Abstract

Silicon microring resonator has been recognized as a competitive structure for the electro-optic modulator due to its potential for high-density integration. There are two silicon-ring-based modulation methods: push-pull coupling modulation and index modulation. Previous investigations show that the push-pull coupling modulation seems to outperform the index modulation because of its ultralarge optical modulation bandwidth and chirp-free property. However, there is no performance comparison for these two schemes in power consumption, which has emerged as an important parameter for photonics integrated circuit design. This paper thus studies the power efficiency of these two methods. The analysis of the static characteristics of the ring shows that the index modulation requires a much lower driving voltage than that of the push-pull coupling modulation when the modulator is operated at low frequencies. The dynamic analysis based on the coupled-mode theory in time indicates that the required driving voltage of the push-pull coupling modulation is still higher than that of the index modulation when the modulation frequency is not very high. To solve this problem, we propose a chirp-free two-ring modulator consisting of a push-pull coupling modulator embedded into a ring with the same resonance. We demonstrate that the two-ring modulator can reach its transmission null before the push-pull coupling modulator becomes critical coupled. As a result, the power requirement of the two-ring modulator is lower than that of the push-pull coupling modulator.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
  2. R. D. Kekatpure, M. L. Brongersma, "CMOS compatible high-speed electro-optical modulator," Proc. SPIE (2005) pp. Paper G1.
  3. C. Li, L. Zhou, A. W. Poon, "Silicon microring carrier-injection-based modulators/switches with tunable extinction ratios and OR-logic switching by using waveguide cross-coupling," Opt. Exp. 15, 5069-5076 (2007).
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  5. L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, A. E. Willner, "Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 149-158 (2010).
  6. Y. Li, L. Zhang, M. Song, B. Zhang, J. Y. Yang, R. G. Beausoleil, A. E. Willner, P. D. Dapkus, "Coupled-ring-resonator-based silicon modulator for enhanced performance," Opt. Exp. 16, 13342-13348 (2008).
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  12. A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 74-76 (2000).
  13. C. A. Barrios, M. Lipson, "Modeling and analysis of high-speed electro-optic modulation in high confinement silicon waveguides using metal-oxide-semiconductor configuration," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6008-6015 (2004).
  14. A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919-933 (1973).
  15. H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, 1984).
  16. L. Chen, N. Sherwood-Droz, M. Lipson, "Compact bandwidth-tunable microring resonators," Opt. Lett. 32, 3361-3363 (2007).

2010 (1)

L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, A. E. Willner, "Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 149-158 (2010).

2009 (1)

2008 (3)

L. Zhang, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, Y. Li, R. G. Beausoleil, A. E. Willner, "Monolithic modulator and demodulator of DQPSK signals based on silicon microrings," Opt. Lett. 33, 1428-1430 (2008).

Y. Li, L. Zhang, M. Song, B. Zhang, J. Y. Yang, R. G. Beausoleil, A. E. Willner, P. D. Dapkus, "Coupled-ring-resonator-based silicon modulator for enhanced performance," Opt. Exp. 16, 13342-13348 (2008).

W. D. Sacher, J. K. S. Poon, "Dynamics of microring resonator modulators," Opt. Exp. 16, 15741-15753 (2008).

2007 (2)

C. Li, L. Zhou, A. W. Poon, "Silicon microring carrier-injection-based modulators/switches with tunable extinction ratios and OR-logic switching by using waveguide cross-coupling," Opt. Exp. 15, 5069-5076 (2007).

L. Chen, N. Sherwood-Droz, M. Lipson, "Compact bandwidth-tunable microring resonators," Opt. Lett. 32, 3361-3363 (2007).

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

2004 (1)

C. A. Barrios, M. Lipson, "Modeling and analysis of high-speed electro-optic modulation in high confinement silicon waveguides using metal-oxide-semiconductor configuration," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6008-6015 (2004).

2002 (1)

A. Yariv, "Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483-485 (2002).

2000 (1)

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 74-76 (2000).

1997 (1)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, J.-P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).

1973 (1)

A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919-933 (1973).

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, "Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides," Electron. Lett. 36, 74-76 (2000).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Yariv, "Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-9, 919-933 (1973).

IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, A. E. Willner, "Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation," IEEE J. Select. Topics Quantum Electron. 16, 149-158 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. Yariv, "Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 483-485 (2002).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. A. Barrios, M. Lipson, "Modeling and analysis of high-speed electro-optic modulation in high confinement silicon waveguides using metal-oxide-semiconductor configuration," J. Appl. Phys. 96, 6008-6015 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, J.-P. Laine, "Microring resonator channel dropping filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 998-1005 (1997).

Nature (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).

Opt. Exp. (3)

Y. Li, L. Zhang, M. Song, B. Zhang, J. Y. Yang, R. G. Beausoleil, A. E. Willner, P. D. Dapkus, "Coupled-ring-resonator-based silicon modulator for enhanced performance," Opt. Exp. 16, 13342-13348 (2008).

W. D. Sacher, J. K. S. Poon, "Dynamics of microring resonator modulators," Opt. Exp. 16, 15741-15753 (2008).

C. Li, L. Zhou, A. W. Poon, "Silicon microring carrier-injection-based modulators/switches with tunable extinction ratios and OR-logic switching by using waveguide cross-coupling," Opt. Exp. 15, 5069-5076 (2007).

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (3)

H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice-Hall, 1984).

D. A. B. Miller, "Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips," Proc. IEEE (2009) pp. 1166-1185.

R. D. Kekatpure, M. L. Brongersma, "CMOS compatible high-speed electro-optical modulator," Proc. SPIE (2005) pp. Paper G1.

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