Abstract

This paper reviews and outlines the key features of the emerging next-generation fixed passive optical network (NG-PON)-based and fourth-generation (4G) mobile broadband access technologies and how to leverage the advantages of both of these access technologies to build a next-generation hybrid fiber-wireless (FiWi) network. Specifically, this paper presents an overview of the most recent research activities on these hybrid FiWi architectures, aiming to clarify the basic differences and distinguish between two FiWi networking architectural models, namely, the overlay or independent model and the truly integrated model. We then explore and present a new direction to the design and implementation of a simple and cost-effective all-packet-based converged fixed-mobile access networking solution that enables the true integration of NG-PON and 4G mobile broadband access technologies into the envisioned fixed-mobile platform. We briefly outline the general and technical requirements to support a unified NG-PON long-term evolution ((LTE) radio access network (RAN) architecture that conforms to both the typically centralized fixed PON and the emerging distributed 4G mobile LTE access standards. The implementation methodology on how to efficiently and cost-effectively integrate these two access technologies along with the main advantages gained from such an integrated architecture are outlined and presented.

© 2010 IEEE

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  3. L. G. Kazovsky, W._T. Shaw, D. Gutierrez, N. Cheng, S.-W. Wong, "Next-generation optical access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3428-3442 (2007).
  4. C. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, M. A. Ali, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality of service over ethernet PONs," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1467-1477 (2003).
  5. S. Sherif, A. Hadjiantonis, G. Ellinas, C. Assi, M. A. , "A novel distributed ethernet-based PON access architecture for provisioning differentiated QoS," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2483-2497 (2004).
  6. A. Delowar, R. Dorsinville, M. A. Ali, A. Shami, C. Assi, "Ring-based local access PON architecture for supporting private networking capability," OSA J. Opt. Netw. 5, 26-39 (2006).
  7. J. Kani, F. Bourgart, A. Cui, A. Rafel, M. Campbell, R. Davey, D. Rodriqgues , "Next-generation PON—Part I: Technology roadmap and general requirements," IEEE Communication Magazine 47, 43-49 (2009).
  8. F. J. Effenberger, H. Mukai, S. Park, T. Pfeiffer, "Next-generation PON—Part II: Candidate systems for next-generation PON," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 50-57 (2009).
  9. F. J. Effenberger, H. Mukai, J.-i. Kani, M. Rasztovitz-Wiech, "Next-generation PON—Part III: System specifications for XG-PON," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 58-64 (2009).
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  18. Z. Jia, J. Yu, A. Chowdhury, G. Ellinas, G. K. Chang, "Simultaneous generation of independent wired and wireless services using a single modulator in millimeter-wave-band radio-over-fiber systems," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 1691-1693 (2007).
  19. J. Zhensheng, J. Yu, G. Ellinas, G. K. Chang, "Key enabling technologies for optical-wireless networks: Optical millimeter-wave generation, wavelength reuse, and architecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3452-3471 (2007).
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  21. J. J. Olmos, T. Kuri, K. Kitayama, "60-GHz-band 155-Mbps and 1.5-Gbps baseband time-slotted full-duplex radio-over-fiber access network," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 20, 617-619 (2008).
  22. P. S. Henry, "Integrated optical/wireless alternatives for the metropolitan environment," IEEE Commun. Soc. Webinar (2007) http://www.comsoc.org/webinar.
  23. S. Sarkar, S. Dixit, B. Mukherjee, "Hybrid wireless-optical broadband-access network (WOBAN): A review of relevant challenges," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3329-3340 (2007).
  24. W. Shaw, S.-W. Wong, N. Cheng, K. Balasasubramanian, X. Zhu, M. Maier, L. Kazovsky, "Hybrid architecture and integrated routing in a scalable optical-wireless access network," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3443-3451 (2007).
  25. S. Sarkar, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixit, "Optimum placement of multiple optical network units (ONUs) in optical-wireless hybrid access networks," IEEE/OSA Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2006) pp. 3.
  26. S. Sarkar, H.-H. Chen, D. Dixit, B. Mukherjee, "DARA: Delay aware routing algorithm in a hybrid wireless-optical broadband access network (WOBAN)," IEEE Proc. Int. Conf. Commun. (ICC) (2007) pp. 2480-2484.
  27. S. Sarkar, H.-H. Yen, S. Dixit, B. Mukherjee, "RADAR: Risk-and-delay aware routing algorithm in a hybrid wireless-optical broadband access network (WOBAN)," IEEE/OSA Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2007) pp. 1-3.
  28. J. J. Olmos, T. Kuri, T. Sono, K. Tamura, H. Toda, K.-i. Kitayama, "Wireless and optical-integrated access network with peer-to-peer connection capability," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1127-1129 (2008).
  29. Y. Luo, N. Ansari, T. Wang, M. Cvijetic, S. Nakamura, "A QoS architecture of integrating GEPON and WiMAX in the access network," Proc. IEEE Sarnoff Symp. (2006) pp. 1-4.
  30. Y. Luo, T. Wang, S. B. Weinstein, M. Cvijetic, S. Nakamura, "Integrating optical and wireless services in the access network," Proc. IEEE/OSA National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (NFOEC) (2006).
  31. M. Bakaul, N. Nadarajah, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, "Internetworking VCSEL-based hybrid base station towards simultaneous wireless and wired transport for converged access network," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 20, 569-571 (2008).
  32. N. Nadarajah, M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, "Laser-free inter-networking hybrid base stations towards convergence of wireless and wired access networks," Electron. Lett. 43, 472-474 (2007).
  33. E. Wong, C. Lim, A. G. Prasanna, K. L. Lee, A. Nirmalathas, M. Ortsiefer, C. Neumeyr, "Simplified base station configuration for fiber-wireless applications," presented at the 33 Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC) BerlinGermany (2007).
  34. K. Yang, "Convergence of ethernet PON and IEEE 802.16 broadband access networks and its QoS-aware dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 101-116 (2009).
  35. G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, "Fixed mobile convergence architectures for broadband access: Integration of EPON and WiMAX," IEEE Comm. Mag. 45, 44-50 (2007).
  36. H. Erkan, ASM D. Hossain, R. Dorsinville, M. A. Ali, A. Hadjiantonis, G. Ellinas, A. Khalil, "A novel ring-based WDM-PON access architecture for efficient utilization of network resources," IEEE Proc. Int. Conf. Commun. (ICC) (2008) pp. 5175-5181.
  37. 4G LTE (2007) http://www.mobileeurope.co.uk/features/112515/4G_LTE.html.
  38. H. Erkan, G. Ellinas, A. Hadjiantonis, R. Dorsinville, M. A. Ali, "Native ethernet-based self-healing WDM-PON local access ring architecture: A new direction for supporting simple and efficient resilience capabilities," presented at the IEEE Int. Conf. Communications (ICC) Cape TownSouth Africa (2010).

2009 (7)

J. Kani, F. Bourgart, A. Cui, A. Rafel, M. Campbell, R. Davey, D. Rodriqgues , "Next-generation PON—Part I: Technology roadmap and general requirements," IEEE Communication Magazine 47, 43-49 (2009).

F. J. Effenberger, H. Mukai, S. Park, T. Pfeiffer, "Next-generation PON—Part II: Candidate systems for next-generation PON," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 50-57 (2009).

F. J. Effenberger, H. Mukai, J.-i. Kani, M. Rasztovitz-Wiech, "Next-generation PON—Part III: System specifications for XG-PON," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 58-64 (2009).

I. Ali, A. Casati, K. Chowdhury, K. Nishida, E. Parsons, S. Schmid, R. Vaidya, "Network-based mobility management in the evolved 3GPP core network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 58-66 (2009).

H. Ekstrom, "QoS control in the 3GPP evolved packet system," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 76-83 (2009).

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, C. Assi, "Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 160-167 (2009).

K. Yang, "Convergence of ethernet PON and IEEE 802.16 broadband access networks and its QoS-aware dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 101-116 (2009).

2008 (3)

J. J. Olmos, T. Kuri, K. Kitayama, "60-GHz-band 155-Mbps and 1.5-Gbps baseband time-slotted full-duplex radio-over-fiber access network," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 20, 617-619 (2008).

J. J. Olmos, T. Kuri, T. Sono, K. Tamura, H. Toda, K.-i. Kitayama, "Wireless and optical-integrated access network with peer-to-peer connection capability," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1127-1129 (2008).

M. Bakaul, N. Nadarajah, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, "Internetworking VCSEL-based hybrid base station towards simultaneous wireless and wired transport for converged access network," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 20, 569-571 (2008).

2007 (9)

N. Nadarajah, M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, "Laser-free inter-networking hybrid base stations towards convergence of wireless and wired access networks," Electron. Lett. 43, 472-474 (2007).

Z. Jia, J. Yu, A. Chowdhury, G. Ellinas, G. K. Chang, "Simultaneous generation of independent wired and wireless services using a single modulator in millimeter-wave-band radio-over-fiber systems," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 1691-1693 (2007).

J. Zhensheng, J. Yu, G. Ellinas, G. K. Chang, "Key enabling technologies for optical-wireless networks: Optical millimeter-wave generation, wavelength reuse, and architecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3452-3471 (2007).

C.-T. Lin, J. Chen, P.-C. Peng, C.-F. Peng, W.-R. Peng, B.-S. Chiou, S. Chi, "Hybrid optical access network integrating fiber-to-the-home and radio-over-fiber systems," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 610-612 (2007).

P. S. Henry, "Integrated optical/wireless alternatives for the metropolitan environment," IEEE Commun. Soc. Webinar (2007) http://www.comsoc.org/webinar.

S. Sarkar, S. Dixit, B. Mukherjee, "Hybrid wireless-optical broadband-access network (WOBAN): A review of relevant challenges," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3329-3340 (2007).

W. Shaw, S.-W. Wong, N. Cheng, K. Balasasubramanian, X. Zhu, M. Maier, L. Kazovsky, "Hybrid architecture and integrated routing in a scalable optical-wireless access network," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3443-3451 (2007).

L. G. Kazovsky, W._T. Shaw, D. Gutierrez, N. Cheng, S.-W. Wong, "Next-generation optical access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3428-3442 (2007).

G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, "Fixed mobile convergence architectures for broadband access: Integration of EPON and WiMAX," IEEE Comm. Mag. 45, 44-50 (2007).

2006 (2)

A. Delowar, R. Dorsinville, M. A. Ali, A. Shami, C. Assi, "Ring-based local access PON architecture for supporting private networking capability," OSA J. Opt. Netw. 5, 26-39 (2006).

T. Nakasyotani, H. Toda, T. Kuri, K.-i. Kitayama, "Wavelength division multiplexed millimeter-waveband radio-on-fiber sysem using a supercontinuum light source," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 404-410 (2006).

2004 (1)

S. Sherif, A. Hadjiantonis, G. Ellinas, C. Assi, M. A. , "A novel distributed ethernet-based PON access architecture for provisioning differentiated QoS," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2483-2497 (2004).

2003 (1)

C. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, M. A. Ali, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality of service over ethernet PONs," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1467-1477 (2003).

2002 (1)

G. Kramer, G. Pesavento, "Ethernet passive optical network (EPON): Building a next generation optical access network," IEEE Comm. Mag. 40, 66-73 (2002).

Electron. Lett. (1)

N. Nadarajah, M. Bakaul, A. Nirmalathas, "Laser-free inter-networking hybrid base stations towards convergence of wireless and wired access networks," Electron. Lett. 43, 472-474 (2007).

IEEE Comm. Mag. (2)

G. Shen, R. S. Tucker, "Fixed mobile convergence architectures for broadband access: Integration of EPON and WiMAX," IEEE Comm. Mag. 45, 44-50 (2007).

G. Kramer, G. Pesavento, "Ethernet passive optical network (EPON): Building a next generation optical access network," IEEE Comm. Mag. 40, 66-73 (2002).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (5)

F. J. Effenberger, H. Mukai, S. Park, T. Pfeiffer, "Next-generation PON—Part II: Candidate systems for next-generation PON," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 50-57 (2009).

F. J. Effenberger, H. Mukai, J.-i. Kani, M. Rasztovitz-Wiech, "Next-generation PON—Part III: System specifications for XG-PON," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 58-64 (2009).

I. Ali, A. Casati, K. Chowdhury, K. Nishida, E. Parsons, S. Schmid, R. Vaidya, "Network-based mobility management in the evolved 3GPP core network," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 58-66 (2009).

H. Ekstrom, "QoS control in the 3GPP evolved packet system," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 76-83 (2009).

N. Ghazisaidi, M. Maier, C. Assi, "Fiber-wireless (FiWi) access networks: A survey," IEEE Commun. Mag. 47, 160-167 (2009).

IEEE Commun. Soc. Webinar (1)

P. S. Henry, "Integrated optical/wireless alternatives for the metropolitan environment," IEEE Commun. Soc. Webinar (2007) http://www.comsoc.org/webinar.

IEEE Communication Magazine (1)

J. Kani, F. Bourgart, A. Cui, A. Rafel, M. Campbell, R. Davey, D. Rodriqgues , "Next-generation PON—Part I: Technology roadmap and general requirements," IEEE Communication Magazine 47, 43-49 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (2)

C. Assi, Y. Ye, S. Dixit, M. A. Ali, "Dynamic bandwidth allocation for quality of service over ethernet PONs," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21, 1467-1477 (2003).

K. Yang, "Convergence of ethernet PON and IEEE 802.16 broadband access networks and its QoS-aware dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 27, 101-116 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (4)

M. Bakaul, N. Nadarajah, A. Nirmalathas, E. Wong, "Internetworking VCSEL-based hybrid base station towards simultaneous wireless and wired transport for converged access network," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 20, 569-571 (2008).

C.-T. Lin, J. Chen, P.-C. Peng, C.-F. Peng, W.-R. Peng, B.-S. Chiou, S. Chi, "Hybrid optical access network integrating fiber-to-the-home and radio-over-fiber systems," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 610-612 (2007).

J. J. Olmos, T. Kuri, K. Kitayama, "60-GHz-band 155-Mbps and 1.5-Gbps baseband time-slotted full-duplex radio-over-fiber access network," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 20, 617-619 (2008).

Z. Jia, J. Yu, A. Chowdhury, G. Ellinas, G. K. Chang, "Simultaneous generation of independent wired and wireless services using a single modulator in millimeter-wave-band radio-over-fiber systems," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 1691-1693 (2007).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. J. Olmos, T. Kuri, T. Sono, K. Tamura, H. Toda, K.-i. Kitayama, "Wireless and optical-integrated access network with peer-to-peer connection capability," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1127-1129 (2008).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

S. Sarkar, S. Dixit, B. Mukherjee, "Hybrid wireless-optical broadband-access network (WOBAN): A review of relevant challenges," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3329-3340 (2007).

W. Shaw, S.-W. Wong, N. Cheng, K. Balasasubramanian, X. Zhu, M. Maier, L. Kazovsky, "Hybrid architecture and integrated routing in a scalable optical-wireless access network," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3443-3451 (2007).

J. Zhensheng, J. Yu, G. Ellinas, G. K. Chang, "Key enabling technologies for optical-wireless networks: Optical millimeter-wave generation, wavelength reuse, and architecture," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3452-3471 (2007).

T. Nakasyotani, H. Toda, T. Kuri, K.-i. Kitayama, "Wavelength division multiplexed millimeter-waveband radio-on-fiber sysem using a supercontinuum light source," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 404-410 (2006).

S. Sherif, A. Hadjiantonis, G. Ellinas, C. Assi, M. A. , "A novel distributed ethernet-based PON access architecture for provisioning differentiated QoS," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2483-2497 (2004).

L. G. Kazovsky, W._T. Shaw, D. Gutierrez, N. Cheng, S.-W. Wong, "Next-generation optical access networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3428-3442 (2007).

OSA J. Opt. Netw. (1)

A. Delowar, R. Dorsinville, M. A. Ali, A. Shami, C. Assi, "Ring-based local access PON architecture for supporting private networking capability," OSA J. Opt. Netw. 5, 26-39 (2006).

Other (14)

IEEE 802.3(a)h EFM Study Group http://www.ieee802.org/3/efm/public/index.html 2001–2004.

UMTS Evolution, From 3GPP Release 7 to Release 8, HSPA and SAE/LTE UPDATE www.3gamericans.org (2008).

3GPP TS 23.107Quality of Service (QoS) Concept and Architecture (2005).

3GPP TS 36.300Evolved UTRA and Evolved UTRAN, Overall Description (2006).

3GPP TS 23.4023GPP Architecture Enhancements for Non-3GPP Accesses (2007).

S. Sarkar, B. Mukherjee, S. Dixit, "Optimum placement of multiple optical network units (ONUs) in optical-wireless hybrid access networks," IEEE/OSA Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2006) pp. 3.

S. Sarkar, H.-H. Chen, D. Dixit, B. Mukherjee, "DARA: Delay aware routing algorithm in a hybrid wireless-optical broadband access network (WOBAN)," IEEE Proc. Int. Conf. Commun. (ICC) (2007) pp. 2480-2484.

S. Sarkar, H.-H. Yen, S. Dixit, B. Mukherjee, "RADAR: Risk-and-delay aware routing algorithm in a hybrid wireless-optical broadband access network (WOBAN)," IEEE/OSA Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (2007) pp. 1-3.

Y. Luo, N. Ansari, T. Wang, M. Cvijetic, S. Nakamura, "A QoS architecture of integrating GEPON and WiMAX in the access network," Proc. IEEE Sarnoff Symp. (2006) pp. 1-4.

Y. Luo, T. Wang, S. B. Weinstein, M. Cvijetic, S. Nakamura, "Integrating optical and wireless services in the access network," Proc. IEEE/OSA National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (NFOEC) (2006).

E. Wong, C. Lim, A. G. Prasanna, K. L. Lee, A. Nirmalathas, M. Ortsiefer, C. Neumeyr, "Simplified base station configuration for fiber-wireless applications," presented at the 33 Eur. Conf. Optical Communication (ECOC) BerlinGermany (2007).

H. Erkan, ASM D. Hossain, R. Dorsinville, M. A. Ali, A. Hadjiantonis, G. Ellinas, A. Khalil, "A novel ring-based WDM-PON access architecture for efficient utilization of network resources," IEEE Proc. Int. Conf. Commun. (ICC) (2008) pp. 5175-5181.

4G LTE (2007) http://www.mobileeurope.co.uk/features/112515/4G_LTE.html.

H. Erkan, G. Ellinas, A. Hadjiantonis, R. Dorsinville, M. A. Ali, "Native ethernet-based self-healing WDM-PON local access ring architecture: A new direction for supporting simple and efficient resilience capabilities," presented at the IEEE Int. Conf. Communications (ICC) Cape TownSouth Africa (2010).

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