Abstract

We present an experimental demonstration of high bending efficiency $({>}80\hbox{\%})$ in on-chip hollow core of Bragg waveguides. Laser light in the wavelength range 1260–1630 nm is coupled into the hollow core of Bragg waveguides made of alternating silicon and silicon dioxide layers, and the transmission intensity of straight waveguides and waveguides with two bends are compared. Guiding by both types of waveguides is observed over a wide range of $\lambda$ (${\sim} 150$ nm).

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. P. Yeh, A. Yariv, E. Marom, "Theory of Bragg fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 68, 1196-1201 (1978).
  2. Y. Fink, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. L. Thomas, "Guiding optical light in air using an all-dielectric structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2039-2041 (1999).
  3. G. R. Hadley, J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, "Bragg fiber design for linear polarization," Opt. Lett. 29, 809-811 (2004).
  4. R. G. DeCorby, N. Ponnampalam, H. T. Nguyen, M. M. Pai, T. J. Clement, "Guided self-assembly of integrated hollow Bragg waveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 3902-3915 (2007).
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  6. Y. Yi, S. Akiyama, P. Bermel, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, "Sharp bending of on-chip silicon bragg cladding waveguide with light guiding in low index core materials," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1345-1348 (2006).
  7. Y. Sakurai, F. Koyama, "Tunable hollow waveguide distributed Bragg reflectors with variable air core," Opt. Exp. 12, 2851-2856 (2004).
  8. S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, T. D. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S. A. Jacobs, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large-core omniguide fibers," Opt. Exp. 9, 748-779 (2001).
  9. C. Young, S. Hartwig, A. Lambrecht, S. Kim, B. Mizaikoff, "Optimizing gas sensors based on quantum cascade lasers and photonic bandgap hollow waveguides," Proc. IEEE Sensors Conf. (2007) pp. 1345-1348.
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  15. J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, G. R. Hadley, Microfabricated Bragg Waveguide (Patent Style) U.S. Patent 6 807 353 B1 (2004).
  16. E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, J. R. Wendt, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Quantitative analysis of bending efficiency in photonic-crystal waveguide bends at $\lambda = 1.55\ \mu$m wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 26, 286-288 (2001).
  17. N. Ponnampalam, R. G. Decorby, "Self-assembled hollow waveguides with hybrid metal-dielectric Bragg claddings," Opt. Exp. 15, 12595-12604 (2007).
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  19. Y. Xu, A. Yariv, "Asymptotic analysis of silicon based Bragg fibers," Opt. Exp. 11, 1039-1049 (2003).
  20. A. Dupius, N. Guo, B. Vauvreau, A. Hassani, E. Pone, F. Boismenu, M. Skorobogatiy, "Guiding in the visible with ‘colorful’ solid-core Bragg fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 2882-2884 (2007).
  21. M. Skorobogatiy, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial coupled mode theory for the evaluation of macro-bending loss in multimode fibers. Application to the hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 16, 14945-14953 (2008).
  22. H. Chiu, F. Hsiao, C. Chan, C. Chen, "Compact and low-loss bent hollow waveguides with distributed Bragg reflector," Opt. Exp. 16, 15069-15073 (2008).
  23. K. Lee, D. Lim, H. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO$_2$ waveguide: Experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).

2008 (2)

M. Skorobogatiy, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial coupled mode theory for the evaluation of macro-bending loss in multimode fibers. Application to the hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 16, 14945-14953 (2008).

H. Chiu, F. Hsiao, C. Chan, C. Chen, "Compact and low-loss bent hollow waveguides with distributed Bragg reflector," Opt. Exp. 16, 15069-15073 (2008).

2007 (3)

A. Dupius, N. Guo, B. Vauvreau, A. Hassani, E. Pone, F. Boismenu, M. Skorobogatiy, "Guiding in the visible with ‘colorful’ solid-core Bragg fibers," Opt. Lett. 32, 2882-2884 (2007).

N. Ponnampalam, R. G. Decorby, "Self-assembled hollow waveguides with hybrid metal-dielectric Bragg claddings," Opt. Exp. 15, 12595-12604 (2007).

R. G. DeCorby, N. Ponnampalam, H. T. Nguyen, M. M. Pai, T. J. Clement, "Guided self-assembly of integrated hollow Bragg waveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 3902-3915 (2007).

2006 (2)

Y. Yi, S. Akiyama, P. Bermel, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, "Sharp bending of on-chip silicon bragg cladding waveguide with light guiding in low index core materials," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1345-1348 (2006).

A. Farjadpour, D. Roundy, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, G. Burr, "Improving accuracy by subpixel smoothing in FDTD," Opt. Lett. 31, 2972-2974 (2006).

2004 (5)

G. Vienne, Y. Xu, C. Jakobsen, H. Deyerl, J. B. Jensen, T. Sorensen, T. P. Hansen, Y. Huang, M. Terrel, R. K. Lee, N. A. Mortensen, J. Broeng, H. Simonsen, A. Bjarklev, A. Yariv, "Ultra-large bandwidth hollow-core guiding in all-silica Bragg fibers with nano-supports," Opt. Exp. 12, 3500-3508 (2004).

G. R. Hadley, J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, "Bragg fiber design for linear polarization," Opt. Lett. 29, 809-811 (2004).

Y. Sakurai, F. Koyama, "Tunable hollow waveguide distributed Bragg reflectors with variable air core," Opt. Exp. 12, 2851-2856 (2004).

S. Compopiano, R. Bernini, L. Zeni, P. M. Sarro, "Microfluidic sensor based on integrated optical hollow waveguides," Opt. Lett. 29, 1894-1896 (2004).

S. Lo, M. Wang, C. Chen, "Semiconductor hollow optical waveguides formed by omni-directional reflectors," Opt. Exp. 12, 6589-6593 (2004).

2003 (2)

Z. Y. Li, L. L. Lin, Phys. Rev. E 67, 46607 (2003).

Y. Xu, A. Yariv, "Asymptotic analysis of silicon based Bragg fibers," Opt. Exp. 11, 1039-1049 (2003).

2002 (1)

B. Temelkruan, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO$_2$ laser transmission," Nature 420, 650-653 (2002).

2001 (2)

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, T. D. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S. A. Jacobs, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large-core omniguide fibers," Opt. Exp. 9, 748-779 (2001).

E. Chow, S. Y. Lin, J. R. Wendt, S. G. Johnson, J. D. Joannopoulos, "Quantitative analysis of bending efficiency in photonic-crystal waveguide bends at $\lambda = 1.55\ \mu$m wavelengths," Opt. Lett. 26, 286-288 (2001).

2000 (1)

K. Lee, D. Lim, H. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO$_2$ waveguide: Experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).

1999 (1)

Y. Fink, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. L. Thomas, "Guiding optical light in air using an all-dielectric structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2039-2041 (1999).

1978 (1)

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, E. Marom, "Theory of Bragg fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 68, 1196-1201 (1978).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Lee, D. Lim, H. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, L. C. Kimerling, "Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO$_2$ waveguide: Experiments and model," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617-1619 (2000).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Yi, S. Akiyama, P. Bermel, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, "Sharp bending of on-chip silicon bragg cladding waveguide with light guiding in low index core materials," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12, 1345-1348 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

Y. Fink, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. L. Thomas, "Guiding optical light in air using an all-dielectric structure," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 2039-2041 (1999).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. (1)

P. Yeh, A. Yariv, E. Marom, "Theory of Bragg fiber," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 68, 1196-1201 (1978).

Nature (1)

B. Temelkruan, S. D. Hart, G. Benoit, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Wavelength-scalable hollow optical fibres with large photonic bandgaps for CO$_2$ laser transmission," Nature 420, 650-653 (2002).

Opt. Exp. (9)

R. G. DeCorby, N. Ponnampalam, H. T. Nguyen, M. M. Pai, T. J. Clement, "Guided self-assembly of integrated hollow Bragg waveguides," Opt. Exp. 15, 3902-3915 (2007).

S. Lo, M. Wang, C. Chen, "Semiconductor hollow optical waveguides formed by omni-directional reflectors," Opt. Exp. 12, 6589-6593 (2004).

Y. Sakurai, F. Koyama, "Tunable hollow waveguide distributed Bragg reflectors with variable air core," Opt. Exp. 12, 2851-2856 (2004).

S. G. Johnson, M. Ibanescu, M. Skorobogatiy, O. Weisberg, T. D. Engeness, M. Soljacic, S. A. Jacobs, J. D. Joannopoulos, Y. Fink, "Low-loss asymptotically single-mode propagation in large-core omniguide fibers," Opt. Exp. 9, 748-779 (2001).

N. Ponnampalam, R. G. Decorby, "Self-assembled hollow waveguides with hybrid metal-dielectric Bragg claddings," Opt. Exp. 15, 12595-12604 (2007).

G. Vienne, Y. Xu, C. Jakobsen, H. Deyerl, J. B. Jensen, T. Sorensen, T. P. Hansen, Y. Huang, M. Terrel, R. K. Lee, N. A. Mortensen, J. Broeng, H. Simonsen, A. Bjarklev, A. Yariv, "Ultra-large bandwidth hollow-core guiding in all-silica Bragg fibers with nano-supports," Opt. Exp. 12, 3500-3508 (2004).

Y. Xu, A. Yariv, "Asymptotic analysis of silicon based Bragg fibers," Opt. Exp. 11, 1039-1049 (2003).

M. Skorobogatiy, K. Saitoh, M. Koshiba, "Full-vectorial coupled mode theory for the evaluation of macro-bending loss in multimode fibers. Application to the hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 16, 14945-14953 (2008).

H. Chiu, F. Hsiao, C. Chan, C. Chen, "Compact and low-loss bent hollow waveguides with distributed Bragg reflector," Opt. Exp. 16, 15069-15073 (2008).

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. E (1)

Z. Y. Li, L. L. Lin, Phys. Rev. E 67, 46607 (2003).

Other (3)

A. Taflove, S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech, 2000).

C. Young, S. Hartwig, A. Lambrecht, S. Kim, B. Mizaikoff, "Optimizing gas sensors based on quantum cascade lasers and photonic bandgap hollow waveguides," Proc. IEEE Sensors Conf. (2007) pp. 1345-1348.

J. G. Fleming, S. Y. Lin, G. R. Hadley, Microfabricated Bragg Waveguide (Patent Style) U.S. Patent 6 807 353 B1 (2004).

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