Abstract

In this paper, signal statistics and their utilization for detection in narrowly filtered equalized high-speed fiber-optic communications are investigated experimentally. Tradeoffs between log-likelihood metric applications and oversampling are covered in detail. It is, for the first time, demonstrated that performance loss in bandwidth-limited systems can be nearly fully recovered (to within 0.5 dB) by taking advantage of bandwidth-limitation-induced noise correlations and oversampling.

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  1. R. N. McDonough, A. D. Whalen, Detection of Signals in Noise (Academic, 1995).
  2. C. E. Shannon, "A mathematical theory of communication," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379-423 (1948).
  3. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2007).
  4. P. Winzer, R. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 954-985 (2006).
  5. D. Slepian, "Fluctuations of random noise power," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 37, 163-184 (1958).
  6. D. Marcuse, "Derivations of the analytical expressions for bit-error probability in lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1816-1823 (1990).
  7. P. Humblet, M. Azizoglu, "On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1576-1582 (1991).
  8. G. Jacobsen, K. Berlitzon, Z. Xiapin, "WDM transmission system performance: Influence of non-Gaussian detected ASE noise and periodic DEMUX characteristic," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1804-1812 (1998).
  9. J. Lee, C.-S. Shim, "Bit-error-rate analysis of optically preamplified receivers using an eigenfunction expansion method in optical frequency domain," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1224-1229 (1994).
  10. G. Einarsson, Principles of Lightwave Communications (Wiley, 1996).
  11. G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, S. Benedetto, "A novel analytical method for the BER evaluation in optical systems affected by parametric gain," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 152-154 (2000).
  12. E. Forestieri, "Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre- and postdetection filtering," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1493-1503 (2000).
  13. P. J. Winzer, "Performance estimation of receivers corrupted by optical noise," TOPS OAA Conf. (2001).
  14. I. T. Monroy, G. Einarsson, "On analytical expressions for the distribution of the filtered output of square envelope receivers with signal and colored Gaussian noise input," IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 19-23 (2001).
  15. I. B. Djordjevic, B. Vasic, "Receiver modeling for optically amplified communication systems," Int. J. Electron. Commun. 57, 381-390 (2003).
  16. N. Alic, G. C. Papen, R. Saperstein, L. B. Milstein, Y. Fainman, "Signal statistics and maximum likelihood sequence estimation in intensity modulated fiber optic links containing a single optical preamplifier," Opt. Exp. 13, 4568-4579 (2005).
  17. G. D. Forney, "Maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of digital sequences in presence of intersymbol interference," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-18, 363-378 (1972).
  18. G. D. Forney, "The Viterbi algorithm," Proc. IEEE 61, 268-278 (1973).
  19. H. F. Haunstein, W. Sauer-Greff, A. Dittrich, K. Sticht, R. Urbansky, "Principles for electronic equalization of polarization-mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1169-1182 (2004).
  20. O. Agazzi, M. Hueda, H. Carrer, D. Crivelli, "Maximum-likelihood sequence estimation in dispersive optical channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 749-762 (2005).
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  24. S. J. Savory, Y. Benlachtar, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, G. Bosco, P. Poggiolini, J. Prat, M. Omella, "IMDD transmission over 1 040 km of standard single- mode fiber at 10 Gbit/s using a one-sample-per-bit reduced- complexity MLSE receiver," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC 2007) pp. 1-3.
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  28. P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, J. Prat, R. Killey, S. Savory, "MLSE-EDC versus optical dispersion compensation in a single-channel SPM-limited 800 km link at 10 Gbit/s," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2007) pp. 913.
  29. D. Fritsche, L. Schürer, A. Ehrhardt, D. Breuer, H. Oeruen, C. Schäffer, "Field trial investigation of 16-states MLSE equalizer for simultaneous compensation of CD, PMD and SPM," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC 2009) San DiegoCA (2009) Paper OWE4.
  30. S. Benedetto, E. Biglieri, Principles of Digital Transmission (Kluwer/Plenum, 1999).
  31. J.-P. Elbers, H. Wernz, H. Griesser, C. Glingener, A. Faerbert, S. Langenbach, N. Stojanovic, C. Dorschky, T. Kupfer, C. Schulien, "Measurement of the dispersion tolerance of optical duobinary with an MLSE-receiver at 10.7 Gb/s," Proc. OFC 20O5 (2005) pp. 3.
  32. G. Bosco, V. Curri, E. Roffe, P. Poggiolini, "Joint effect of MLSE and receiver filters optimization on dispersion robustness of IMDD, DPSK, DQPSK, and duobinary modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2003-2005 (2007).
  33. M. Rubsamen, P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, "MLSE receivers for narrowband optical filtering," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC 2006) AnaheimCA Paper OWB6.
  34. C. Xia, W. Rosenkranz, "Electrical dispersion compensation for different modulation formats with optical filtering," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC 2005) pp. 3.
  35. F. Buchali, H. Buelow, "Correlation sensitive viterbi equalization of 10 Gb/s signals in bandwidth limited receivers," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC 2005) pp. 3.
  36. N. Alic, M. Sköld, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, S. Radic, "Benefits of joint statistics in MLSD-equalized transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 495-497 (2009).
  37. G. Gavioli, G. Bosco, P. Poggiolini, M. Visintin, P. Bayvel, I. Cano, E. Torrengo, M. Belmonte, G. Osnago, S. Piciaccia, A. La Porta, C. Lezzi, M. Ibsen, P. Petropoulos, "Record-length 10.7 Gb/s uncompensated transmission experiment over installed fiber using narrow-filtered duobinary and a correlation-sensitive MLSE-Rx," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC 2009) pp. 3.
  38. R. Loudon, T. J. Shepherd, "Properties of the optical quantum amplifier," Opt. Acta 31, 1243-1269 (1984).
  39. C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, P. Winzer, "Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 178-186 (2005).
  40. M. Sköld, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, P. A. Andrekson, "All-optical waveform sampling in high-speed optical communication systems using advanced modulation formats," J. Lightw. Techol. 27, 3662-3671 (2009).
  41. P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, Y. Benlachtar, S. J. Savory, P. Bayvel, R. Killey, J. Prat, "Long-haul 10 Gbit/s linear and non-linear IMDD transmission over uncompensated standard fiber using a SQRT-metric MLSE receiver," Opt. Exp. 16, 12919-12936 (2008).
  42. G. Bosco, P. Poggiolini, M. Visintin, "Performance analysis of MLSE receivers based on the square-root metric," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2098-2109 (2008).
  43. J. Prat, A. Napoli, J. M. Gene, M. Omella, P. Poggiolini, V. Curri, "Square root strategy: A novel method to linearize an optical communication system with electronic equalizers," Proc. ECOC (2005) pp. 713-714.
  44. J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill, 1995).
  45. D. Slepian, "On bandwidth," Proc. IEEE 64, 292-300 (1976).
  46. A. Kavcic, J. Moura, "Correlation-sensitive adaptive sequence detection," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (IEEE-ICC 1998) pp. 657-661.
  47. S. M. Kay, Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing (Prentice-Hall, 1993).
  48. S. M. Berber, "An automated method for BER characteristics measurement," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 575-580 (2004).
  49. International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T), Series G: Transmission Systems and Media, Digital Systems and Networks, G975.1 (2004).
  50. H. F. Haunstein, R. Schlenk, K. Sticht, A. Dittrich, W. Sauer-Greff, R. Urbansky, "Optimized filtering for electronic equalizers in the presence of chromatic dispersion and PMD," Proc. OFC 2004 .
  51. P. Winzer, private communication (2005).

2009 (2)

N. Alic, M. Sköld, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, S. Radic, "Benefits of joint statistics in MLSD-equalized transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 495-497 (2009).

M. Sköld, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, P. A. Andrekson, "All-optical waveform sampling in high-speed optical communication systems using advanced modulation formats," J. Lightw. Techol. 27, 3662-3671 (2009).

2008 (2)

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, Y. Benlachtar, S. J. Savory, P. Bayvel, R. Killey, J. Prat, "Long-haul 10 Gbit/s linear and non-linear IMDD transmission over uncompensated standard fiber using a SQRT-metric MLSE receiver," Opt. Exp. 16, 12919-12936 (2008).

G. Bosco, P. Poggiolini, M. Visintin, "Performance analysis of MLSE receivers based on the square-root metric," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2098-2109 (2008).

2007 (2)

J. M. Gene, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, H. Kogelnik, "Simultaneous compensation of polarization mode dispersion and chromatic dispersion using electronic signal processing," J. Lightw. Techol. 25, 1735-1741 (2007).

G. Bosco, V. Curri, E. Roffe, P. Poggiolini, "Joint effect of MLSE and receiver filters optimization on dispersion robustness of IMDD, DPSK, DQPSK, and duobinary modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2003-2005 (2007).

2006 (2)

S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, "Performance of MLSE receiver in a dispersion-managed multispan experiment at 10.7 Gb/s under nonlinear transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2448-2450 (2006).

P. Winzer, R. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 954-985 (2006).

2005 (3)

N. Alic, G. C. Papen, R. Saperstein, L. B. Milstein, Y. Fainman, "Signal statistics and maximum likelihood sequence estimation in intensity modulated fiber optic links containing a single optical preamplifier," Opt. Exp. 13, 4568-4579 (2005).

O. Agazzi, M. Hueda, H. Carrer, D. Crivelli, "Maximum-likelihood sequence estimation in dispersive optical channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 749-762 (2005).

C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, P. Winzer, "Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 178-186 (2005).

2004 (2)

S. M. Berber, "An automated method for BER characteristics measurement," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 575-580 (2004).

H. F. Haunstein, W. Sauer-Greff, A. Dittrich, K. Sticht, R. Urbansky, "Principles for electronic equalization of polarization-mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1169-1182 (2004).

2003 (1)

I. B. Djordjevic, B. Vasic, "Receiver modeling for optically amplified communication systems," Int. J. Electron. Commun. 57, 381-390 (2003).

2001 (1)

I. T. Monroy, G. Einarsson, "On analytical expressions for the distribution of the filtered output of square envelope receivers with signal and colored Gaussian noise input," IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 19-23 (2001).

2000 (2)

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, S. Benedetto, "A novel analytical method for the BER evaluation in optical systems affected by parametric gain," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 152-154 (2000).

E. Forestieri, "Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre- and postdetection filtering," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1493-1503 (2000).

1998 (1)

G. Jacobsen, K. Berlitzon, Z. Xiapin, "WDM transmission system performance: Influence of non-Gaussian detected ASE noise and periodic DEMUX characteristic," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1804-1812 (1998).

1994 (1)

J. Lee, C.-S. Shim, "Bit-error-rate analysis of optically preamplified receivers using an eigenfunction expansion method in optical frequency domain," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1224-1229 (1994).

1991 (1)

P. Humblet, M. Azizoglu, "On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1576-1582 (1991).

1990 (1)

D. Marcuse, "Derivations of the analytical expressions for bit-error probability in lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1816-1823 (1990).

1984 (1)

R. Loudon, T. J. Shepherd, "Properties of the optical quantum amplifier," Opt. Acta 31, 1243-1269 (1984).

1976 (1)

D. Slepian, "On bandwidth," Proc. IEEE 64, 292-300 (1976).

1973 (1)

G. D. Forney, "The Viterbi algorithm," Proc. IEEE 61, 268-278 (1973).

1972 (1)

G. D. Forney, "Maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of digital sequences in presence of intersymbol interference," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-18, 363-378 (1972).

1958 (1)

D. Slepian, "Fluctuations of random noise power," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 37, 163-184 (1958).

1948 (1)

C. E. Shannon, "A mathematical theory of communication," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379-423 (1948).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (2)

C. E. Shannon, "A mathematical theory of communication," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 379-423 (1948).

D. Slepian, "Fluctuations of random noise power," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 37, 163-184 (1958).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

G. Bosco, A. Carena, V. Curri, R. Gaudino, P. Poggiolini, S. Benedetto, "A novel analytical method for the BER evaluation in optical systems affected by parametric gain," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12, 152-154 (2000).

S. Chandrasekhar, A. H. Gnauck, "Performance of MLSE receiver in a dispersion-managed multispan experiment at 10.7 Gb/s under nonlinear transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2448-2450 (2006).

G. Bosco, V. Curri, E. Roffe, P. Poggiolini, "Joint effect of MLSE and receiver filters optimization on dispersion robustness of IMDD, DPSK, DQPSK, and duobinary modulation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 2003-2005 (2007).

N. Alic, M. Sköld, P. A. Andrekson, M. Karlsson, S. Radic, "Benefits of joint statistics in MLSD-equalized transmission," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 495-497 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Commun. (1)

I. T. Monroy, G. Einarsson, "On analytical expressions for the distribution of the filtered output of square envelope receivers with signal and colored Gaussian noise input," IEEE Trans. Commun. 49, 19-23 (2001).

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (1)

G. D. Forney, "Maximum-likelihood sequence estimation of digital sequences in presence of intersymbol interference," IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory IT-18, 363-378 (1972).

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

S. M. Berber, "An automated method for BER characteristics measurement," IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 575-580 (2004).

Int. J. Electron. Commun. (1)

I. B. Djordjevic, B. Vasic, "Receiver modeling for optically amplified communication systems," Int. J. Electron. Commun. 57, 381-390 (2003).

J. Lightw. Technol. (9)

E. Forestieri, "Evaluating the error probability in lightwave systems with chromatic dispersion, arbitrary pulse shape and pre- and postdetection filtering," J. Lightw. Technol. 18, 1493-1503 (2000).

H. F. Haunstein, W. Sauer-Greff, A. Dittrich, K. Sticht, R. Urbansky, "Principles for electronic equalization of polarization-mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1169-1182 (2004).

O. Agazzi, M. Hueda, H. Carrer, D. Crivelli, "Maximum-likelihood sequence estimation in dispersive optical channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 749-762 (2005).

D. Marcuse, "Derivations of the analytical expressions for bit-error probability in lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 8, 1816-1823 (1990).

P. Humblet, M. Azizoglu, "On the bit error rate of lightwave systems with optical amplifiers," J. Lightw. Technol. 9, 1576-1582 (1991).

G. Jacobsen, K. Berlitzon, Z. Xiapin, "WDM transmission system performance: Influence of non-Gaussian detected ASE noise and periodic DEMUX characteristic," J. Lightw. Technol. 16, 1804-1812 (1998).

J. Lee, C.-S. Shim, "Bit-error-rate analysis of optically preamplified receivers using an eigenfunction expansion method in optical frequency domain," J. Lightw. Technol. 12, 1224-1229 (1994).

C. Dorrer, C. R. Doerr, I. Kang, R. Ryf, J. Leuthold, P. Winzer, "Measurement of eye diagrams and constellation diagrams of optical sources using linear optics and waveguide technology," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 178-186 (2005).

G. Bosco, P. Poggiolini, M. Visintin, "Performance analysis of MLSE receivers based on the square-root metric," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 2098-2109 (2008).

J. Lightw. Techol. (2)

M. Sköld, M. Westlund, H. Sunnerud, P. A. Andrekson, "All-optical waveform sampling in high-speed optical communication systems using advanced modulation formats," J. Lightw. Techol. 27, 3662-3671 (2009).

J. M. Gene, P. J. Winzer, S. Chandrasekhar, H. Kogelnik, "Simultaneous compensation of polarization mode dispersion and chromatic dispersion using electronic signal processing," J. Lightw. Techol. 25, 1735-1741 (2007).

Opt. Acta (1)

R. Loudon, T. J. Shepherd, "Properties of the optical quantum amplifier," Opt. Acta 31, 1243-1269 (1984).

Opt. Exp. (2)

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, Y. Benlachtar, S. J. Savory, P. Bayvel, R. Killey, J. Prat, "Long-haul 10 Gbit/s linear and non-linear IMDD transmission over uncompensated standard fiber using a SQRT-metric MLSE receiver," Opt. Exp. 16, 12919-12936 (2008).

N. Alic, G. C. Papen, R. Saperstein, L. B. Milstein, Y. Fainman, "Signal statistics and maximum likelihood sequence estimation in intensity modulated fiber optic links containing a single optical preamplifier," Opt. Exp. 13, 4568-4579 (2005).

Proc. IEEE (3)

P. Winzer, R. Essiambre, "Advanced optical modulation formats," Proc. IEEE 94, 954-985 (2006).

G. D. Forney, "The Viterbi algorithm," Proc. IEEE 61, 268-278 (1973).

D. Slepian, "On bandwidth," Proc. IEEE 64, 292-300 (1976).

Other (24)

A. Kavcic, J. Moura, "Correlation-sensitive adaptive sequence detection," Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Commun. (IEEE-ICC 1998) pp. 657-661.

S. M. Kay, Fundamentals of Statistical Signal Processing (Prentice-Hall, 1993).

J. Prat, A. Napoli, J. M. Gene, M. Omella, P. Poggiolini, V. Curri, "Square root strategy: A novel method to linearize an optical communication system with electronic equalizers," Proc. ECOC (2005) pp. 713-714.

J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications (McGraw-Hill, 1995).

International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T), Series G: Transmission Systems and Media, Digital Systems and Networks, G975.1 (2004).

H. F. Haunstein, R. Schlenk, K. Sticht, A. Dittrich, W. Sauer-Greff, R. Urbansky, "Optimized filtering for electronic equalizers in the presence of chromatic dispersion and PMD," Proc. OFC 2004 .

P. Winzer, private communication (2005).

T. Kupfer, J. Whiteaway, S. Langenbach, "PMD compensation using electronic equalization particular maximum likelihood sequence estimation," OFC 2007 AnaheimCA (2007) Paper OMH1.

P. Poggiolini, G. Bosco, J. Prat, R. Killey, S. Savory, "MLSE-EDC versus optical dispersion compensation in a single-channel SPM-limited 800 km link at 10 Gbit/s," Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2007) pp. 913.

D. Fritsche, L. Schürer, A. Ehrhardt, D. Breuer, H. Oeruen, C. Schäffer, "Field trial investigation of 16-states MLSE equalizer for simultaneous compensation of CD, PMD and SPM," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC 2009) San DiegoCA (2009) Paper OWE4.

S. Benedetto, E. Biglieri, Principles of Digital Transmission (Kluwer/Plenum, 1999).

J.-P. Elbers, H. Wernz, H. Griesser, C. Glingener, A. Faerbert, S. Langenbach, N. Stojanovic, C. Dorschky, T. Kupfer, C. Schulien, "Measurement of the dispersion tolerance of optical duobinary with an MLSE-receiver at 10.7 Gb/s," Proc. OFC 20O5 (2005) pp. 3.

G. Gavioli, G. Bosco, P. Poggiolini, M. Visintin, P. Bayvel, I. Cano, E. Torrengo, M. Belmonte, G. Osnago, S. Piciaccia, A. La Porta, C. Lezzi, M. Ibsen, P. Petropoulos, "Record-length 10.7 Gb/s uncompensated transmission experiment over installed fiber using narrow-filtered duobinary and a correlation-sensitive MLSE-Rx," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC 2009) pp. 3.

M. Rubsamen, P. J. Winzer, R.-J. Essiambre, "MLSE receivers for narrowband optical filtering," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC 2006) AnaheimCA Paper OWB6.

C. Xia, W. Rosenkranz, "Electrical dispersion compensation for different modulation formats with optical filtering," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC 2005) pp. 3.

F. Buchali, H. Buelow, "Correlation sensitive viterbi equalization of 10 Gb/s signals in bandwidth limited receivers," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC 2005) pp. 3.

R. N. McDonough, A. D. Whalen, Detection of Signals in Noise (Academic, 1995).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2007).

G. Einarsson, Principles of Lightwave Communications (Wiley, 1996).

P. J. Winzer, "Performance estimation of receivers corrupted by optical noise," TOPS OAA Conf. (2001).

A. Faerbert, S. Langenbach, N. Stojanovic, C. Dorschky, T. Kupfer, C. Schulien, J.-P. Elbers, H. Wernz, H. Griesser, C. Glingener, "Performance of a 10.7 Gb/s receiver with digital equaliser using maximum likelihood sequence estimation," Proc. Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (ECOC 2004) .

C. R. S. Fludger, J. E. A. Whiteaway, P. J. Anslow, Proc. OFC 2004 .

N. Alic, G. C. Papen, R. E. Saperstein, R. Jiang, C. Marki, Y. Fainman, P. A. Andrekson, S. Radic, "Experimental demonstration of 10 Gb/s NRZ extended dispersion-limited reach over 600 km-SMF link without optical dispersion compensation," Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC/NFOEC 2006) AnaheimCA Paper OWB7.

S. J. Savory, Y. Benlachtar, R. I. Killey, P. Bayvel, G. Bosco, P. Poggiolini, J. Prat, M. Omella, "IMDD transmission over 1 040 km of standard single- mode fiber at 10 Gbit/s using a one-sample-per-bit reduced- complexity MLSE receiver," Proc. Opt. Fiber Commun. Conf. (OFC 2007) pp. 1-3.

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