Abstract

We developed an analytical method to optimize the design of Y-fed direction couplers at large modulation depth from 10% to 50%. Simulation results indicate that three- and four-domain devices can obtain 45 dB higher distortion suppression than two-domain devices, which can potentially achieve 120 dB spurious free dynamic range. We also experimentally demonstrated that the two-domain electrooptic modulator obtained 94 dB distortion suppression at 20% modulation depth, which is 47 dB higher than a conventional Mach–Zehnder modulator.

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  1. S. A. Pappert, S. C. Lin, R. J. Orazi, M. N. McLandrich, P. K. L. Yu, S. T. Li, "Broadband electromagnetic environment monitoring using semiconductor electroabsorption modulators," Proc. SPIE (1991) pp. 282-293.
  2. C. H. Cox, III, Analog Optical Links: Theory and Practice (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004).
  3. R. B. Childs, V. A. O'Brne, "Predistortion linearization of directly modulated DFB lasers and external modulators for AM video," Proc. Tech. Dig. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (1990).
  4. Y. Chiu, B. Jalali, S. Garner, W. Steier, "Broad-band electronic linearizer for externally modulated analogfiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 48-50 (1999).
  5. Y. W. Boulic, "A linearized optical modulator for reducing third-order intermodulation distortion," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1066-1070 (1992).
  6. P. S. Devgan, J. F. Diehl, V. J. Urick, C. E. Sunderman, K. J. Williams, "Even-order harmonic cancellation for off-quadrature biased Mach-Zenhder modulator with improved RF metrics using dual wavelength inputs and dual outputs," Opt. Exp. 17, 9028-9039 (2009).
  7. B. D. Dingel, R. Madabhushi, N. Madamopoulos, "Super-linear optical modulator technologies for optical broadband access network: Development and potential," Proc. SPIE 6012, (2005).
  8. R. F. Tavlykaev, R. V. Ramaswamy, "Highly linear Y-fed directional coupler modulator with low intermodulation distortion," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 282-291 (1999).
  9. D. An, S. Tang, Z. Z. Yue, J. Taboada, L. Sun, Z. Han, X. Lu, R. T. Chen, "Linearized Y-coupler modulator based on domain-inverted polymeric waveguide," Proc. SPIE 3632, 22-27 (1999).
  10. Y.-C. Hung, S.-K. Kim, H. Fetterman, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, "Experimental demonstration of a linearized polymeric directional coupler modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1762-1764 (2007).
  11. J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, P. E. Wright, "Convergence Properties of the Nelder-Mead simplex method in low dimensions," SIAM J. Optimization 9, 112-147 (1998).
  12. A. Yariv, "Coupled mode theory for guided wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919-933 (1973).
  13. D. An, S. Tang, Z. Z. Yue, J. Taboada, L. Sun, Z. Han, X. Lu, R. T. Chen, "Linearized Y-coupler modulator based on domain-inverted polymeric waveguide," Proc. SPIE 3632, 22-27 (1999).
  14. T. D. Kim, J.-W. Kang, J. Luo, S.-H. Jang, J.-W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, A. K.-Y. Jen, "Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. (2007).
  15. Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. Derose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid cross-linkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65 V half wave voltage at 1550 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093505- (2007).
  16. A. Karim, J. Devnport, "Noise figure reduction in externally modulated analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 312-314 (2007).

2009 (1)

P. S. Devgan, J. F. Diehl, V. J. Urick, C. E. Sunderman, K. J. Williams, "Even-order harmonic cancellation for off-quadrature biased Mach-Zenhder modulator with improved RF metrics using dual wavelength inputs and dual outputs," Opt. Exp. 17, 9028-9039 (2009).

2007 (4)

Y.-C. Hung, S.-K. Kim, H. Fetterman, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, "Experimental demonstration of a linearized polymeric directional coupler modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1762-1764 (2007).

T. D. Kim, J.-W. Kang, J. Luo, S.-H. Jang, J.-W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, A. K.-Y. Jen, "Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. (2007).

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. Derose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid cross-linkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65 V half wave voltage at 1550 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093505- (2007).

A. Karim, J. Devnport, "Noise figure reduction in externally modulated analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 312-314 (2007).

2005 (1)

B. D. Dingel, R. Madabhushi, N. Madamopoulos, "Super-linear optical modulator technologies for optical broadband access network: Development and potential," Proc. SPIE 6012, (2005).

1999 (4)

R. F. Tavlykaev, R. V. Ramaswamy, "Highly linear Y-fed directional coupler modulator with low intermodulation distortion," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 282-291 (1999).

D. An, S. Tang, Z. Z. Yue, J. Taboada, L. Sun, Z. Han, X. Lu, R. T. Chen, "Linearized Y-coupler modulator based on domain-inverted polymeric waveguide," Proc. SPIE 3632, 22-27 (1999).

Y. Chiu, B. Jalali, S. Garner, W. Steier, "Broad-band electronic linearizer for externally modulated analogfiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 48-50 (1999).

D. An, S. Tang, Z. Z. Yue, J. Taboada, L. Sun, Z. Han, X. Lu, R. T. Chen, "Linearized Y-coupler modulator based on domain-inverted polymeric waveguide," Proc. SPIE 3632, 22-27 (1999).

1998 (1)

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, P. E. Wright, "Convergence Properties of the Nelder-Mead simplex method in low dimensions," SIAM J. Optimization 9, 112-147 (1998).

1992 (1)

Y. W. Boulic, "A linearized optical modulator for reducing third-order intermodulation distortion," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1066-1070 (1992).

1973 (1)

A. Yariv, "Coupled mode theory for guided wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919-933 (1973).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. Derose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, N. Peyghambarian, "Hybrid cross-linkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65 V half wave voltage at 1550 nm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 093505- (2007).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Yariv, "Coupled mode theory for guided wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919-933 (1973).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Y.-C. Hung, S.-K. Kim, H. Fetterman, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, "Experimental demonstration of a linearized polymeric directional coupler modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1762-1764 (2007).

A. Karim, J. Devnport, "Noise figure reduction in externally modulated analog fiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 312-314 (2007).

Y. Chiu, B. Jalali, S. Garner, W. Steier, "Broad-band electronic linearizer for externally modulated analogfiber-optic links," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 48-50 (1999).

J. Amer. Chem. Soc. (1)

T. D. Kim, J.-W. Kang, J. Luo, S.-H. Jang, J.-W. Ka, N. Tucker, J. B. Benedict, L. R. Dalton, T. Gray, R. M. Overney, D. H. Park, W. N. Herman, A. K.-Y. Jen, "Ultralarge and thermally stable electro-optic activities from supramolecular self-assembled molecular glasses," J. Amer. Chem. Soc. (2007).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

Y. W. Boulic, "A linearized optical modulator for reducing third-order intermodulation distortion," J. Lightw. Technol. 10, 1066-1070 (1992).

R. F. Tavlykaev, R. V. Ramaswamy, "Highly linear Y-fed directional coupler modulator with low intermodulation distortion," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 282-291 (1999).

Opt. Exp. (1)

P. S. Devgan, J. F. Diehl, V. J. Urick, C. E. Sunderman, K. J. Williams, "Even-order harmonic cancellation for off-quadrature biased Mach-Zenhder modulator with improved RF metrics using dual wavelength inputs and dual outputs," Opt. Exp. 17, 9028-9039 (2009).

Proc. SPIE (3)

B. D. Dingel, R. Madabhushi, N. Madamopoulos, "Super-linear optical modulator technologies for optical broadband access network: Development and potential," Proc. SPIE 6012, (2005).

D. An, S. Tang, Z. Z. Yue, J. Taboada, L. Sun, Z. Han, X. Lu, R. T. Chen, "Linearized Y-coupler modulator based on domain-inverted polymeric waveguide," Proc. SPIE 3632, 22-27 (1999).

D. An, S. Tang, Z. Z. Yue, J. Taboada, L. Sun, Z. Han, X. Lu, R. T. Chen, "Linearized Y-coupler modulator based on domain-inverted polymeric waveguide," Proc. SPIE 3632, 22-27 (1999).

SIAM J. Optimization (1)

J. C. Lagarias, J. A. Reeds, M. H. Wright, P. E. Wright, "Convergence Properties of the Nelder-Mead simplex method in low dimensions," SIAM J. Optimization 9, 112-147 (1998).

Other (3)

S. A. Pappert, S. C. Lin, R. J. Orazi, M. N. McLandrich, P. K. L. Yu, S. T. Li, "Broadband electromagnetic environment monitoring using semiconductor electroabsorption modulators," Proc. SPIE (1991) pp. 282-293.

C. H. Cox, III, Analog Optical Links: Theory and Practice (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004).

R. B. Childs, V. A. O'Brne, "Predistortion linearization of directly modulated DFB lasers and external modulators for AM video," Proc. Tech. Dig. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (1990).

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