Abstract

A new technique for analyzing the loss of high order modes in photonic crystal VCSEL is reported. The technique proposed is a semi-empirical approach that uses comparison to experimental data. For that purpose, photonic crystal VCSEL devices of single mode and multi mode are fabricated and measured for device characteristics comparison. The fabricated devices are modeled using finite difference frequency domain technique for the purpose of investigating the photonic crystal guided modes and loss analysis. In order to verify the findings, full three dimensional analyses are performed based on the fabricated single mode and multi mode devices structures using common finite difference time domain technique. The results show close agreement between the computed and experiment findings, justifying the used of the proposed semi-empirical technique for analyzing the loss of high order modes in photonic crystal VCSEL. Results for guided modes and near- and far-field are also presented for the photonic crystal VCSEL.

© 2010 IEEE

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  24. Lumerical FDTD Solutions™ http://www.lumerical.com/fdtd.php.

2009 (3)

D. F. Siriani, M. P. Tan, A. M. Kasten, A. C. Lehman, P. O. Leisher, J. D. Sulkin, J. J. Raftery, Jr.A. J. Danner, A. V. Giannopoulos, K. D. Choquette, "Mode control in photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and coherent arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 909-917 (2009).

T. Czyszanowski, R. P. Sarzala, M. Dems, H. Thienpont, W. Nakwaski, "Strong modes discrimination and low threshold in cw regime of 1300 nm AlInGaAs/InP VCSEL induced by photonic crystal," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 206, 1396-1403 (2009).

D. F. Siriani, P. O. Leisher, K. D. Choquette, "Loss-induced confinement in photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 762-768 (2009).

2008 (3)

H. P. D. Yang, I. C. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, F. I. Lai, H. C. Yu, G. Lin, R. S. Hsiao, N. A. Maleev, S. A. Blokhin, H. C. Kuo, J. Y. Chi, "Characteristics of InGaAs submonolayer quantum-dot and InAs quantum-dot photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1387-1395 (2008).

A. M. Kasten, M. P. Tan, J. D. Sulkin, P. O. Leisher, K. D. Choquette, "Photonic crystal vertical cavity lasers with wavelength-independent single-mode behavior," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2010-2012 (2008).

A. M. Kasten, J. D. Sulkin, P. O. Leisher, D. K. McAlfresh, D. Vacar, K. D. Choquette, "Manufacturable photonic crystal single-mode and fluidic vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 1123-1131 (2008).

2007 (2)

T. Czyszanowski, M. Dems, K. Panajotov, "Optimal parameters of photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting diode lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2331-2336 (2007).

T. Czyszanowski, M. Dems, K. Panajotov, "Single mode condition and modes discrimination in photonic-crystal 1.3 $\mu$m AlInGaAs/InP VCSEL," Opt. Exp. 15, 5604-5609 (2007).

2006 (1)

P. O. Leisher, A. J. Danner, K. D. Choquette, "Single-mode 1.3-micron photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2156-2158 (2006).

2005 (4)

A. J. Danner, T. S. Kim, K. D. Choquette, "Single fundamental mode photonic crystal vertical cavity laser with improved output power," Electron. Lett. 41, 325-326 (2005).

H. P. D. Yang, F. I. Lai, Y. H. Chang, H. C. Yu, C. P. Sung, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Y. Lin, J. Y. Chi, "Singlemode (${\rm SMSR} > 40$ dB) proton-implanted photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers," Electron. Lett. 41, 326-328 (2005).

A. J. Danner, J. J. Raftery, Jr.T. Kim, P. O. Leisher, A. V. Giannopoulos, K. D. Choquette, "Progress in photonic crystal vertical cavity lasers," IECE Trans. Electron. 88c, 944-950 (2005).

P. S. Ivanov, M. Dragas, M. Cryan, J. M. Rorison, "Theoretical investigation of transverse optical modes in photonic-crystal waveguides imbedded into proton-implanted and oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 2270-2276 (2005).

2004 (3)

J. H. Baek, D. S. Song, I. K. Hwang, K. H. Lee, Y. H. Lee, Y. Ju, T. Kondo, T. Miyamoto, F. Koyama, "Transverse mode control by etch-depth tuning in 1120-nm GaInAs/GaAs photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Exp. 12, 859-867 (2004).

A. J. Danner, J. J. Raftery, Jr.N. Yokouchi, K. D. Choquette, "Transverse modes of photonic crystal vertical-cavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1031-1033 (2004).

K. H. Lee, J. H. Baek, I. K. Hwang, Y. H. Lee, G. H. Lee, J. H. Ser, H. D. Kim, H. E. Shin, "Square-lattice photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Exp. 12, 4136-4143 (2004).

2003 (3)

D. S. Song, Y. J. Lee, H. W. Choi, Y. H. Lee, "Polarization-controlled, single-transverse-mode, photonic-crystal, vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3182-3184 (2003).

N. Yokouchi, A. J. Danner, K. D. Choquette, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 1439-1445 (2003).

N. Yokouchi, A. J. Danner, K. D. Choquette, "Etching depth dependence of the effective refractive index in two-dimensional photonic-crystal-patterned vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1344-1346 (2003).

2002 (2)

D. S. Song, S. H. Kim, H. G. Park, C. K. Kim, Y. H. Lee, "Single-fundamental-mode photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3901-3903 (2002).

Z. Zhu, T. G. Brown, "Full-vectorial finite-difference analysis of microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 10, 853-864 (2002).

1997 (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

D. S. Song, S. H. Kim, H. G. Park, C. K. Kim, Y. H. Lee, "Single-fundamental-mode photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3901-3903 (2002).

D. S. Song, Y. J. Lee, H. W. Choi, Y. H. Lee, "Polarization-controlled, single-transverse-mode, photonic-crystal, vertical-cavity, surface-emitting lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3182-3184 (2003).

A. J. Danner, J. J. Raftery, Jr.N. Yokouchi, K. D. Choquette, "Transverse modes of photonic crystal vertical-cavity lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1031-1033 (2004).

N. Yokouchi, A. J. Danner, K. D. Choquette, "Etching depth dependence of the effective refractive index in two-dimensional photonic-crystal-patterned vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1344-1346 (2003).

Electron. Lett. (2)

A. J. Danner, T. S. Kim, K. D. Choquette, "Single fundamental mode photonic crystal vertical cavity laser with improved output power," Electron. Lett. 41, 325-326 (2005).

H. P. D. Yang, F. I. Lai, Y. H. Chang, H. C. Yu, C. P. Sung, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, S. Y. Lin, J. Y. Chi, "Singlemode (${\rm SMSR} > 40$ dB) proton-implanted photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers," Electron. Lett. 41, 326-328 (2005).

IECE Trans. Electron. (1)

A. J. Danner, J. J. Raftery, Jr.T. Kim, P. O. Leisher, A. V. Giannopoulos, K. D. Choquette, "Progress in photonic crystal vertical cavity lasers," IECE Trans. Electron. 88c, 944-950 (2005).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. F. Siriani, P. O. Leisher, K. D. Choquette, "Loss-induced confinement in photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 762-768 (2009).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (3)

N. Yokouchi, A. J. Danner, K. D. Choquette, "Two-dimensional photonic crystal confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 1439-1445 (2003).

A. M. Kasten, J. D. Sulkin, P. O. Leisher, D. K. McAlfresh, D. Vacar, K. D. Choquette, "Manufacturable photonic crystal single-mode and fluidic vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 14, 1123-1131 (2008).

D. F. Siriani, M. P. Tan, A. M. Kasten, A. C. Lehman, P. O. Leisher, J. D. Sulkin, J. J. Raftery, Jr.A. J. Danner, A. V. Giannopoulos, K. D. Choquette, "Mode control in photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and coherent arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 909-917 (2009).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

A. M. Kasten, M. P. Tan, J. D. Sulkin, P. O. Leisher, K. D. Choquette, "Photonic crystal vertical cavity lasers with wavelength-independent single-mode behavior," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2010-2012 (2008).

P. O. Leisher, A. J. Danner, K. D. Choquette, "Single-mode 1.3-micron photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 2156-2158 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

T. Czyszanowski, M. Dems, K. Panajotov, "Optimal parameters of photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting diode lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 2331-2336 (2007).

H. P. D. Yang, I. C. Hsu, Y. H. Chang, F. I. Lai, H. C. Yu, G. Lin, R. S. Hsiao, N. A. Maleev, S. A. Blokhin, H. C. Kuo, J. Y. Chi, "Characteristics of InGaAs submonolayer quantum-dot and InAs quantum-dot photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 1387-1395 (2008).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B (1)

P. S. Ivanov, M. Dragas, M. Cryan, J. M. Rorison, "Theoretical investigation of transverse optical modes in photonic-crystal waveguides imbedded into proton-implanted and oxide-confined vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 22, 2270-2276 (2005).

Opt. Exp. (4)

J. H. Baek, D. S. Song, I. K. Hwang, K. H. Lee, Y. H. Lee, Y. Ju, T. Kondo, T. Miyamoto, F. Koyama, "Transverse mode control by etch-depth tuning in 1120-nm GaInAs/GaAs photonic crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Exp. 12, 859-867 (2004).

T. Czyszanowski, M. Dems, K. Panajotov, "Single mode condition and modes discrimination in photonic-crystal 1.3 $\mu$m AlInGaAs/InP VCSEL," Opt. Exp. 15, 5604-5609 (2007).

Z. Zhu, T. G. Brown, "Full-vectorial finite-difference analysis of microstructured optical fibers," Opt. Exp. 10, 853-864 (2002).

K. H. Lee, J. H. Baek, I. K. Hwang, Y. H. Lee, G. H. Lee, J. H. Ser, H. D. Kim, H. E. Shin, "Square-lattice photonic-crystal vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Opt. Exp. 12, 4136-4143 (2004).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) (1)

T. Czyszanowski, R. P. Sarzala, M. Dems, H. Thienpont, W. Nakwaski, "Strong modes discrimination and low threshold in cw regime of 1300 nm AlInGaAs/InP VCSEL induced by photonic crystal," Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 206, 1396-1403 (2009).

Other (2)

Lumerical MODE Solutions™ http://www.lumerical.com/mode.php.

Lumerical FDTD Solutions™ http://www.lumerical.com/fdtd.php.

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