Abstract

We analyze by simulation the performance of the differential quadrature phase-shift keying (DQPSK) modulation format in dispersion-managed multi-span WDM optical systems at 43 Gb/s, with 50 GHz channel spacing, in the presence of fiber nonlinearity. We show that the use of maximum-likelihood sequence-estimation (MLSE) receivers significantly helps to increase tolerance to dispersion map design. We also show that the use of an MLSE algorithm which takes into account the correlation of samples allows to improve system performance, partially mitigating the impact of fiber non-linearity. Some of the results presented here hint at a possible use of similar techniques in the context of coherent systems as well.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. R. A. Griffin, A. C. Carter, "Optical differential quadrature phase-shift key (oDQPSK) for high capacity optical transmission," Proc. OFC 2002 (2002) pp. 367-368.
  2. N. M. S. Costa, A. V. T. Cartaxo, "Analysis of DQPSK signals performance in upgrading metropolitan area networks to 40 Gbit/s per channel," Proc. ICTON 2008 (2008) pp. 43-46.
  3. C. Hebebrand, W. Rosenkranz, "Investigations of the dispersion tolerance of the nonlinear optical transmission channel for different modulation formats in a WDM-system," Proc. ICTON 2005 (2005) pp. 72-75.
  4. O. Vassilieva, T. Hoshida, S. Choudhary, H. Kuwahara, "Nonlinear tolerant and spectrally efficient 86 Gbit/s RZ-DQPSK format for a system upgrade," Proc. OFC 2003 (2003) pp. 458-460.
  5. P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, "Long-haul multi-channel IMDD transmission at 10.7 Gbit/s in a dispersion-managed multispan system using a MLSE receiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3041-3047 (2008).
  6. O. E. Agazzi, M. R. Hueda, H. S. Carrer, D. E. Crivelli, "Maximum-likelihood sequence estimation in dispersive optical channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 749-763 (2005).
  7. T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, G. Colavolpe, G. Prati, "Maximum-likelihood sequence detection with closed-form metrics in OOK optical systems impaired by GVD," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3073-3087 (2006).
  8. M. Franceschini, G. Bongiorni, G. Ferrari, R. Raheli, F. Meli, A. Castoldi, "Fundamental limits of electronic signal processing in direct-detection optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1742-1753 (2007).
  9. F. Buchali, G. Thielecke, H. Bulow, "Viterbi equalizer for mitigation of distortions from chromatic dispersion and PMD at 10 Gb/s," Proc. OFC 2004 (2005).
  10. W. Rosenkranz, C. Xia, "Electrical dispersion compensation for different modulation formats with optical filtering," Proc. OFC 2006 (2006).
  11. G. Bosco, P. Poggiolini, "Long-distance effectiveness of MLSE IMDD receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1037-1039 (2006).
  12. M. Rubsamen, P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, "MLSE receivers for narrowband optical filtering," Proc. OFC 2006 (2006).
  13. A. Faerbert, "Application of digital equalization in optical transmission systems," Proc. OFC (2006).
  14. J. P. Elbers, H. Wernz, H. Griesser, C. Glingener, A. Faerbert, S. Langenbach, N. Stojanovic, C. Dorschky, T. Kupfer, C. Schullen, "Measurement of the dispersion tolerance of optical duobinary with an MLSE-receiver at 10.7 Gb/s," Proc. OFC 2005 (2005).
  15. J. M. Gené, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, H. Kogelnik, "Simultaneous compensation of polarization mode dispersion and chromatic dispersion using electronic signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1735-1741 (2007).
  16. T. Kupfer, C. Dorschky, M. Ene, S. Langenbach, "Measurement of the performance of 16-states MLSE digital equalizer with different optical modulation formats," Proc. OFC 2008 (2008).
  17. D. Fritzsche, L. Schürer, A. Ehrhardt, D. Breuer, H. Oeruen, C. G. Schäffer, "Field trial investigation of 16-states MLSE equalizer for simultaneous compensation of CD, PMD and SPM," Proc. OFC 2009 (2009).
  18. S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, "Performance of MLSE receiver in a dispersion-managed experiment at 10.7 Gb/s under non-linear transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2448-2450 (2006).
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  20. P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, M. Visintin, S. J. Savory, Y. Benlachtar, P. Bayvel, R. I. Killey, "MLSE-EDC versus optical dispersion compensation in a single-channel SPM-limited 800 km link at 10 Gbit/s," Proc. ECOC 2007 (2007).
  21. P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, Y. Benlachtar, S. J. Savory, P. Bayvel, R. I. Killey, J. Prat, "Long-haul 10 Gbit/s linear and non-linear IMDD transmission over uncompensated standard fiber using a SQRT-metric MLSE receiver," Opt. Exp. 16, 12919-12936 (2008).
  22. N. Alic, G. C. Papen, r. E. Saperstein, R. Jiang, C. Marki, Y. Fainman, S. Radic, "Experimental demonstration of 10 Gb/s NRZ extended dispersion-limited reach over 600 km-SMF link without optical dispersion compensation," Proc. OFC 2006 (2006).
  23. N. M. S. Costa, T. M. F. Alves, A. V. T. Cartaxo, "Influence of dispersion compensation granularity on the XPM-induced degradation in NRZ-IM-DD WDM links at 10 Gbit/s per channel with 50 GHz of channel spacing," Proc. ICTON 2007 (2007) pp. 151-154.
  24. M. Cavallari, C. R. S. Fludger, P. J. Anslow, "Electronic signal processing for differential phase modulation formats," Proc. OFC 2004 (2004).
  25. M. S. Alfiad, "Dispersion tolerant 21.4-Gb/s DQPSK using simplified Gaussian joint-symbol MLSE," Proc. OFC 2008 (2008).
  26. D. van den Borne, E. Gottwald, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Pseudo-random sequences for modeling of quaternary modulation formats," Proc. OECC/IOOC2007 (2007).
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  28. D. E. Crivelli, H. S. Carrer, M. R. Hueda, "On the performance of reduced-state Viterbi receivers in IM/DD optical transmission systems," Proc. ECOC 2004 (2004).
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  30. A. Kavcic, J. M. F. Moura, "Correlation-sensitive adaptive sequence detection," IEEE Trans. Magn. 34, 763-771 (1998).
  31. G. Bellotti, M. Varani, C. Francia, A. Bononi, "Intensity distortion induced by cross-phase modulation and chromatic dispersion in optical fiber transmissions with dispersion compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1745-1747 (1998).
  32. A. V. T. Cartaxo, "Cross-phase modulation in intensity modulation-direct detection WDM systems with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 178-190 (1999).

2008 (2)

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, "Long-haul multi-channel IMDD transmission at 10.7 Gbit/s in a dispersion-managed multispan system using a MLSE receiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3041-3047 (2008).

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, Y. Benlachtar, S. J. Savory, P. Bayvel, R. I. Killey, J. Prat, "Long-haul 10 Gbit/s linear and non-linear IMDD transmission over uncompensated standard fiber using a SQRT-metric MLSE receiver," Opt. Exp. 16, 12919-12936 (2008).

2007 (3)

M. Franceschini, G. Bongiorni, G. Ferrari, R. Raheli, F. Meli, A. Castoldi, "Fundamental limits of electronic signal processing in direct-detection optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1742-1753 (2007).

J. M. Gené, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, H. Kogelnik, "Simultaneous compensation of polarization mode dispersion and chromatic dispersion using electronic signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1735-1741 (2007).

J. D. Downie, J. Hurley, M. Sauer, "Behavior of MLSE-EDC with self-phase modulation limitations and various dispersion levels in 10.7-Gb/s NRZ and duobinary signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1017-1019 (2007).

2006 (3)

T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, G. Colavolpe, G. Prati, "Maximum-likelihood sequence detection with closed-form metrics in OOK optical systems impaired by GVD," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3073-3087 (2006).

S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, "Performance of MLSE receiver in a dispersion-managed experiment at 10.7 Gb/s under non-linear transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2448-2450 (2006).

G. Bosco, P. Poggiolini, "Long-distance effectiveness of MLSE IMDD receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1037-1039 (2006).

2005 (1)

O. E. Agazzi, M. R. Hueda, H. S. Carrer, D. E. Crivelli, "Maximum-likelihood sequence estimation in dispersive optical channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 749-763 (2005).

1999 (1)

A. V. T. Cartaxo, "Cross-phase modulation in intensity modulation-direct detection WDM systems with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 178-190 (1999).

1998 (2)

A. Kavcic, J. M. F. Moura, "Correlation-sensitive adaptive sequence detection," IEEE Trans. Magn. 34, 763-771 (1998).

G. Bellotti, M. Varani, C. Francia, A. Bononi, "Intensity distortion induced by cross-phase modulation and chromatic dispersion in optical fiber transmissions with dispersion compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1745-1747 (1998).

1984 (1)

M. C. Jeruchim, "Techniques for estimation of the bit error rate in the simulation of digital communication systems," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. SAC-2, 153-170 (1984).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

M. C. Jeruchim, "Techniques for estimation of the bit error rate in the simulation of digital communication systems," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. SAC-2, 153-170 (1984).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

G. Bellotti, M. Varani, C. Francia, A. Bononi, "Intensity distortion induced by cross-phase modulation and chromatic dispersion in optical fiber transmissions with dispersion compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1745-1747 (1998).

G. Bosco, P. Poggiolini, "Long-distance effectiveness of MLSE IMDD receivers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1037-1039 (2006).

S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, "Performance of MLSE receiver in a dispersion-managed experiment at 10.7 Gb/s under non-linear transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2448-2450 (2006).

J. D. Downie, J. Hurley, M. Sauer, "Behavior of MLSE-EDC with self-phase modulation limitations and various dispersion levels in 10.7-Gb/s NRZ and duobinary signals," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1017-1019 (2007).

IEEE Trans. Magn. (1)

A. Kavcic, J. M. F. Moura, "Correlation-sensitive adaptive sequence detection," IEEE Trans. Magn. 34, 763-771 (1998).

J. Lightw. Technol. (6)

A. V. T. Cartaxo, "Cross-phase modulation in intensity modulation-direct detection WDM systems with multiple optical amplifiers and dispersion compensators," J. Lightw. Technol. 17, 178-190 (1999).

J. M. Gené, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, H. Kogelnik, "Simultaneous compensation of polarization mode dispersion and chromatic dispersion using electronic signal processing," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1735-1741 (2007).

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, "Long-haul multi-channel IMDD transmission at 10.7 Gbit/s in a dispersion-managed multispan system using a MLSE receiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 3041-3047 (2008).

O. E. Agazzi, M. R. Hueda, H. S. Carrer, D. E. Crivelli, "Maximum-likelihood sequence estimation in dispersive optical channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 749-763 (2005).

T. Foggi, E. Forestieri, G. Colavolpe, G. Prati, "Maximum-likelihood sequence detection with closed-form metrics in OOK optical systems impaired by GVD," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 3073-3087 (2006).

M. Franceschini, G. Bongiorni, G. Ferrari, R. Raheli, F. Meli, A. Castoldi, "Fundamental limits of electronic signal processing in direct-detection optical communications," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 1742-1753 (2007).

Opt. Exp. (1)

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, Y. Benlachtar, S. J. Savory, P. Bayvel, R. I. Killey, J. Prat, "Long-haul 10 Gbit/s linear and non-linear IMDD transmission over uncompensated standard fiber using a SQRT-metric MLSE receiver," Opt. Exp. 16, 12919-12936 (2008).

Other (19)

N. Alic, G. C. Papen, r. E. Saperstein, R. Jiang, C. Marki, Y. Fainman, S. Radic, "Experimental demonstration of 10 Gb/s NRZ extended dispersion-limited reach over 600 km-SMF link without optical dispersion compensation," Proc. OFC 2006 (2006).

N. M. S. Costa, T. M. F. Alves, A. V. T. Cartaxo, "Influence of dispersion compensation granularity on the XPM-induced degradation in NRZ-IM-DD WDM links at 10 Gbit/s per channel with 50 GHz of channel spacing," Proc. ICTON 2007 (2007) pp. 151-154.

M. Cavallari, C. R. S. Fludger, P. J. Anslow, "Electronic signal processing for differential phase modulation formats," Proc. OFC 2004 (2004).

M. S. Alfiad, "Dispersion tolerant 21.4-Gb/s DQPSK using simplified Gaussian joint-symbol MLSE," Proc. OFC 2008 (2008).

D. van den Borne, E. Gottwald, G. D. Khoe, H. de Waardt, "Pseudo-random sequences for modeling of quaternary modulation formats," Proc. OECC/IOOC2007 (2007).

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communication (McGraw-Hill, 1989).

D. E. Crivelli, H. S. Carrer, M. R. Hueda, "On the performance of reduced-state Viterbi receivers in IM/DD optical transmission systems," Proc. ECOC 2004 (2004).

F. Buchali, G. Thielecke, H. Bulow, "Viterbi equalizer for mitigation of distortions from chromatic dispersion and PMD at 10 Gb/s," Proc. OFC 2004 (2005).

W. Rosenkranz, C. Xia, "Electrical dispersion compensation for different modulation formats with optical filtering," Proc. OFC 2006 (2006).

R. A. Griffin, A. C. Carter, "Optical differential quadrature phase-shift key (oDQPSK) for high capacity optical transmission," Proc. OFC 2002 (2002) pp. 367-368.

N. M. S. Costa, A. V. T. Cartaxo, "Analysis of DQPSK signals performance in upgrading metropolitan area networks to 40 Gbit/s per channel," Proc. ICTON 2008 (2008) pp. 43-46.

C. Hebebrand, W. Rosenkranz, "Investigations of the dispersion tolerance of the nonlinear optical transmission channel for different modulation formats in a WDM-system," Proc. ICTON 2005 (2005) pp. 72-75.

O. Vassilieva, T. Hoshida, S. Choudhary, H. Kuwahara, "Nonlinear tolerant and spectrally efficient 86 Gbit/s RZ-DQPSK format for a system upgrade," Proc. OFC 2003 (2003) pp. 458-460.

T. Kupfer, C. Dorschky, M. Ene, S. Langenbach, "Measurement of the performance of 16-states MLSE digital equalizer with different optical modulation formats," Proc. OFC 2008 (2008).

D. Fritzsche, L. Schürer, A. Ehrhardt, D. Breuer, H. Oeruen, C. G. Schäffer, "Field trial investigation of 16-states MLSE equalizer for simultaneous compensation of CD, PMD and SPM," Proc. OFC 2009 (2009).

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, M. Visintin, S. J. Savory, Y. Benlachtar, P. Bayvel, R. I. Killey, "MLSE-EDC versus optical dispersion compensation in a single-channel SPM-limited 800 km link at 10 Gbit/s," Proc. ECOC 2007 (2007).

M. Rubsamen, P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, "MLSE receivers for narrowband optical filtering," Proc. OFC 2006 (2006).

A. Faerbert, "Application of digital equalization in optical transmission systems," Proc. OFC (2006).

J. P. Elbers, H. Wernz, H. Griesser, C. Glingener, A. Faerbert, S. Langenbach, N. Stojanovic, C. Dorschky, T. Kupfer, C. Schullen, "Measurement of the dispersion tolerance of optical duobinary with an MLSE-receiver at 10.7 Gb/s," Proc. OFC 2005 (2005).

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