Abstract

We propose and experimentally demonstrate an approach to generating large time-bandwidth product (TBWP) microwave arbitrary waveforms based on optical pulse shaping using a single spatially discrete chirped fiber Bragg grating (SD-CFBG). The SD-CFBG functions to perform simultaneously spectral slicing, frequency-to-time mapping, and temporal shifting of the input optical pulse, which leads to the generation of an optical pulse burst with the individual pulses in the burst temporally spaced by the time delays determined by the SD-CFBG. With the help of a bandwidth-limited photodetector (PD), a smooth microwave waveform is obtained. The SD-CFBG is fabricated using a linearly chirped phase mask by axially shifting the photosensitive fiber to introduce a spatial spacing between two adjacent sub-gratings during the fabrication process. By properly designing the fiber shifting function, a large TBWP microwave arbitrary waveform with the desired frequency chirping or phase coding can be generated. An equation that relates the fiber shifting function and the microwave waveform frequency chirping is derived. The photonic generation of large TBWP microwave waveforms with a linear, nonlinear and stepped frequency chirping is experimentally demonstrated.

© 2010 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. A. W. Rihaczek, Principles of High-Resolution Radar (Artech House, 1996).
  2. R. Skaug, J. F. Hjelmstad, Spread Spectrum in Communication (1985).
  3. M. Bertero, M. Miyakawa, P. Boccacci, F. Conte, K. Orikasa, M. Furutani, "Image restoration in chirp-pulse microwave CT (CP-MCT)," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 47, 690-699 (2000).
  4. J. D. McKinney, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Millimeter-wave arbitrary waveform generation with a direct space-to-time pulse shaper," Opt. Lett. 27, 1345-1347 (2002).
  5. S. Xiao, J. D. McKinney, A. M. Weiner, "Photonic microwave arbitrary waveform generation using a virtually-imaged phased-array (VIPA) direct space-to-time pulse shaper," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1936-1938 (2004).
  6. J. Chou, Y. Han, B. Jalali, "Adaptive RF-photonic arbitrary waveform generator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 581-583 (2003).
  7. I. Lin, J. D. McKinney, A. M. Weiner, "Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wideband communication," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 226-228 (2005).
  8. H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "An approach to photonic generation of high-frequency phase-coded RF pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 768-770 (2007).
  9. A. Zeitouny, S. Stepanov, O. Levinson, M. Horowitz, "Optical generation of linearly chirped microwave pulses using fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 660-662 (2005).
  10. C. Wang, J. P. Yao, "All-optical electrical chirped pulse generation with tunable chirp rate based on a nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating," Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Microw. Photon. Meeting (2007) pp. 202-205.
  11. H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "All-fiber chirped microwave pulse generation based on spectral shaping and wavelength-to-time conversion," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1958-1963 (2007).
  12. C. Wang, J. P. Yao, "Photonic generation of chirped millimeter-wave pulses based on nonlinear frequency-to-time mapping in a nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56, 542-553 (2008).
  13. H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "Chirped RF pulse generation based on optical spectral shaping and wavelength-to-time mapping using a nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1282-1287 (2008).
  14. C. Wang, J. P. Yao, "Photonic generation of chirped microwave pulses using superimposed chirped fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 882-884 (2008).
  15. C. Wang, J. P. Yao, "Chirped microwave pulse generation based on optical spectral shaping and wavelength-to-time mapping using a Sagnac-loop mirror incorporating a chirped fiber Bragg grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3336-3341 (2009).
  16. Y. Dai, J. P. Yao, "Chirped microwave pulse generation using a photonic microwave delay-line filter with a quadratic phase response," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 569-571 (2009).
  17. V. Narayan, D. L. Macfarlane, "Bursts and codes of ultrashort pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1465-1467 (1993).
  18. Y. Park, M. H. Asghari, T. J. Ahn, J. Azaña, "Transform-limited picosecond pulse shaping based on temporal coherence synthesization," Opt. Exp. 15, 9584-9599 (2007).
  19. M. Y. Shen, R. A. Minasian, "Toward a high-speed arbitrary waveform generation by a novel photonic processing structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1155-1157 (2004).
  20. Y. Dai, J. P. Yao, "Arbitrary phase-modulated RF signal generation based on optical pulse position modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3329-3336 (2008).
  21. C. Wang, J. P. Yao, "Nonlinearly chirped microwave pulse generation using a spatially discrete chirped fiber Bragg grating," Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Microw. Photon. Meeting (2009).
  22. J. Azaña, L. R. Chen, "Synthesis of temporal optical waveforms by fiber Bragg gratings: A new approach based on space-to-frequency-to-time mapping," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 2758-2769 (2002).
  23. J. Azaña, M. A. Muriel, "Real-time optical spectrum analysis based on the time-space duality in chirped fiber gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 517-526 (2000).
  24. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 1995).
  25. N. Levanon, E. Mozeson, Radar Signals (Wiley, 2004).
  26. C. Wang, J. P. Yao, "Chirped microwave pulse compression using a photonic microwave filter with a nonlinear phase response," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57, 496-504 (2009).
  27. A. W. Doerry, “Generating Nonlinear FM Chirp Waveforms for Radar,” Sandia Rep. SAND2006-5856 (2006).
  28. H. Schimpf, A. Wahlen, H. Essen, "High range resolution by means of synthetic bandwidth generated by frequency-stepped chirps," Electron. Lett. 39, 1346-1348 (2003).
  29. J. P. Yao, "Microwave photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 314-335 (2009).

2009 (4)

C. Wang, J. P. Yao, "Chirped microwave pulse generation based on optical spectral shaping and wavelength-to-time mapping using a Sagnac-loop mirror incorporating a chirped fiber Bragg grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3336-3341 (2009).

Y. Dai, J. P. Yao, "Chirped microwave pulse generation using a photonic microwave delay-line filter with a quadratic phase response," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 569-571 (2009).

C. Wang, J. P. Yao, "Chirped microwave pulse compression using a photonic microwave filter with a nonlinear phase response," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57, 496-504 (2009).

J. P. Yao, "Microwave photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 314-335 (2009).

2008 (4)

C. Wang, J. P. Yao, "Photonic generation of chirped millimeter-wave pulses based on nonlinear frequency-to-time mapping in a nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56, 542-553 (2008).

H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "Chirped RF pulse generation based on optical spectral shaping and wavelength-to-time mapping using a nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1282-1287 (2008).

C. Wang, J. P. Yao, "Photonic generation of chirped microwave pulses using superimposed chirped fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 882-884 (2008).

Y. Dai, J. P. Yao, "Arbitrary phase-modulated RF signal generation based on optical pulse position modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3329-3336 (2008).

2007 (3)

Y. Park, M. H. Asghari, T. J. Ahn, J. Azaña, "Transform-limited picosecond pulse shaping based on temporal coherence synthesization," Opt. Exp. 15, 9584-9599 (2007).

H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "An approach to photonic generation of high-frequency phase-coded RF pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 768-770 (2007).

H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "All-fiber chirped microwave pulse generation based on spectral shaping and wavelength-to-time conversion," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1958-1963 (2007).

2005 (2)

I. Lin, J. D. McKinney, A. M. Weiner, "Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wideband communication," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 226-228 (2005).

A. Zeitouny, S. Stepanov, O. Levinson, M. Horowitz, "Optical generation of linearly chirped microwave pulses using fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 660-662 (2005).

2004 (2)

S. Xiao, J. D. McKinney, A. M. Weiner, "Photonic microwave arbitrary waveform generation using a virtually-imaged phased-array (VIPA) direct space-to-time pulse shaper," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1936-1938 (2004).

M. Y. Shen, R. A. Minasian, "Toward a high-speed arbitrary waveform generation by a novel photonic processing structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1155-1157 (2004).

2003 (2)

J. Chou, Y. Han, B. Jalali, "Adaptive RF-photonic arbitrary waveform generator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 581-583 (2003).

H. Schimpf, A. Wahlen, H. Essen, "High range resolution by means of synthetic bandwidth generated by frequency-stepped chirps," Electron. Lett. 39, 1346-1348 (2003).

2002 (2)

J. D. McKinney, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, "Millimeter-wave arbitrary waveform generation with a direct space-to-time pulse shaper," Opt. Lett. 27, 1345-1347 (2002).

J. Azaña, L. R. Chen, "Synthesis of temporal optical waveforms by fiber Bragg gratings: A new approach based on space-to-frequency-to-time mapping," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 2758-2769 (2002).

2000 (2)

J. Azaña, M. A. Muriel, "Real-time optical spectrum analysis based on the time-space duality in chirped fiber gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 517-526 (2000).

M. Bertero, M. Miyakawa, P. Boccacci, F. Conte, K. Orikasa, M. Furutani, "Image restoration in chirp-pulse microwave CT (CP-MCT)," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 47, 690-699 (2000).

1993 (1)

V. Narayan, D. L. Macfarlane, "Bursts and codes of ultrashort pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1465-1467 (1993).

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Schimpf, A. Wahlen, H. Essen, "High range resolution by means of synthetic bandwidth generated by frequency-stepped chirps," Electron. Lett. 39, 1346-1348 (2003).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Azaña, M. A. Muriel, "Real-time optical spectrum analysis based on the time-space duality in chirped fiber gratings," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 517-526 (2000).

IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. (1)

I. Lin, J. D. McKinney, A. M. Weiner, "Photonic synthesis of broadband microwave arbitrary waveforms applicable to ultra-wideband communication," IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett. 15, 226-228 (2005).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (8)

H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "An approach to photonic generation of high-frequency phase-coded RF pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 768-770 (2007).

A. Zeitouny, S. Stepanov, O. Levinson, M. Horowitz, "Optical generation of linearly chirped microwave pulses using fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 660-662 (2005).

S. Xiao, J. D. McKinney, A. M. Weiner, "Photonic microwave arbitrary waveform generation using a virtually-imaged phased-array (VIPA) direct space-to-time pulse shaper," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1936-1938 (2004).

J. Chou, Y. Han, B. Jalali, "Adaptive RF-photonic arbitrary waveform generator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 581-583 (2003).

C. Wang, J. P. Yao, "Photonic generation of chirped microwave pulses using superimposed chirped fiber Bragg gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 882-884 (2008).

Y. Dai, J. P. Yao, "Chirped microwave pulse generation using a photonic microwave delay-line filter with a quadratic phase response," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 569-571 (2009).

V. Narayan, D. L. Macfarlane, "Bursts and codes of ultrashort pulses," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1465-1467 (1993).

M. Y. Shen, R. A. Minasian, "Toward a high-speed arbitrary waveform generation by a novel photonic processing structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1155-1157 (2004).

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (1)

M. Bertero, M. Miyakawa, P. Boccacci, F. Conte, K. Orikasa, M. Furutani, "Image restoration in chirp-pulse microwave CT (CP-MCT)," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 47, 690-699 (2000).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (3)

H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "All-fiber chirped microwave pulse generation based on spectral shaping and wavelength-to-time conversion," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1958-1963 (2007).

C. Wang, J. P. Yao, "Photonic generation of chirped millimeter-wave pulses based on nonlinear frequency-to-time mapping in a nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 56, 542-553 (2008).

C. Wang, J. P. Yao, "Chirped microwave pulse compression using a photonic microwave filter with a nonlinear phase response," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 57, 496-504 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (4)

J. P. Yao, "Microwave photonics," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 314-335 (2009).

Y. Dai, J. P. Yao, "Arbitrary phase-modulated RF signal generation based on optical pulse position modulation," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3329-3336 (2008).

H. Chi, J. P. Yao, "Chirped RF pulse generation based on optical spectral shaping and wavelength-to-time mapping using a nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1282-1287 (2008).

C. Wang, J. P. Yao, "Chirped microwave pulse generation based on optical spectral shaping and wavelength-to-time mapping using a Sagnac-loop mirror incorporating a chirped fiber Bragg grating," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3336-3341 (2009).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

J. Azaña, L. R. Chen, "Synthesis of temporal optical waveforms by fiber Bragg gratings: A new approach based on space-to-frequency-to-time mapping," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 19, 2758-2769 (2002).

Opt. Exp. (1)

Y. Park, M. H. Asghari, T. J. Ahn, J. Azaña, "Transform-limited picosecond pulse shaping based on temporal coherence synthesization," Opt. Exp. 15, 9584-9599 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (7)

A. W. Rihaczek, Principles of High-Resolution Radar (Artech House, 1996).

R. Skaug, J. F. Hjelmstad, Spread Spectrum in Communication (1985).

C. Wang, J. P. Yao, "All-optical electrical chirped pulse generation with tunable chirp rate based on a nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg grating," Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Microw. Photon. Meeting (2007) pp. 202-205.

C. Wang, J. P. Yao, "Nonlinearly chirped microwave pulse generation using a spatially discrete chirped fiber Bragg grating," Proc. IEEE Int. Top. Microw. Photon. Meeting (2009).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 1995).

N. Levanon, E. Mozeson, Radar Signals (Wiley, 2004).

A. W. Doerry, “Generating Nonlinear FM Chirp Waveforms for Radar,” Sandia Rep. SAND2006-5856 (2006).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.