Abstract

The polarization effects in tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) refractometers are investigated theoretically. The polarization effects may degrade the sensor performance greatly, and should be considered to achieve high-precision surrounding refractive index (SRI) measurement. The possible paths to reduce the influence of polarization effects are discussed. For large SRI changes, the cutoff resonance wavelength can be used as sensing parameter to achieve a polarization insensitive SRI measurement with linear sensitivity of ${\sim}$500 nm/u.r.i and SRI uncertainty of ${\sim}10^{-3}$ over SRI range of 0.1; for tiny SRI changes the measurement can be refined by monitoring proper individual resonance (close to the cutoff resonance wavelength) with accuracy approaching $2.5 \times 10^{-5}$ over a SRI range of 0.001.

© 2010 IEEE

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  2. C. Caucheteur, P. Megret, "Demodulation technique for weakly tilted fiber Bragg grating refractometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2703-2705 (2005).
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  6. D. Paladino, A. Cusano, P. Pilla, S. Campopiano, C. Caucheteur, P. Megret, "Spectral behavior in nano-coated tilted fiber bragg gratings: Effect of thickness and external refractive index," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2051-2053 (2007).
  7. T. Guo, C. Chen, A. Laronche, J. Albert, "Power-referenced and temperature-calibrated optical fiber refractometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 635-637 (2008).
  8. C. Caucheteur, D. Paladino, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, P. Megret, "External refractive index sensitivity of weakly tilted fiber bragg gratings with different coating thicknesses," IEEE J. Sensors 8, 1330-1336 (2008).
  9. C. Caucheteur, M. Wuilpart, C. Chen, P. Mégret, J. Albert, "Quasi-distributed refractometer using tilted Bragg gratings and time domain reflectometry," Opt. Express 16, 17 882-17 890 (2008).
  10. C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, C. Chen, M. Wuilpart, P. Megret, J. Albert, "Tilted fiber Bragg grating refractometer using polarization-dependent loss measurement," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2153-2155 (2008).
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  13. A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).
  14. A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, "Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1495-1497 (2005).
  15. H. Patrick, A. Kersey, F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1606-1612 (1998).
  16. V. Bhatia, "Applications of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing," Opt. Express 4, 457-466 (1999).
  17. S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).
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  19. Y.-C. Lu, W.-P. Huang, S.-S. Jian, Polarization Sensitivities of Demodulation Techniques for Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating Refractometer (SPIE, 2009) pp. 76300U.
  20. Y.-C. Lu, W.-P. Huang, S.-S. Jian, "Full vector complex coupled mode theory for tilted fiber gratings," Opt. Exp. 18, 713-726 (2010).
  21. Y.-C. Lu, L. Yang, W.-P. Huang, S.-S. Jian, "Improved full-vector finite-difference complex mode solver for optical waveguides of circular symmetry," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1868-1876 (2008).
  22. Y.-C. Lu, L. Yang, W.-P. Huang, S.-S. Jian, "Unified approach for coupling to cladding and radiation modes in fiber bragg and long-period gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1461-1468 (2009).
  23. C. Chen, J. Albert, Proc. SPIE (SPIE, 2007) pp. 679 623-679 626.

2010 (2)

Y. Shevchenko, C. Chen, M. A. Dakka, J. Albert, "Polarization-selective grating excitation of plasmons in cylindrical optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 35, 637-639 (2010).

Y.-C. Lu, W.-P. Huang, S.-S. Jian, "Full vector complex coupled mode theory for tilted fiber gratings," Opt. Exp. 18, 713-726 (2010).

2009 (2)

Y.-C. Lu, L. Yang, W.-P. Huang, S.-S. Jian, "Unified approach for coupling to cladding and radiation modes in fiber bragg and long-period gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1461-1468 (2009).

C. Caucheteur, P. Mégret, A. Cusano, "Tilted Bragg grating multipoint sensor based on wavelength-gated cladding-modes coupling," Appl. Opt. 48, 3915-3920 (2009).

2008 (5)

T. Guo, C. Chen, A. Laronche, J. Albert, "Power-referenced and temperature-calibrated optical fiber refractometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 635-637 (2008).

C. Caucheteur, D. Paladino, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, P. Megret, "External refractive index sensitivity of weakly tilted fiber bragg gratings with different coating thicknesses," IEEE J. Sensors 8, 1330-1336 (2008).

C. Caucheteur, M. Wuilpart, C. Chen, P. Mégret, J. Albert, "Quasi-distributed refractometer using tilted Bragg gratings and time domain reflectometry," Opt. Express 16, 17 882-17 890 (2008).

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, C. Chen, M. Wuilpart, P. Megret, J. Albert, "Tilted fiber Bragg grating refractometer using polarization-dependent loss measurement," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2153-2155 (2008).

Y.-C. Lu, L. Yang, W.-P. Huang, S.-S. Jian, "Improved full-vector finite-difference complex mode solver for optical waveguides of circular symmetry," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1868-1876 (2008).

2007 (3)

C.-F. Chan, C. Chen, A. Jafari, A. Laronche, D. J. Thomson, J. Albert, "Optical fiber refractometer using narrowband cladding-mode resonance shifts," Appl. Opt. 46, 1142-1149 (2007).

Y. Y. Shevchenko, J. Albert, "Plasmon resonances in gold-coated tilted fiber bragg gratings," Opt. Lett. 32, 211-213 (2007).

D. Paladino, A. Cusano, P. Pilla, S. Campopiano, C. Caucheteur, P. Megret, "Spectral behavior in nano-coated tilted fiber bragg gratings: Effect of thickness and external refractive index," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2051-2053 (2007).

2006 (2)

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, "Simultaneous temperature and refractive index measurements using a 3$^\circ$ slanted multimode fiber Bragg grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 879-883 (2006).

T. Allsop, F. Floreani, K. P. Jedrzejewski, P. V. S. Marques, R. Romero, D. Webb, I. Bennion, "Spectral characteristics of tapered LPG device as a sensing element for refractive index and temperature," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 870-878 (2006).

2005 (3)

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, "Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1495-1497 (2005).

C. Caucheteur, P. Megret, "Demodulation technique for weakly tilted fiber Bragg grating refractometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2703-2705 (2005).

2003 (1)

S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).

2001 (1)

G. Laffont, P. Ferdinand, "Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (2001).

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

H. Patrick, A. Kersey, F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1606-1612 (1998).

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE J. Sensors (1)

C. Caucheteur, D. Paladino, P. Pilla, A. Cutolo, S. Campopiano, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, P. Megret, "External refractive index sensitivity of weakly tilted fiber bragg gratings with different coating thicknesses," IEEE J. Sensors 8, 1330-1336 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

D. Paladino, A. Cusano, P. Pilla, S. Campopiano, C. Caucheteur, P. Megret, "Spectral behavior in nano-coated tilted fiber bragg gratings: Effect of thickness and external refractive index," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2051-2053 (2007).

T. Guo, C. Chen, A. Laronche, J. Albert, "Power-referenced and temperature-calibrated optical fiber refractometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 635-637 (2008).

C. Caucheteur, P. Megret, "Demodulation technique for weakly tilted fiber Bragg grating refractometer," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2703-2705 (2005).

C. Caucheteur, S. Bette, C. Chen, M. Wuilpart, P. Megret, J. Albert, "Tilted fiber Bragg grating refractometer using polarization-dependent loss measurement," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2153-2155 (2008).

A. N. Chryssis, S. M. Lee, S. B. Lee, S. S. Saini, M. Dagenais, "High sensitivity evanescent field fiber Bragg grating sensor," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1253-1255 (2005).

A. Iadicicco, S. Campopiano, A. Cutolo, M. Giordano, A. Cusano, "Nonuniform thinned fiber Bragg gratings for simultaneous refractive index and temperature measurements," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1495-1497 (2005).

J. Lightw. Technol. (5)

H. Patrick, A. Kersey, F. Bucholtz, "Analysis of the response of long period fiber gratings to external index of refraction," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1606-1612 (1998).

C.-L. Zhao, X. Yang, M. S. Demokan, W. Jin, "Simultaneous temperature and refractive index measurements using a 3$^\circ$ slanted multimode fiber Bragg grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 879-883 (2006).

T. Allsop, F. Floreani, K. P. Jedrzejewski, P. V. S. Marques, R. Romero, D. Webb, I. Bennion, "Spectral characteristics of tapered LPG device as a sensing element for refractive index and temperature," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 870-878 (2006).

Y.-C. Lu, L. Yang, W.-P. Huang, S.-S. Jian, "Improved full-vector finite-difference complex mode solver for optical waveguides of circular symmetry," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1868-1876 (2008).

Y.-C. Lu, L. Yang, W.-P. Huang, S.-S. Jian, "Unified approach for coupling to cladding and radiation modes in fiber bragg and long-period gratings," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 1461-1468 (2009).

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

S. W. James, R. P. Tatam, "Optical fibre long-period grating sensors: Characteristics and application," Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, R49-R61 (2003).

G. Laffont, P. Ferdinand, "Tilted short-period fibre-Bragg-grating-induced coupling to cladding modes for accurate refractometry," Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 765-770 (2001).

Opt. Exp. (1)

Y.-C. Lu, W.-P. Huang, S.-S. Jian, "Full vector complex coupled mode theory for tilted fiber gratings," Opt. Exp. 18, 713-726 (2010).

Opt. Express (2)

V. Bhatia, "Applications of long-period gratings to single and multi-parameter sensing," Opt. Express 4, 457-466 (1999).

C. Caucheteur, M. Wuilpart, C. Chen, P. Mégret, J. Albert, "Quasi-distributed refractometer using tilted Bragg gratings and time domain reflectometry," Opt. Express 16, 17 882-17 890 (2008).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

Y.-C. Lu, W.-P. Huang, S.-S. Jian, Polarization Sensitivities of Demodulation Techniques for Tilted Fiber Bragg Grating Refractometer (SPIE, 2009) pp. 76300U.

C. Chen, J. Albert, Proc. SPIE (SPIE, 2007) pp. 679 623-679 626.

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