Abstract

The formations of the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) bands in metal/air/metal (MAM) sub-wavelength plasmonic grating waveguide (PGW) are proposed. The band gaps originating from the highly localized resonances inside the grooves can be simply estimated from the round trip phase condition. Due to the overlap of the localized SPPs between the neighboring grooves, a Bloch mode forms in the bandgap and can be engineered to build a very flat dispersion for slow light. A chirped PGW with groove depth varying is also demonstrated to trap light, which is validated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations with both continuous and pulse excitations.

© 2010 IEEE

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  2. L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).
  3. Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902- (2005).
  4. C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses," Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).
  5. T. F. Krauss, "Why do we need slow light?," Nat. Photon. 2, 448-450 (2008).
  6. K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, O. Hess, "Trapped rainbow' storage of light in metamaterials," Nature 450, 397-401 (2007).
  7. T. BaBa, "Slow light in photonic crystals," Nat. Photon. 2, 465-473 (2008).
  8. M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, I. Yokohama, "Extremely large group velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).
  9. D. Mori, T. Baba, "Dispersion-controlled optical group delay device by chirped photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1101-1103 (2004).
  10. M. Sandtke, L. Kuipers, "Slow guided surface plasmons at telecom frequencies," Nat. Photon. 1, 573-576 (2007).
  11. Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, F. J. Bartoli, "Ultrawide-bandwidth slow-light system based on THz plasmonic graded metallic grating structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 256803- (2008).
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  15. J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
  16. M. Qiu, "Photonic band structures for surface waves on structured metal surfaces," Opt. Exp. 13, 7583-7588 (2005).
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  19. I. R. Hooper, J. R. Sambles, "Dispersion of surface plasmon polaritons on short-pitch metal gratings," Phys. Rev. B 65, 165432 (2002).
  20. J. Zhang, L. Cai, W. Bai, Y. Xu, G. Song, "Slow light at terahertz frequencies in surface plasmon polariton assisted grating waveguide," J. Appl. Phys. 106, 103715 (2009).
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  24. A. Archambault, T. V. Teperik, F. Marquier, J. J. Greffet, "Surface plasmon Fourier optics," Phys. Rev. B 79, 195414- (2009).
  25. A. Tip, "Linear dispersive dielectrics as limits of Drude-Lorentz systems," Phys. Rev. E 69, 016610- (2004).
  26. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985) pp. 355-357.
  27. H. T. Miyazaki, Y. Kurokawa, "Squeezing visible light waves into a 3-nm-thick and 55-nm-long plasmon cavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 097401- (2006).
  28. B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, A. Mysyrowicz, "Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant," Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556-13572 (1991).
  29. E. Feigenbaum, M. Orenstein, "Modeling of complementary (void) plasmon waveguiding," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2547-2562 (2007).
  30. V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, J. Yao, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, "Plasmonic Fabry-Pérot nanocavity," Nano. Lett. 9, 3489-3493 (2009).
  31. M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, T. Tanabe, "Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities," Nat. Photon. 2, 741-747 (2008).
  32. J. A. Dionne, E. Verhagen, A. Polman, H. A. Atwater, "Are negative index materials achievable with surface plasmon waveguides? A case study of three plasmonic geometries," Opt. Exp. 16, 19001-19017 (2008).
  33. H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, H. A. Atwater, "Negative refraction at visible frequencies," Science 316, 430-432 (2007).
  34. A. Kocabas, S. S. Senlik, A. Aydinli, "Slowing down surface plasmons on a moiré surface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063901 (2009).
  35. M. Sandtke, L. Kuipers, "Spatial distribution and near-field coupling of surface plasmon polariton bloch modes," Phys. Rev. B 77, 235439 (2008).
  36. T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nat. Photon. 1, 49-52 (2007).
  37. F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photon. 1, 65-71 (2007).
  38. J. G. Pedersen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, "Limits of slow light in phontonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 78, 153101 (2008).
  39. Q. Gan, Y. J. Ding, F. J. Bartoli, "Rainbow trapping and releasing at telecommunication wavelengths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 056801 (2009).
  40. T. Baba, D. Mori, K. Inoshita, Y. Kuroki, "Light localization in line defect photonic crystal waveguides," IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 484-491 (2004).
  41. J. Grandidier, G. C. D. Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, A. Dereux, "Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom. wavelength," Nano. Lett. 9, 2935-2939 (2009).
  42. P. Ginzburg, D. Arbel, M. Orenstein, "Gap plasmon polariton structure for very efficient microscale-to-nanoscale interfacing," Opt. Lett. 31, 3288-3290 (2006).

2009

J. Zhang, L. Cai, W. Bai, Y. Xu, G. Song, "Slow light at terahertz frequencies in surface plasmon polariton assisted grating waveguide," J. Appl. Phys. 106, 103715 (2009).

A. Karalis, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljacic, "Plasmonic-dielectric systems for high-order dispersionless slow or stopped subwavelength light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 43906- (2009).

A. Archambault, T. V. Teperik, F. Marquier, J. J. Greffet, "Surface plasmon Fourier optics," Phys. Rev. B 79, 195414- (2009).

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, J. Yao, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, "Plasmonic Fabry-Pérot nanocavity," Nano. Lett. 9, 3489-3493 (2009).

A. Kocabas, S. S. Senlik, A. Aydinli, "Slowing down surface plasmons on a moiré surface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063901 (2009).

Q. Gan, Y. J. Ding, F. J. Bartoli, "Rainbow trapping and releasing at telecommunication wavelengths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 056801 (2009).

J. Grandidier, G. C. D. Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, A. Dereux, "Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom. wavelength," Nano. Lett. 9, 2935-2939 (2009).

2008

J. G. Pedersen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, "Limits of slow light in phontonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 78, 153101 (2008).

M. Sandtke, L. Kuipers, "Spatial distribution and near-field coupling of surface plasmon polariton bloch modes," Phys. Rev. B 77, 235439 (2008).

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, T. Tanabe, "Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities," Nat. Photon. 2, 741-747 (2008).

J. A. Dionne, E. Verhagen, A. Polman, H. A. Atwater, "Are negative index materials achievable with surface plasmon waveguides? A case study of three plasmonic geometries," Opt. Exp. 16, 19001-19017 (2008).

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface-plasmon circuitry," Phys. Today 61, 44-50 (2008).

T. F. Krauss, "Why do we need slow light?," Nat. Photon. 2, 448-450 (2008).

T. BaBa, "Slow light in photonic crystals," Nat. Photon. 2, 465-473 (2008).

Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, F. J. Bartoli, "Ultrawide-bandwidth slow-light system based on THz plasmonic graded metallic grating structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 256803- (2008).

2007

M. Sandtke, L. Kuipers, "Slow guided surface plasmons at telecom frequencies," Nat. Photon. 1, 573-576 (2007).

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, O. Hess, "Trapped rainbow' storage of light in metamaterials," Nature 450, 397-401 (2007).

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, H. A. Atwater, "Negative refraction at visible frequencies," Science 316, 430-432 (2007).

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nat. Photon. 1, 49-52 (2007).

F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photon. 1, 65-71 (2007).

E. Feigenbaum, M. Orenstein, "Modeling of complementary (void) plasmon waveguiding," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2547-2562 (2007).

2006

P. Ginzburg, D. Arbel, M. Orenstein, "Gap plasmon polariton structure for very efficient microscale-to-nanoscale interfacing," Opt. Lett. 31, 3288-3290 (2006).

H. T. Miyazaki, Y. Kurokawa, "Squeezing visible light waves into a 3-nm-thick and 55-nm-long plasmon cavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 097401- (2006).

2005

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902- (2005).

S. Jetté-Charbonneau, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, P. Berini, "Demonstration of Bragg gratings based on long-ranging surface plasmon polariton waveguides," Opt. Exp. 13, 4674-4682 (2005).

M. Qiu, "Photonic band structures for surface waves on structured metal surfaces," Opt. Exp. 13, 7583-7588 (2005).

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. B. Pendry, "Surface with holes in them: New plasmonic metamaterials," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 97-101 (2005).

2004

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).

D. Mori, T. Baba, "Dispersion-controlled optical group delay device by chirped photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1101-1103 (2004).

A. Tip, "Linear dispersive dielectrics as limits of Drude-Lorentz systems," Phys. Rev. E 69, 016610- (2004).

K. C. Huang, E. Lidorikis, X. Jiang, J. D. Joannopoulos, K. A. Nelson, "Nature of lossy Bloch states in polaritonic photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 69, 195111- (2004).

T. Baba, D. Mori, K. Inoshita, Y. Kuroki, "Light localization in line defect photonic crystal waveguides," IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 484-491 (2004).

2003

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).

2002

I. R. Hooper, J. R. Sambles, "Dispersion of surface plasmon polaritons on short-pitch metal gratings," Phys. Rev. B 65, 165432 (2002).

2001

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses," Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, I. Yokohama, "Extremely large group velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).

1999

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).

W. C. Tan, T. W. Preist, J. R. Sambles, N. P. Wanstall, "Flat surface-plasmon-polariton bands and resonant optical absorption on short-pitch metal gratings," Phys. Rev. B 59, 12661-1266 (1999).

1996

W. L. Barnes, T. W. Preist, S. C. Kitson, J. R. Sambles, "Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings," Phys. Rev. B 54, 6227-6244 (1996).

1991

B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, A. Mysyrowicz, "Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant," Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556-13572 (1991).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Mori, T. Baba, "Dispersion-controlled optical group delay device by chirped photonic crystal waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1101-1103 (2004).

IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

T. Baba, D. Mori, K. Inoshita, Y. Kuroki, "Light localization in line defect photonic crystal waveguides," IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 484-491 (2004).

J. Appl. Phys.

J. Zhang, L. Cai, W. Bai, Y. Xu, G. Song, "Slow light at terahertz frequencies in surface plasmon polariton assisted grating waveguide," J. Appl. Phys. 106, 103715 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol.

E. Feigenbaum, M. Orenstein, "Modeling of complementary (void) plasmon waveguiding," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2547-2562 (2007).

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, J. B. Pendry, "Surface with holes in them: New plasmonic metamaterials," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 97-101 (2005).

Nano. Lett.

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, J. Yao, G. Bartal, X. Zhang, "Plasmonic Fabry-Pérot nanocavity," Nano. Lett. 9, 3489-3493 (2009).

J. Grandidier, G. C. D. Francs, S. Massenot, A. Bouhelier, L. Markey, J. C. Weeber, C. Finot, A. Dereux, "Gain-assisted propagation in a plasmonic waveguide at telecom. wavelength," Nano. Lett. 9, 2935-2939 (2009).

Nat. Photon.

T. Tanabe, M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, A. Shinya, H. Taniyama, "Trapping and delaying photons for one nanosecond in an ultrasmall high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity," Nat. Photon. 1, 49-52 (2007).

F. N. Xia, L. Sekaric, Y. Vlasov, "Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip," Nat. Photon. 1, 65-71 (2007).

M. Notomi, E. Kuramochi, T. Tanabe, "Large-scale arrays of ultrahigh-Q coupled nanocavities," Nat. Photon. 2, 741-747 (2008).

M. Sandtke, L. Kuipers, "Slow guided surface plasmons at telecom frequencies," Nat. Photon. 1, 573-576 (2007).

T. F. Krauss, "Why do we need slow light?," Nat. Photon. 2, 448-450 (2008).

T. BaBa, "Slow light in photonic crystals," Nat. Photon. 2, 465-473 (2008).

Nature

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, O. Hess, "Trapped rainbow' storage of light in metamaterials," Nature 450, 397-401 (2007).

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594-598 (1999).

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses," Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).

Opt. Exp.

S. Jetté-Charbonneau, R. Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, P. Berini, "Demonstration of Bragg gratings based on long-ranging surface plasmon polariton waveguides," Opt. Exp. 13, 4674-4682 (2005).

M. Qiu, "Photonic band structures for surface waves on structured metal surfaces," Opt. Exp. 13, 7583-7588 (2005).

J. A. Dionne, E. Verhagen, A. Polman, H. A. Atwater, "Are negative index materials achievable with surface plasmon waveguides? A case study of three plasmonic geometries," Opt. Exp. 16, 19001-19017 (2008).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

J. G. Pedersen, S. Xiao, N. A. Mortensen, "Limits of slow light in phontonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 78, 153101 (2008).

B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, A. Mysyrowicz, "Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant," Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556-13572 (1991).

M. Sandtke, L. Kuipers, "Spatial distribution and near-field coupling of surface plasmon polariton bloch modes," Phys. Rev. B 77, 235439 (2008).

W. L. Barnes, T. W. Preist, S. C. Kitson, J. R. Sambles, "Physical origin of photonic energy gaps in the propagation of surface plasmons on gratings," Phys. Rev. B 54, 6227-6244 (1996).

I. R. Hooper, J. R. Sambles, "Dispersion of surface plasmon polaritons on short-pitch metal gratings," Phys. Rev. B 65, 165432 (2002).

W. C. Tan, T. W. Preist, J. R. Sambles, N. P. Wanstall, "Flat surface-plasmon-polariton bands and resonant optical absorption on short-pitch metal gratings," Phys. Rev. B 59, 12661-1266 (1999).

K. C. Huang, E. Lidorikis, X. Jiang, J. D. Joannopoulos, K. A. Nelson, "Nature of lossy Bloch states in polaritonic photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B 69, 195111- (2004).

A. Archambault, T. V. Teperik, F. Marquier, J. J. Greffet, "Surface plasmon Fourier optics," Phys. Rev. B 79, 195414- (2009).

Phys. Rev. E

A. Tip, "Linear dispersive dielectrics as limits of Drude-Lorentz systems," Phys. Rev. E 69, 016610- (2004).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Karalis, J. D. Joannopoulos, M. Soljacic, "Plasmonic-dielectric systems for high-order dispersionless slow or stopped subwavelength light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 43906- (2009).

A. Kocabas, S. S. Senlik, A. Aydinli, "Slowing down surface plasmons on a moiré surface," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063901 (2009).

H. T. Miyazaki, Y. Kurokawa, "Squeezing visible light waves into a 3-nm-thick and 55-nm-long plasmon cavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 097401- (2006).

Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. J. Ding, F. J. Bartoli, "Ultrawide-bandwidth slow-light system based on THz plasmonic graded metallic grating structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 256803- (2008).

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902- (2005).

M. Notomi, K. Yamada, A. Shinya, J. Takahashi, C. Takahashi, I. Yokohama, "Extremely large group velocity dispersion of line-defect waveguides in photonic crystal slabs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 253902 (2001).

Q. Gan, Y. J. Ding, F. J. Bartoli, "Rainbow trapping and releasing at telecommunication wavelengths," Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 056801 (2009).

Phys. Today

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Surface-plasmon circuitry," Phys. Today 61, 44-50 (2008).

Science

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).

H. J. Lezec, J. A. Dionne, H. A. Atwater, "Negative refraction at visible frequencies," Science 316, 430-432 (2007).

Other

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985) pp. 355-357.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

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