Abstract

The Raman amplification can be employed to obtain the enhanced sensing performance in long-distance Brillouin optical time-domain analyzer (BOTDA) with higher temperature measurement accuracy over the whole sensing fiber. Theoretical investigation on the detected probe waveshape has been performed by using the probe-pump coupled equations combined with Raman amplification. The experimental characterization has been demonstrated to validate the theoretical prediction. The results show that, the 75 Km sensing distance can be achieved by utilizing the bi-directional Raman amplification with measurement accuracy of ${\pm}0.6^{\circ}$C over the whole sensing fiber. The larger Raman power and Brillouin pump power are helpful to improve the sensing signal-noise ratio (SNR). There exists an optimum range for the input probe power and the extinction ratio (ER) of input Brillouin pump pulse. The BOTDA with Raman amplification has considerable potentials to realize long- distance strain and temperature measurement for structural health monitoring and fire alarming, etc.

© 2010 IEEE

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, Y. Koyamada, "Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1296-1302 (1995).
  2. M. Alahbabi, Y. T. Cho, T. P. Newson, "Comparison of the methods for discriminating temperature and strain in spontaneous Brillouin-based distributed sensors," Opt. Lett. 29, 26-28 (2004).
  3. K. D. Souza, T. P. Newson, "Signal to noise and range enhancement of a Brillouin intensity based temperature sensor," Opt. Exp. 12, 2656-2661 (2004).
  4. M. N. Alahbabi, Y. T. Cho, T. P. Newson, P. C. Wait, A. H. Hartog, "Influence of modulation instability on distributed optical fiber sensors based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 21, 1156-1160 (2004).
  5. D. Iida, F. Ito, "Detection sensitivity of Brillouin scattering near Fresnel reflection in BOTDR measurement," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 417-424 (2008).
  6. T. Y. Chang, T. E. Koscica, D. Y. Li, L. Jia, Q. M. Sui, H. L. Cui, "A novel detection method of Brillouin backscattered light in optical fiber," IEEE J. Sens. 9, 430-434 (2009).
  7. A. W. Brown, M. D. DeMerchant, X. Bao, T. W. Bremner, "Spatial resolution enhancement of a Brillouin-distributed sensor using a novel signal processing method," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1179-1183 (1999).
  8. J. Smith, A. Brown, M. DeMerchant, X. Bao, "Simultaneous distributed strain and temperature measurement," Appl. Opt. 38, 5372-5377 (1999).
  9. S. B. Cho, J. J. Lee, I. B. Kwon, "Strain event detection using a double-pulse technique of a Brillouin scattering-based distributed optical fiber sensor," Opt. Exp. 12, 4339-4346 (2004).
  10. Y. Wan, S. A. V. , L. Zou, L. Chen, X. Bao, "Subpeaks in the Brillouin loss spectra of distributed fiber-optic sensors," Opt. Lett. 30, 1099-1101 (2005).
  11. V. P. Kalosha, E. A. Ponomarev, L. Chen, X. Bao, "How to obtain high spectral resolution of SBS-based distributed sensing by using nanosecond pulses," Opt. Exp. 14, 2071-2078 (2006).
  12. P. Chaube, B. G. Colpitts, D. Jagannathan, A. W. Brown, "Distributed fiber-optic sensor for dynamic strain measurement," IEEE J. Sens. 8, 1067-1072 (2008).
  13. J. Yang, C. Yu, Z. Chen, J. Ng, X. Yang, "Suppression of polarisation-induced signal fluctuation in optic distributed sensing system based on stimulated Brillouin scattering," Electron. Lett. 45, (2009).
  14. W. Li, X. Bao, Y. Li, L. Chen, "Differential pulse-width pair BOTDA for high spatial resolution sensing," Opt. Exp. 16, 21616-21625 (2008).
  15. M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, F. D. Pasquale, "Enhanced simultaneous distributed strain and temperature fiber sensor employing spontaneous Brillouin scattering and optical pulse coding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 450-452 (2009).
  16. M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, F. D. Pasquale, "Analysis of optical pulse coding in spontaneous Brillouin-based distributed temperature sensors," Opt. Exp. 16, 19097-19111 (2008).
  17. Y. T. Cho, M. Alahbabi, G. Brambilla, T. P. Newson, "Brillouin based OTDR with measurement range of 85 km using combined EDFA and Raman amplification," OSA/CLEO (2004).
  18. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 1995).
  19. T. R. Parker, M. Farhadiroushan, V. A. Handerek, A. J. Rogers, "Temperature and strain dependence of the power level and frequency of spontaneous Brillouin scattering in optical fibers," Opt. Lett. 22, 787-789 (1997).
  20. Y. Kim, H. Lee, J. Lee, J. Han, T. W. Oh, J. Jeong, "Chirp characteristics of 10-Gb/s electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 900-908 (2000).

2009 (3)

T. Y. Chang, T. E. Koscica, D. Y. Li, L. Jia, Q. M. Sui, H. L. Cui, "A novel detection method of Brillouin backscattered light in optical fiber," IEEE J. Sens. 9, 430-434 (2009).

J. Yang, C. Yu, Z. Chen, J. Ng, X. Yang, "Suppression of polarisation-induced signal fluctuation in optic distributed sensing system based on stimulated Brillouin scattering," Electron. Lett. 45, (2009).

M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, F. D. Pasquale, "Enhanced simultaneous distributed strain and temperature fiber sensor employing spontaneous Brillouin scattering and optical pulse coding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 450-452 (2009).

2008 (4)

M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, F. D. Pasquale, "Analysis of optical pulse coding in spontaneous Brillouin-based distributed temperature sensors," Opt. Exp. 16, 19097-19111 (2008).

W. Li, X. Bao, Y. Li, L. Chen, "Differential pulse-width pair BOTDA for high spatial resolution sensing," Opt. Exp. 16, 21616-21625 (2008).

P. Chaube, B. G. Colpitts, D. Jagannathan, A. W. Brown, "Distributed fiber-optic sensor for dynamic strain measurement," IEEE J. Sens. 8, 1067-1072 (2008).

D. Iida, F. Ito, "Detection sensitivity of Brillouin scattering near Fresnel reflection in BOTDR measurement," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 417-424 (2008).

2006 (1)

V. P. Kalosha, E. A. Ponomarev, L. Chen, X. Bao, "How to obtain high spectral resolution of SBS-based distributed sensing by using nanosecond pulses," Opt. Exp. 14, 2071-2078 (2006).

2005 (1)

2004 (4)

S. B. Cho, J. J. Lee, I. B. Kwon, "Strain event detection using a double-pulse technique of a Brillouin scattering-based distributed optical fiber sensor," Opt. Exp. 12, 4339-4346 (2004).

M. Alahbabi, Y. T. Cho, T. P. Newson, "Comparison of the methods for discriminating temperature and strain in spontaneous Brillouin-based distributed sensors," Opt. Lett. 29, 26-28 (2004).

K. D. Souza, T. P. Newson, "Signal to noise and range enhancement of a Brillouin intensity based temperature sensor," Opt. Exp. 12, 2656-2661 (2004).

M. N. Alahbabi, Y. T. Cho, T. P. Newson, P. C. Wait, A. H. Hartog, "Influence of modulation instability on distributed optical fiber sensors based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 21, 1156-1160 (2004).

2000 (1)

Y. Kim, H. Lee, J. Lee, J. Han, T. W. Oh, J. Jeong, "Chirp characteristics of 10-Gb/s electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 900-908 (2000).

1999 (2)

A. W. Brown, M. D. DeMerchant, X. Bao, T. W. Bremner, "Spatial resolution enhancement of a Brillouin-distributed sensor using a novel signal processing method," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1179-1183 (1999).

J. Smith, A. Brown, M. DeMerchant, X. Bao, "Simultaneous distributed strain and temperature measurement," Appl. Opt. 38, 5372-5377 (1999).

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, Y. Koyamada, "Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1296-1302 (1995).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Yang, C. Yu, Z. Chen, J. Ng, X. Yang, "Suppression of polarisation-induced signal fluctuation in optic distributed sensing system based on stimulated Brillouin scattering," Electron. Lett. 45, (2009).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Kim, H. Lee, J. Lee, J. Han, T. W. Oh, J. Jeong, "Chirp characteristics of 10-Gb/s electroabsorption modulator integrated DFB lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 900-908 (2000).

IEEE J. Sens. (2)

P. Chaube, B. G. Colpitts, D. Jagannathan, A. W. Brown, "Distributed fiber-optic sensor for dynamic strain measurement," IEEE J. Sens. 8, 1067-1072 (2008).

T. Y. Chang, T. E. Koscica, D. Y. Li, L. Jia, Q. M. Sui, H. L. Cui, "A novel detection method of Brillouin backscattered light in optical fiber," IEEE J. Sens. 9, 430-434 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, F. D. Pasquale, "Enhanced simultaneous distributed strain and temperature fiber sensor employing spontaneous Brillouin scattering and optical pulse coding," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 450-452 (2009).

J. Lightw. Technol. (3)

D. Iida, F. Ito, "Detection sensitivity of Brillouin scattering near Fresnel reflection in BOTDR measurement," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 417-424 (2008).

A. W. Brown, M. D. DeMerchant, X. Bao, T. W. Bremner, "Spatial resolution enhancement of a Brillouin-distributed sensor using a novel signal processing method," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 1179-1183 (1999).

T. Horiguchi, K. Shimizu, T. Kurashima, M. Tateda, Y. Koyamada, "Development of a distributed sensing technique using Brillouin scattering," J. Lightw. Technol. 13, 1296-1302 (1995).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

M. N. Alahbabi, Y. T. Cho, T. P. Newson, P. C. Wait, A. H. Hartog, "Influence of modulation instability on distributed optical fiber sensors based on spontaneous Brillouin scattering," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 21, 1156-1160 (2004).

Opt. Exp. (5)

K. D. Souza, T. P. Newson, "Signal to noise and range enhancement of a Brillouin intensity based temperature sensor," Opt. Exp. 12, 2656-2661 (2004).

S. B. Cho, J. J. Lee, I. B. Kwon, "Strain event detection using a double-pulse technique of a Brillouin scattering-based distributed optical fiber sensor," Opt. Exp. 12, 4339-4346 (2004).

V. P. Kalosha, E. A. Ponomarev, L. Chen, X. Bao, "How to obtain high spectral resolution of SBS-based distributed sensing by using nanosecond pulses," Opt. Exp. 14, 2071-2078 (2006).

W. Li, X. Bao, Y. Li, L. Chen, "Differential pulse-width pair BOTDA for high spatial resolution sensing," Opt. Exp. 16, 21616-21625 (2008).

M. A. Soto, G. Bolognini, F. D. Pasquale, "Analysis of optical pulse coding in spontaneous Brillouin-based distributed temperature sensors," Opt. Exp. 16, 19097-19111 (2008).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (2)

Y. T. Cho, M. Alahbabi, G. Brambilla, T. P. Newson, "Brillouin based OTDR with measurement range of 85 km using combined EDFA and Raman amplification," OSA/CLEO (2004).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 1995).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.