. Jaques, R. Ryf, C. R. Giles, "All-optical wavelength conversion using a pulse reformatting optical filter," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 186-192 (2004).

M. L. Nielsen, J. Mork, "Improving the modulation bandwidth of semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based switches by using optical filtering," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 21, 1606-1630 (2004).

O. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan, B. Jalali, "All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Exp. 12, 4095-4104 (2004).

Q. Xu, V. Almeida, M. Lipson, "Time-resolved study of Raman gain in highly confined silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Exp. 12, 4437-4443 (2004).

2003 (1)

M. L. Nielsen, B. Lavigne, B. Dagens, "Polarity-preserving SOA based wavelength conversion at 40 Gbit/s using bandpass filtering," Electron. Lett. 39, 1334-1335 (2003).

2002 (1)

Y. Hibino, "Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1090-1101 (2002).

2001 (2)

P. J. Winzer, M. Pfennigbauer, M. M. Strasser, W. R. Leeb, "Optimum filter bandwidths for optically preamplified NRZ receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1263-1273 (2001).

Y. Hida, Y. Hibino, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, M. Itoh, T. Shibata, A. Sugita, A. Himeno, "400-channel arrayed-waveguide grating with 25 GHz spacing using 1.5%-delta waveguides on 6-inch Si wafer," Electron. Lett. 37, 576-577 (2001).

2000 (1)

Y. Hibino, "An array of photonic filtering advantages: Arrayed-waveguide-grating multi/demultiplexers for photonic networks," IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 16, 21-27 (2000).

1999 (1)

1992 (1)

K. Inoue, H. Toba, "Wavelength conversion experiment using fiber four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 69-72 (1992).

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Electron. Lett. (3)

Y. Hida, Y. Hibino, T. Kitoh, Y. Inoue, M. Itoh, T. Shibata, A. Sugita, A. Himeno, "400-channel arrayed-waveguide grating with 25 GHz spacing using 1.5%-delta waveguides on 6-inch Si wafer," Electron. Lett. 37, 576-577 (2001).

M. L. Nielsen, B. Lavigne, B. Dagens, "Polarity-preserving SOA based wavelength conversion at 40 Gbit/s using bandpass filtering," Electron. Lett. 39, 1334-1335 (2003).

M. Lipson, "Silicon photonics: The optical spice rack," Electron. Lett. 45, 576-578 (2009).

IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. (1)

Y. Hibino, "An array of photonic filtering advantages: Arrayed-waveguide-grating multi/demultiplexers for photonic networks," IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 16, 21-27 (2000).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood Jr., "Theory of Raman-mediated pulsed amplification in silicon-wire waveguides," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 160-170 (2006).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (3)

J. B. Driscoll, W. Astar, X. Liu, J. I. Dadap, W. M. J. Green, Y. A. Vlasov, G. M. Carter, R. M. Osgood Jr., "All-optical wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s RZ-OOK data in a silicon nanowire via cross-phase modulation: Experiment and theoretical investigation," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (2010).

Y. Hibino, "Recent advances in high-density and large-scale AWG multi/demultiplexers with higher index-contrast silica-based PLCs," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 8, 1090-1101 (2002).

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, P. Jaenen, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, R. Baets, "Compact wavelength-selective functions in silicon-on-insulator nanowires," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 12, 1394-1401 (2006).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, K. Bergman, "Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 182-184 (2009).

K. Inoue, H. Toba, "Wavelength conversion experiment using fiber four-wave mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 69-72 (1992).

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, S. Itabashi, "All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon nanowire waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1046-1048 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

J. Leuthold, D. M. Marom, S. Cabot, J. J. Jaques, R. Ryf, C. R. Giles, "All-optical wavelength conversion using a pulse reformatting optical filter," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 186-192 (2004).

Y. Liu, E. Tangdiongga, Z. Li, S. Zang, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoue, H. J. S. Dorren, "Error-free all-optical wavelength conversion at 160 Gb/s using a semiconductor optical amplifier and an optical bandpass filter," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 230-236 (2006).

Y. Liu, E. Tangdiongga, Z. Li, S. Zang, H. de Waardt, G. D. Khoue, H. J. S. Dorren, "Error-free 320-Gb/s all-optical wavelength conversion using a single semiconductor optical amplifier," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 103-109 (2007).

P. J. Winzer, M. Pfennigbauer, M. M. Strasser, W. R. Leeb, "Optimum filter bandwidths for optically preamplified NRZ receivers," J. Lightw. Technol. 19, 1263-1273 (2001).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. (1)

M. L. Nielsen, J. Mork, "Improving the modulation bandwidth of semiconductor-optical-amplifier-based switches by using optical filtering," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B. 21, 1606-1630 (2004).

Opt. Exp. (12)

S. Fu, J. Dong, P. Shum, L. Zhang, X. Zhang, D. Huang, "Experimental observations of inverted and non-inverted wavelength conversion based on transient cross phase modulation of SOA," Opt. Exp. 14, 7587-7593 (2006).

V. G. Ta'eed, M. Pelusi, B. J. Eggleton, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, "Broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s using long serpentine As$_{2}$S$_{3}$ planar waveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 15047-15053 (2007).

H. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, "High efficiency wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s data in silicon waveguides," Opt. Exp. 14, 1182-1188 (2006).

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, "Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 12949-12958 (2007).

J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, X. Chen, I.-W. Hsieh, X. Liu, C.-Y. Chou, E. Dulkeith, S. J. McNab, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood Jr., "Nonlinear-optical phase modification in dispersion-engineered Si nanowires," Opt. Exp. 16, 1280-1299 (2008).

R. Espinola, J. Dadap, R. M. Osgood Jr., S. McNab, Y. Vlasov, "C-band wavelength conversion in silicon nanowire waveguides," Opt. Exp. 13, 4341-4349 (2005).

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, G. P. Agrawal, "Ultrabroadband parametric generation and wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides," Opt. Exp. 14, 4786-4799 (2006).

F. Luan, M. D. Pelusi, M. R. E. Lamont, D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersion engineered As$_{2}$ S$_{3}$ planar waveguides for broadband four-wave mixing wavelength conversion of 40 Gb/s signals," Opt. Exp. 17, 3514-3520 (2009).

O. Boyraz, P. Koonath, V. Raghunathan, B. Jalali, "All optical switching and continuum generation in silicon waveguides," Opt. Exp. 12, 4095-4104 (2004).

Q. Xu, V. Almeida, M. Lipson, "Time-resolved study of Raman gain in highly confined silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Exp. 12, 4437-4443 (2004).

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires," Opt. Exp. 16, 1300-1320 (2008).

J. B. Driscoll, X. Liu, S. Yasseri, I.-.W. Hsieh, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood Jr., "Large longitudinal electric fields $({\rm E}_{\rm z})$ in silicon nanowire waveguides," Opt. Exp. 17, 2797-2804 (2009).

Opt. Lett. (1)

J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, X. Liu, S. Assefa, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, "Silicon-nitride surface passivation of submicrometer silicon waveguides for low-power optical switches," Opt. Lett. 14, 1534-1536 (2009).

Other (6)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2007).

B. E. A. Saleh, M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley Interscience, 2007) pp. 180-181.

A. Biberman, B. G. Lee, K. Bergman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, "First demonstration of on-chip wavelength multicasting," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2009).

X. Liu, I. Hsieh, X. Chen, M. Takekoshi, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood Jr., W. M. Green, F. Xia, Y. A. Vlasov, "Design and fabrication of an ultra-compact silicon on insulator demultiplexer based on arrayed waveguide gratings," Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Optics/Quantum Electron. Laser Sci. Conf. Photon. Appl. Syst. Technol. (2008).

G. Grosskopf, R. Ludwig, R. Schnabel, H. G. Weber, "Frequency conversion with semiconductor laser amplifiers for coherent optical frequency division switching," Proc. IOOC'89 (1989).

J. Leuthold, D. M. Marom, S. Cabot, J. J. Jaques, R. Ryf, C. R. Giles, "All-optical wavelength converter based on a pulse re-formatting optical filter," Tech. Dig. OFC'03 .

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