Abstract

The broadband penetration and continuing growth of Internet traffic among residential and business customers are driving the migration of today's end user's network access from cable to optical fiber and superbroadband wireless systems The integration of optical and wireless systems operating at much higher carrier frequencies in the millimeter-wave (mm-wave) range is considered to be one of the most promising solutions for increasing the existing capacity and mobility, as well as decreasing the costs in next-generation optical access networks. In this paper, several key enabling technologies for very high throughput wireless-over-fiber networks are reviewed, including photonic mm-wave generation based on external modulation or nonlinear effects, spectrum-efficient multicarrier orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing and single-carrier multilevel signal modulation. We also demonstrated some applications in wireless-over-fiber trials using these enabling techniques. The results show that the integrated systems are practical solutions to offer very high throughput wireless to end users in optically enabled wireless access networks.

© 2010 IEEE

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2009

P. Odling, T. Magesacher, S. Host, P. O. Borjesson, M. Berg, E. Areizaga, "The fourth broadband concept," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 63-69 (2009).

J. Yu, M. F. Huang, Z. Jia, L. Chen, J. G. Yu, G. K. Chang, "Polarization-insensitive all-optical upconversion for seamless integration optical core/metro/access networks with ROF systems based on a dual-pump FWM scheme," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2605-2611 (2009).

K. Prince, M. Presi, A. Chiuchiarelli, I. Cerutti, G. Contestabile, I. T. Monroy, E. Ciaramella, "Variable delay with directly-modulated R-SOA and optical filters for adaptive antenna radio-fiber access," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5056-5063 (2009).

L. Chen, J. Yu, S. Wen, J. Lu, Z. Dong, M. Huang, G. K. Chang, "A novel scheme for seamless integration of ROF with centralized lightwave OFDM-WDM-PON system," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 2786-2791 (2009).

M. Sakib, B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, M. Mohamed, W. Jiang, K. Wu, D. Shen, "Impact of optical transmission on multiband OFDM ultra-wideband wireless system with fiber distribution," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4112-4123 (2009).

J. Wang, B. Liu, X. Zhou, "PCE algorithm for PAPR reduction in OFDM-ROF system," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 55, 1078-1082 (2009).

F. Lecoche, E. Tanguy, B. Charbonnier, H. Li, F. Dijk, A. Enard, F. Blache, M. Goix, F. Mallécot, "Transmission quality measurement of two types of 60-GHz millimeter-wave generation and distribution systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5469-5474 (2009).

M. Morant, T. Alves, R. Llorente, A. V. T. Cartaxo, J. Marti, "Experimental comparison of transmission performance of multichannel OFDM-UWB signals on FTTH networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1408-1414 (2009).

A. Chowdhury, H. C. Chien, Y. T. Hsueh, G. K. Chang, "Advanced system technologies and field demonstration for In-Building optical-wireless network with integrated broadband services," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1920-1927 (2009).

C. S. Park, Y. Guo, L. C. Ong, Y. K. Yeo, Y. Wang, M. T. Zhou, H. Harada, "Application of an electroabsorption modulator in radio-over-fiber networks," J. Opt. Netw. 8, 146-155 (2009).

J. Chen, C. T. Lin, P. T. Shih, W. J. Jiang, S. P. Dai, Y. M. Lin, P. C. Peng, S. Chi, "Generation of optical millimeter-wave signals and vector formats using an integrated optical I/Q modulator," J. Opt. Netw. 8, 188-200 (2009).

Z. Jia, J. Yu, Y. T. Hsueh, H. C. Chien, A. Chowdhury, G. K. Chang, "Wireless high-definition services over optical fiber networks," J. Opt. Netw. 8, 235-243 (2009).

A. Stöhr, A. Akrout, R. Buß, B. Charbonnier, F. V. Dijk, A. Enard, S. Fedderwitz, D. Jäger, M. Huchard, F. Lecoche, J. Marti, R. Sambaraju, A. Steffan, A. Umbach, M. Weiß, "60 GHz radio-over-fiber technologies for broadband wireless services," J. Opt. Netw. 8, 471-487 (2009).

J. Yu, G. K. Chang, A. M. J. Koonen, G. Ellinas, "Radio-over-optical fiber networks: Introduction to the feature issue," J. Opt. Netw. 8, 488-490 (2009).

M. Sakib, X. Zhang, B. Hraimel, M. Mohamed, K. Wu, "Investigation of the performance of multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing ultra-wideband over fiber transmission under the presence of in-band interferers," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, 235-244 (2009).

M. Mohamed, B. Hraimel, X. Zhang, M. Sakib, K. Wu, "Frequency quadrupler for millimeter-wave multiband OFDM ultra-wideband wireless signals and distribution over fiber systems," J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 1, 428-438 (2009).

Y. Zhao, X. Zheng, H. Wen, H. Zhang, "Simplified optical millimeter-wave generation configuration by frequency quadrupling using two cascaded Mach–Zehnder modulators," Opt. Lett. 34, 3250-3252 (2009).

2008

J. Wang, X. Zhou, Y. Xu, W. Wang, "Performance improvement of OFDM-ROF system with clipping and filtering technique," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 54, 296-299 (2008).

B. Razavi, "Gadgets gab at 60 GHz," IEEE Spectr. 45, 46-58 (2008).

M. Jazayerifar, B. Cabon, J. A. Salehi, "Transmission of multi-band OFDM and impulse radio ultra-wideband signals over dingle mode fiber," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2594-2603 (2008).

N. Gomes, A. Nkansah, D. Wake, "Radio over MMF techniques, Part I: RF to microwave frequency systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2388-2395 (2008).

A. Koonen, M. Larrode, "Radio-over-MMF techniques-Part II: Microwave to millimeter-wave system," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2396-2397 (2008).

J. Lu, Z. Dong, L. Chen, J. Yu, S. Wen, "High-repetitive frequency millimeter-wave signal generation using multi-cascaded external modulators based on carrier suppression technique," Opt. Commun. 281, 4889-4892 (2008).

J. Yu, M. F. Huang, Z. Jia, G. K. Chang, "A novel scheme to generate single-sideband millimeter-wave signals by using low-frequency local oscillator signal," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 478-480 (2008).

M. F. Huang, J. Yu, Z. Jia, G. K. Chang, "Simultaneous generation of centralized lightwaves and double/single sideband optical millimeter-wave requiring only low-frequency local oscillator signals for radio-over-fiber systems," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2653-2662 (2008).

X. Yu, J. B. Jensen, D. Zibar, C. Peucheret, I. T. Monroy, "Converged wireless and wireline access system based on optical phase modulation for both radio-over-fiber and baseband signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1814-1816 (2008).

C. J. Luis, S. Rakesh, A. P. Miguel, P. Valentín, "Generation of pure electrical quadrature amplitude modulation with photonic vector modulator," Opt. Lett. 33, 1294-1296 (2008).

S. Rakesh, P. Valentín, C. J. Luis, M. Javier, "Ten gigabits per second 16-level quadrature amplitude modulated millimeter-wave carrier generation using dual-drive Mach–Zehnder modulators incorporated photonic-vector modulator," Opt. Lett. 33, 1833-1835 (2008).

I. G. Insua, D. Plettemeier, C. G. Schäffer, "Broadband radio-over-fiber-based wireless access with 10 Gbits/s data rates," J. Opt. Netw. 8, 77-83 (2008).

2007

Z. Xu, X. Zhang, J. Yu, "Frequency upconversion of multiple RF signals using optical carrier suppression for radio over fiber downlinks," Opt. Exp. 15, 16737-16747 (2007).

J. Yu, Z. Jia, T. Wang, G. K. Chang, "A novel Radio-Over-Fiber configuration using optical phase modulator to generate an optical mm-wave and centralized lightwave for uplink connection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 140-142 (2007).

C. T. Lin, J. Chen, P. C. Peng, C. F. Peng, W. R. Peng, B. S. Chiou, S. Chi, "Hybrid optical access network integrating fiber-to-the-home and radio-over-fiber systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 610-612 (2007).

M. Sauer, A. Kobyakov, J. George, "Radio over fiber for picocellular network architectures," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3301-3320 (2007).

T. Wang, M. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, S. Xie, "Millimeter-wave signal generation using two cascaded optical modulators and FWM effect in semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1191-1193 (2007).

R. Sambaraju, M. A. Piqueras, V. Polo, J. L. Corral, J. Marti, "Generation of multi-gigabit-per-second MQAM/MPSK-modulated millimeter-wave carriers employing photonic vector modulator techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3350-3357 (2007).

J. Yu, Z. Jia, T. Wang, G. K. Chang, "Centralized lightwave radio-over-fiber system with photonic frequency quadrupling for high-frequency millimeter-wave generation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1499-1501 (2007).

Z. Jia, J. Yu, G. Ellinas, G. K. Chang, "Key enabling technologies for optical-wireless networks: Optical millimeter-wave generation, wavelength reuse, and architecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3452-3471 (2007).

2006

T. Kurt, A. Yongaçõglu, J. Chouinard, "OFDM and externally modulated multi-mode fibers in radio over fiber systems," IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 5, 2669-2674 (2006).

J. Yu, Z. Jia, L. Xu, L. Chen, T. Wang, G. K. Chang, "DWDM optical millimeter-wave generation for radio-over-fiber using an optical phase modulator and an optical interleaver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1418-1420 (2006).

M. G. Larrode, A. M. J. Koonen, J. J. V. Olmos, A. Ng'Oma, "Bidirectional radio-over-fiber link employing optical frequency multiplication," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 265-267 (2006).

J. H. Seo, C. S. Choi, Y. S. Kang, Y. D. Chung, J. Kim, W. Y. Choi, "SOA-EAM frequency up/down-converters for 60-GHz bi-directional radio-on-fiber systems," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 959-966 (2006).

Z. Jia, J. Yu, G. K. Chang, "A full-duplex radio-over-fiber system based on optical carrier suppression and reuse," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1726-1728 (2006).

M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, "Hybrid multiplexing of multiband optical access technologies towards an integrated DWDM network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2311-2313 (2006).

C. Wu, X. Zhang, "Impact of nonlinear distortion in radio over fiber systems with single-sideband and tandem single-sideband subcarrier modulations," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2076-2090 (2006).

X. Zhang, B. Liu, J. Yao, K. Wu, R. Kashyap, "A novel millimeter-wave-band radio-over-fiber system with dense wavelength-division multiplexing bus architecture," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 929-937 (2006).

L. Chen, H. Wen, S. Wen, "A radio-over-fiber system with a novel scheme for millimeter-wave generation and wavelength reuse for up-link connection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2056-2058 (2006).

J. Yu, Z. Jia, L. Yi, Y. Su, G.-K. Chang, T. Wang, "Optical millimeter-wave generation or up-conversion using external modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 265-267 (2006).

C. Lim, M. Attygalle, A. Nirmalathas, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, "Analysis of optical carrier-to-sideband ratio for improving transmission performance in fiber-radio links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 2181-2187 (2006).

Y. Le Guennec, G. Maury, J. Yao, B. Cabon, "New optical microwave up-conversion solution in Radio-Over-Fiber networks for 60-GHz wireless applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 1277-1282 (2006).

J. Ma, J. Yu, C. Yu, Z. Jia, X. Sang, Z. Zhou, T. Wang, G. K. Chang, "Wavelength conversion based on four-wave mixing in high-nonlinear dispersion shifted fiber using a dual-pump configuration," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2851-2858 (2006).

Z. Jia, J. Yu, G. K. Chang, "A full-duplex radio-over-fiber system based on optical carrier suppression and reuse," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1726-1728 (2006).

2005

J. Yu, J. Gu, X. Liu, Z. Jia, G. K. Chang, "Seamless integration of an 8$\,\times\,$2.5 Gb/s WDM-PON and radio-over-fiber using all-optical up-conversion based on Raman-assisted FWM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 17, 1986-1988 (2005).

Z. Jia, J. Yu, G. K. Chang, "All-optical 16$\,\times\,$2.5 Gbit/s WDM signals simultaneous up-conversion based on XPM in an NOLM in ROF systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 17, 2724-2726 (2005).

B. Leesti, A. J. Zilkie, J. S. Aitchison, M. Mojahedi, R. H. Wang, T. J. Rotter, C. Yang, A. Stintz, K. J. Malloy, "Broad-band wavelength up-conversion of picosecond pulses via four-wave mixing in a quantum-dash waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1046-1048 (2005).

J. Yu, Z. Jia, G. K. Chang, "All-optical mixer based on cross-absorption modulation in electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2421-2423 (2005).

A. Wiberg, P. Perez-Millan, M. V. Andres, P. A. Andrekson, P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-optic 40-GHz mm-wave link with 2.5 Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1938-1940 (2005).

G. Qi, J. Yao, J. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, C. Belisle, "Generation and distribution of a wideband continuously tunable millimeter-wave signal with an optical external modulation technique," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53, 3090-3097 (2005).

M. Attygalle, C. Lim, G. J. Pendock, A. Nirmalathas, G. Edvell, "Transmission improvement in fiber wireless links using fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 190-192 (2005).

T. Kuri, T. Nakasyotani, H. Toda, K.-I. Kitayama, "Characterizations of supercontinuum light source for WDM millimeter-wave-band radio-on-fiber systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1274-1276 (2005).

M. A. Piqueras, B. Vidal, J. L. Corral, V. Polo, A. Martínez, J. Martí, "Direct photonic generation of electrical vector modulations at microwave/millimeter-wave frequencies," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 17, 1947-1949 (2005).

A. Wiberg, P. P-Millán, M. V. Andrés, P. A. Andrekson, P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-Optic 40-GHz mm-wave link with 2.5-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1938-1940 (2005).

J. Yu, J. Gu, X. Liu, Z. Jia, G. K. Chang, "Seamless integration of an 8$\,\times\,$2.5 Gb/s WDM-PON and radio-over-fiber using all-optical up-convention based on Raman-assisted FWM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1986-1988 (2005).

G. Qi, J. Yao, J. Seregelyi, S. Paquet, C. Belisle, "Optical generation and distribution of continuously tunable millimeter-wave signals using an optical phase modulator," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 2687-2695 (2005).

M. A. Piqueras, B. Vidal, V. Polo, J. L. Corral, J. Martí, "Direct photonic generation of electrical vector modulations at microwave/millimeter-wave frequencies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1947-1949 (2005).

W. Huang, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, F. Tong, "An optical network unit for WDM access networks with downstream DPSK and upstream remodulated OOK data using injection-locked FP laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1476-1478 (2005).

2004

T. Kawanishi, T. Sakamoto, S. Shinada, M. Izutsu, "Optical frequency comb generator using optical fiber loops with single-sideband modulation," IEICE Electron. Exp. 1, 217-221 (2004).

H. J. Song, J. S. Lee, J. I. Song, "Signal up-conversion by using a cross-phase-modulation in all-Optical SOA-MZI wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 593-595 (2004).

2003

K. Ikeda, T. Kuri, K. Kitayama, "Simultaneous three-band modulation and fiber-optic transmission of 2.5-Gb/s baseband, microwave-, and 60-GHz-band signals on a single wavelength," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3194-3202 (2003).

A. Loayssa, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Benito, "Optical single-sideband modulator for broadband subcarrier multiplexing systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 311-313 (2003).

P. Candelas, J. M. Fuster, J. Martí, J. C. Roig, "Optically generated electrical-modulation formats in digital-microwave link applications," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 496-499 (2003).

A. Hirata, M. Harada, T. Nagatsuma, "120-GHz wireless link using photonic techniques for generation, modulation, and emission of millimeter-wave signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 2145-2153 (2003).

2002

W. D. Jemison, A. J. Kreuzberger, E. Funk, "Microwave photonic vector modulator for high-speed wireless digital communications," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 12, 125-127 (2002).

2000

K. Kitayama, "Architectural considerations of fiber radio millimeter wave wireless access systems," Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 167-186 (2000).

J. M. Fuster, J. Marti, J. L. Corral, V. Polo, F. Ramos, "Generalized study of dispersion-induced power penalty mitigation techniques in millimeter-wave fiber-optic links," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 933-940 (2000).

1999

K. I. Kitayama, R. A. Grifin, "Optical downconversion from millimeter-wave to IF-Band over 50 km long optical fiber link using an electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 287-289 (1999).

1997

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, Z. Ahmed, "Overcome chromatic-dispersion effects in fiber-wireless systems incorporating external modulators," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 45, 1410-1415 (1997).

1996

C. K. Sun, R. J. Orazi, S. A. Pappert, "Efficient microwave frequency conversion using photonic link signal mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 154-156 (1996).

D. Wake, C. R. Lima, P. A. Davies, "Transmission of 60 GHz signals over 100 km of optical fiber using a dual-mode semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 578-580 (1996).

U. Gliese, S. Norskov, T. N. Nielsen, "Chromatic dispersion in fiber-optic microwave and millimeter-wave links," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 44, 1716-1724 (1996).

1992

J. J. O'Reilly, P. M. Lane, R. Heidemann, R. Hofstetter, "Optical generation of very narrow linewidth millimetre wave signals," Electron. Lett. 28, 2309-2311 (1992).

Electron. Lett.

J. J. O'Reilly, P. M. Lane, R. Heidemann, R. Hofstetter, "Optical generation of very narrow linewidth millimetre wave signals," Electron. Lett. 28, 2309-2311 (1992).

Fiber Integr. Opt.

K. Kitayama, "Architectural considerations of fiber radio millimeter wave wireless access systems," Fiber Integr. Opt. 19, 167-186 (2000).

IEEE Commun. Mag.

P. Odling, T. Magesacher, S. Host, P. O. Borjesson, M. Berg, E. Areizaga, "The fourth broadband concept," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 63-69 (2009).

IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett.

W. D. Jemison, A. J. Kreuzberger, E. Funk, "Microwave photonic vector modulator for high-speed wireless digital communications," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 12, 125-127 (2002).

IEEE Photon Technol. Lett.

M. A. Piqueras, B. Vidal, J. L. Corral, V. Polo, A. Martínez, J. Martí, "Direct photonic generation of electrical vector modulations at microwave/millimeter-wave frequencies," IEEE Photon Technol. Lett. 17, 1947-1949 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett

J. Yu, J. Gu, X. Liu, Z. Jia, G. K. Chang, "Seamless integration of an 8$\,\times\,$2.5 Gb/s WDM-PON and radio-over-fiber using all-optical up-conversion based on Raman-assisted FWM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 17, 1986-1988 (2005).

Z. Jia, J. Yu, G. K. Chang, "All-optical 16$\,\times\,$2.5 Gbit/s WDM signals simultaneous up-conversion based on XPM in an NOLM in ROF systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett 17, 2724-2726 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

B. Leesti, A. J. Zilkie, J. S. Aitchison, M. Mojahedi, R. H. Wang, T. J. Rotter, C. Yang, A. Stintz, K. J. Malloy, "Broad-band wavelength up-conversion of picosecond pulses via four-wave mixing in a quantum-dash waveguide," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1046-1048 (2005).

C. T. Lin, J. Chen, P. C. Peng, C. F. Peng, W. R. Peng, B. S. Chiou, S. Chi, "Hybrid optical access network integrating fiber-to-the-home and radio-over-fiber systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 610-612 (2007).

A. Wiberg, P. Perez-Millan, M. V. Andres, P. A. Andrekson, P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-optic 40-GHz mm-wave link with 2.5 Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1938-1940 (2005).

H. J. Song, J. S. Lee, J. I. Song, "Signal up-conversion by using a cross-phase-modulation in all-Optical SOA-MZI wavelength converter," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 593-595 (2004).

K. I. Kitayama, R. A. Grifin, "Optical downconversion from millimeter-wave to IF-Band over 50 km long optical fiber link using an electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 287-289 (1999).

J. Yu, Z. Jia, G. K. Chang, "All-optical mixer based on cross-absorption modulation in electroabsorption modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2421-2423 (2005).

C. K. Sun, R. J. Orazi, S. A. Pappert, "Efficient microwave frequency conversion using photonic link signal mixing," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 154-156 (1996).

D. Wake, C. R. Lima, P. A. Davies, "Transmission of 60 GHz signals over 100 km of optical fiber using a dual-mode semiconductor laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 578-580 (1996).

J. Yu, Z. Jia, L. Xu, L. Chen, T. Wang, G. K. Chang, "DWDM optical millimeter-wave generation for radio-over-fiber using an optical phase modulator and an optical interleaver," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1418-1420 (2006).

M. G. Larrode, A. M. J. Koonen, J. J. V. Olmos, A. Ng'Oma, "Bidirectional radio-over-fiber link employing optical frequency multiplication," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 265-267 (2006).

Z. Jia, J. Yu, G. K. Chang, "A full-duplex radio-over-fiber system based on optical carrier suppression and reuse," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1726-1728 (2006).

A. Wiberg, P. P-Millán, M. V. Andrés, P. A. Andrekson, P. O. Hedekvist, "Fiber-Optic 40-GHz mm-wave link with 2.5-Gb/s data transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1938-1940 (2005).

J. Yu, J. Gu, X. Liu, Z. Jia, G. K. Chang, "Seamless integration of an 8$\,\times\,$2.5 Gb/s WDM-PON and radio-over-fiber using all-optical up-convention based on Raman-assisted FWM," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1986-1988 (2005).

X. Yu, J. B. Jensen, D. Zibar, C. Peucheret, I. T. Monroy, "Converged wireless and wireline access system based on optical phase modulation for both radio-over-fiber and baseband signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1814-1816 (2008).

T. Wang, M. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, S. Xie, "Millimeter-wave signal generation using two cascaded optical modulators and FWM effect in semiconductor optical amplifier," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1191-1193 (2007).

T. Kuri, T. Nakasyotani, H. Toda, K.-I. Kitayama, "Characterizations of supercontinuum light source for WDM millimeter-wave-band radio-on-fiber systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1274-1276 (2005).

M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, C. Lim, D. Novak, R. Waterhouse, "Hybrid multiplexing of multiband optical access technologies towards an integrated DWDM network," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2311-2313 (2006).

L. Chen, H. Wen, S. Wen, "A radio-over-fiber system with a novel scheme for millimeter-wave generation and wavelength reuse for up-link connection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2056-2058 (2006).

J. Yu, Z. Jia, T. Wang, G. K. Chang, "A novel Radio-Over-Fiber configuration using optical phase modulator to generate an optical mm-wave and centralized lightwave for uplink connection," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 140-142 (2007).

J. Yu, Z. Jia, T. Wang, G. K. Chang, "Centralized lightwave radio-over-fiber system with photonic frequency quadrupling for high-frequency millimeter-wave generation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1499-1501 (2007).

M. A. Piqueras, B. Vidal, V. Polo, J. L. Corral, J. Martí, "Direct photonic generation of electrical vector modulations at microwave/millimeter-wave frequencies," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1947-1949 (2005).

J. Yu, Z. Jia, L. Yi, Y. Su, G.-K. Chang, T. Wang, "Optical millimeter-wave generation or up-conversion using external modulators," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 265-267 (2006).

J. Yu, M. F. Huang, Z. Jia, G. K. Chang, "A novel scheme to generate single-sideband millimeter-wave signals by using low-frequency local oscillator signal," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 478-480 (2008).

A. Loayssa, C. Lim, A. Nirmalathas, D. Benito, "Optical single-sideband modulator for broadband subcarrier multiplexing systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 311-313 (2003).

M. Attygalle, C. Lim, G. J. Pendock, A. Nirmalathas, G. Edvell, "Transmission improvement in fiber wireless links using fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 190-192 (2005).

W. Huang, C. K. Chan, L. K. Chen, F. Tong, "An optical network unit for WDM access networks with downstream DPSK and upstream remodulated OOK data using injection-locked FP laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1476-1478 (2005).

Z. Jia, J. Yu, G. K. Chang, "A full-duplex radio-over-fiber system based on optical carrier suppression and reuse," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1726-1728 (2006).

IEEE Spectr.

B. Razavi, "Gadgets gab at 60 GHz," IEEE Spectr. 45, 46-58 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron.

J. Wang, X. Zhou, Y. Xu, W. Wang, "Performance improvement of OFDM-ROF system with clipping and filtering technique," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 54, 296-299 (2008).

J. Wang, B. Liu, X. Zhou, "PCE algorithm for PAPR reduction in OFDM-ROF system," IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 55, 1078-1082 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

X. Zhang, B. Liu, J. Yao, K. Wu, R. Kashyap, "A novel millimeter-wave-band radio-over-fiber system with dense wavelength-division multiplexing bus architecture," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 929-937 (2006).

J. H. Seo, C. S. Choi, Y. S. Kang, Y. D. Chung, J. Kim, W. Y. Choi, "SOA-EAM frequency up/down-converters for 60-GHz bi-directional radio-on-fiber systems," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54, 959-966 (2006).

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