Abstract

Polarization division multiplexing (PDM) has been proposed as a scheme for increasing data rates in fiber optic communication systems. In the PDM scheme, the use of two orthogonal polarizations as alternative data paths is a promising approach in terms of doubling the information rate relative to conventional schemes. However, due to the severe distortion caused by the propagation medium, especially the Polarization mode dispersion (PMD), the development of receiver compensation methods are critical for the deployment of PDM based transceivers. This article proposes a receiver compensation method for high symbol rate fiber optic communication links, where the two data streams sent through orthogonal polarizations are mixed by the fiber channel not only in space but also in time. The proposed receiver algorithm adaptively recovers the original pair of data streams from their space-time mixtures. We also provide simulation results for an end-to-end fiber communication link to illustrate the performance of the proposed approach.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. C. D. Poole, R. E. Wagner, "Phenomenological approach to polarization dispersion in long single mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 22, 1029-1030 (1986).
  2. A. O. Lima, I. T. Lima, T. Adali, C. R. Menyuk, "A novel polarization diversity receiver for PMD mitigation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 465-467 (2002).
  3. Y. Mochida, N. Yamaguchi, G. Ishikawa, "Technology-oriented review and vision of 40-gb/s-based optical transport networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 2272-2281 (2002).
  4. J. P. Gordon, H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers," PNAS 97, 4541-4550 (2000).
  5. A. Demir, A. T. Erdogan, "Emulation and inversion of polariation mode dispersion: A lossless system and reduced-order modeling perspective," J. Lightw.Technol. 26, 3071-3089 (2008).
  6. C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, E. Burrows, "Simple multichannel optical equalizer mitigating intersymbol interference for 40-gb/s nonreturn-to-zero signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 249-257 (2004).
  7. T. Hirooka, M. Nakazawa, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, "A new adaptive equalization scheme for a 160-gb/s transmitted signal using time-domain optical Fourier transformation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2371-2373 (2004).
  8. T. Hirooka, M. Nakazawa, "Optical adaptive equalization of highspeed signals using time-domain optical Fourier transformation," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2530-2540 (2006).
  9. F. Buchali, H. Bulow, "Adaptive PMD compensation by electrical and optical techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1116-1126 (2004).
  10. M. Bohn, W. Rosenkranz, P. M. Krummrich, "Adaptive distortion compensation with integrated optical finite impulse response filters in high bitrate optical communication systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 273-280 (2004).
  11. M. Secondini, E. Forestieri, G. Prati, "Plc optical equalizer for chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion compensation based on mse control," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1173-1175 (2004).
  12. A. J. Weiss, "On the performance of electrical equalization in optical fiber transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1225-1227 (2003).
  13. V. Curri, R. Gaudino, A. Napoli, P. Poggiolini, "Electronic equalization for advanced modulation formats in dispersion-limited systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2556-2558 (2004).
  14. O. E. Agazzi, M. R. Hueda, H. S. Carrer, D. E. Crivelli, "Maximumlikelihood sequence estimation in dispersive optical channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 749-763 (2005).
  15. J. Winters, R. Gitlin, "Electrical signal processing techniques in longhaul fiber-optic systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 1439-1453 (1990).
  16. H. F. Haunstein, W. Sauer-Greff, A. Dittrich, K. Sticht, R. Urbansky, "Principles for electronic equalization of polarization-mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1169-1182 (2004).
  17. H. Wu, J. A. Tierno, P. Pepeljugoski, J. Schaub, S. Gowda, J. A. Kash, A. Hajimiri, "Integrated transversal equalizers in high-speed fiberoptic systems," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 38, 2131-2137 (2003).
  18. P. M. Watts, V. Mikhailov, S. Savory, P. Bayvel, M. Glick, M. Lobel, B. C. an Peter Kirkpatrick, S. Shang, R. I. Killey, "Performance of single-mode fiber links using electronic feed-forward and decision feedback equalizers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2206-2208 (2005).
  19. F. F. Dai, S. Wei, R. Jaeger, "Integrated blind electronic equalizer for fiber dispersion compensation," Proc. ISCAS 2005 (2005) pp. 5750-5753.
  20. A. T. Erdogan, A. Demir, T. M. Oktem, "Automatic PMD compensation by unsupervised polarization diversity combining coherent receivers," J. Lightw.Technol. 26, 1823-1834 (2008).
  21. A. Chraplyvy, A. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, A. McCormick, "1-Tb/s transmission experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264-1266 (1996).
  22. M. I. Hayee, M. C. Cardakli, A. Sahin, A. E. Willner, "Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizationss and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 881-883 (2001).
  23. M. T. Core, "Cross polarization interference cancellation for fiber optic systems," J. Lightw.Technol. 24, 305-312 (2006).
  24. S. G. Evangelides, L. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, N. S. Bergano, "Polarization multiplexing with solitons," J. Lightw.Technol. 10, 28-35 (1992).
  25. X. S. Yao, L.-S. Yan, B. Zhang, A. Willner, J. Jiang, "All-optic scheme for automatic polarization division multiplexing," Opt. Exp. 15, 7407-7414 (2007).
  26. D. S. R. Noe, S. Hinz, F. Wust, "Crosstalk detection schemes for polarization division multiplex transmission," J. Lightw.Technol. 19, 1469-1475 (2001).
  27. Y. Han, G. Li, "Experimental demonstration of direct-detection quaternary differential polarisation-phase-shift keying with electrical multilevel decision," Electron. Lett. 42, 109-111 (2006).
  28. N. Kaneda, A. Leven, "Coherent polarization-division-multiplexed qpsk receiver with fractionally spaced cma for PMD compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 203-205 (2009).
  29. S. Boehm, K. Schumacher, D. Goelz, P. Meissner, "PMD compensation with coherent reception and digital signal processing," Proc. CLEO 2007 (2007) pp. 1-2.
  30. C. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, K. Giok-Djan, H. de Waardt, "Coherent equalization and polmux-rz-dqpsk for robust 100-ge transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 64-72 (2008).
  31. S. Savory, G. Gavioli, R. Killey, P. Bayvel, "Transmission of 42.8 gbit/s polarization multiplexed nrz-qpsk over 6400 km of standard fiber with no optical dispersion compensation," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2007) pp. 1-3.
  32. C. Laperle, B. Villeneuve, Z. Zhang, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. O'Sullivan, "Wdm performance and PMD tolerance of a coherent 40-gbit/s dual-polarization qpsk transceiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 168-175 (2008).
  33. T. M. Oktem, A. T. Erdogan, A. Demir, "Adaptive receiver structures for fiber communication systems employing polarization division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5394-5404 (2009).
  34. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley-Interscience, 2002).
  35. D. E. Crivelli, H. S. Carrer, M. R. Hueda, "Adaptive digital equalization in the presence of chromatic dispersion, PMD, and phase noise in coherent fiber optic systems," Proc. IEEE Commun. Soc. Globecom 2545-2551 (2004).
  36. A. T. Erdogan, "An adaptive paraunitary approach for blind equalization of all equalizable mimo channels," Proc. ICASSP 5, 785-788 (2006).
  37. W. Weiershausen, R. Leppla, F. Kuppers, H. Scholl, "Polarization-mode dispersion in fibre transmission: Theoretical approach, impact on systems, and suppression of signal-degradation effects," Proc. ECOC99 (1999) pp. 130-132.
  38. T. Merker, N. Hahnenkamp, P. Meissner, "Comparison of PMD compensation techniques at 10 gbit/s using an optical first-order compensator and electrical tranversal filter," Opt. Commun. 135-141 (2000).
  39. H. Sunnerud, C. Xie, M. Karlsson, R. Samuelsson, P. A. Andrekson, "A comparison between different PMD compensation techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 368-378 (2002).
  40. D. Marcuse, C. Menyuk, P. K. A. Wai, "Application of the manakov PMD equation to studies of signal propagation in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1735-1746 (1997).
  41. G. D. Van Wiggeren, R. Roy, "Transmission of linearly polarized light through a single-mode fiber with random fluctuations of birefringence," Appl. Opt. 38, 3888-3892 (1999).
  42. P. P. Vaidyanathan, Multirate Systems and Filter Banks (Prentice Hall, 1993).
  43. A. T. Erdogan, "A simple geometric blind source separation method for bounded magnitude sources," IEEE Trans. Signal Processing 54, 438-449 (2006).
  44. A. Hyvärinen, J. Karhunen, E. Oja, Independent Component Analysis (Wiley, 2001).
  45. Y. Inouye, R.-W. Liu, "A system-theoretic foundation for blind equalization of an FIR MIMO channel system," IEEE Trans. Circuits System. I, Fundam. Theory Appl. 49, 425-436 (2002).
  46. T. Kailath, Linear Systems (Prentice Hall, 1980).
  47. P. P. Vaidyanathan, Z. Doganata, "The role of lossless systems in modern digital signal processing: A tutorial," IEEE Trans. Educat. 32, 181-197 (1989).

2009

N. Kaneda, A. Leven, "Coherent polarization-division-multiplexed qpsk receiver with fractionally spaced cma for PMD compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 203-205 (2009).

T. M. Oktem, A. T. Erdogan, A. Demir, "Adaptive receiver structures for fiber communication systems employing polarization division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5394-5404 (2009).

2008

C. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, K. Giok-Djan, H. de Waardt, "Coherent equalization and polmux-rz-dqpsk for robust 100-ge transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 64-72 (2008).

C. Laperle, B. Villeneuve, Z. Zhang, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. O'Sullivan, "Wdm performance and PMD tolerance of a coherent 40-gbit/s dual-polarization qpsk transceiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 168-175 (2008).

A. Demir, A. T. Erdogan, "Emulation and inversion of polariation mode dispersion: A lossless system and reduced-order modeling perspective," J. Lightw.Technol. 26, 3071-3089 (2008).

A. T. Erdogan, A. Demir, T. M. Oktem, "Automatic PMD compensation by unsupervised polarization diversity combining coherent receivers," J. Lightw.Technol. 26, 1823-1834 (2008).

2007

X. S. Yao, L.-S. Yan, B. Zhang, A. Willner, J. Jiang, "All-optic scheme for automatic polarization division multiplexing," Opt. Exp. 15, 7407-7414 (2007).

2006

M. T. Core, "Cross polarization interference cancellation for fiber optic systems," J. Lightw.Technol. 24, 305-312 (2006).

A. T. Erdogan, "An adaptive paraunitary approach for blind equalization of all equalizable mimo channels," Proc. ICASSP 5, 785-788 (2006).

Y. Han, G. Li, "Experimental demonstration of direct-detection quaternary differential polarisation-phase-shift keying with electrical multilevel decision," Electron. Lett. 42, 109-111 (2006).

T. Hirooka, M. Nakazawa, "Optical adaptive equalization of highspeed signals using time-domain optical Fourier transformation," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2530-2540 (2006).

A. T. Erdogan, "A simple geometric blind source separation method for bounded magnitude sources," IEEE Trans. Signal Processing 54, 438-449 (2006).

2005

O. E. Agazzi, M. R. Hueda, H. S. Carrer, D. E. Crivelli, "Maximumlikelihood sequence estimation in dispersive optical channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 749-763 (2005).

P. M. Watts, V. Mikhailov, S. Savory, P. Bayvel, M. Glick, M. Lobel, B. C. an Peter Kirkpatrick, S. Shang, R. I. Killey, "Performance of single-mode fiber links using electronic feed-forward and decision feedback equalizers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2206-2208 (2005).

2004

D. E. Crivelli, H. S. Carrer, M. R. Hueda, "Adaptive digital equalization in the presence of chromatic dispersion, PMD, and phase noise in coherent fiber optic systems," Proc. IEEE Commun. Soc. Globecom 2545-2551 (2004).

V. Curri, R. Gaudino, A. Napoli, P. Poggiolini, "Electronic equalization for advanced modulation formats in dispersion-limited systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2556-2558 (2004).

H. F. Haunstein, W. Sauer-Greff, A. Dittrich, K. Sticht, R. Urbansky, "Principles for electronic equalization of polarization-mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1169-1182 (2004).

F. Buchali, H. Bulow, "Adaptive PMD compensation by electrical and optical techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1116-1126 (2004).

M. Bohn, W. Rosenkranz, P. M. Krummrich, "Adaptive distortion compensation with integrated optical finite impulse response filters in high bitrate optical communication systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 273-280 (2004).

M. Secondini, E. Forestieri, G. Prati, "Plc optical equalizer for chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion compensation based on mse control," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1173-1175 (2004).

C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, E. Burrows, "Simple multichannel optical equalizer mitigating intersymbol interference for 40-gb/s nonreturn-to-zero signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 249-257 (2004).

T. Hirooka, M. Nakazawa, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, "A new adaptive equalization scheme for a 160-gb/s transmitted signal using time-domain optical Fourier transformation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2371-2373 (2004).

2003

A. J. Weiss, "On the performance of electrical equalization in optical fiber transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1225-1227 (2003).

H. Wu, J. A. Tierno, P. Pepeljugoski, J. Schaub, S. Gowda, J. A. Kash, A. Hajimiri, "Integrated transversal equalizers in high-speed fiberoptic systems," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 38, 2131-2137 (2003).

2002

A. O. Lima, I. T. Lima, T. Adali, C. R. Menyuk, "A novel polarization diversity receiver for PMD mitigation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 465-467 (2002).

Y. Mochida, N. Yamaguchi, G. Ishikawa, "Technology-oriented review and vision of 40-gb/s-based optical transport networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 2272-2281 (2002).

H. Sunnerud, C. Xie, M. Karlsson, R. Samuelsson, P. A. Andrekson, "A comparison between different PMD compensation techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 368-378 (2002).

Y. Inouye, R.-W. Liu, "A system-theoretic foundation for blind equalization of an FIR MIMO channel system," IEEE Trans. Circuits System. I, Fundam. Theory Appl. 49, 425-436 (2002).

2001

M. I. Hayee, M. C. Cardakli, A. Sahin, A. E. Willner, "Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizationss and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 881-883 (2001).

D. S. R. Noe, S. Hinz, F. Wust, "Crosstalk detection schemes for polarization division multiplex transmission," J. Lightw.Technol. 19, 1469-1475 (2001).

2000

T. Merker, N. Hahnenkamp, P. Meissner, "Comparison of PMD compensation techniques at 10 gbit/s using an optical first-order compensator and electrical tranversal filter," Opt. Commun. 135-141 (2000).

J. P. Gordon, H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers," PNAS 97, 4541-4550 (2000).

1999

1997

D. Marcuse, C. Menyuk, P. K. A. Wai, "Application of the manakov PMD equation to studies of signal propagation in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1735-1746 (1997).

1996

A. Chraplyvy, A. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, A. McCormick, "1-Tb/s transmission experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264-1266 (1996).

1992

S. G. Evangelides, L. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, N. S. Bergano, "Polarization multiplexing with solitons," J. Lightw.Technol. 10, 28-35 (1992).

1990

J. Winters, R. Gitlin, "Electrical signal processing techniques in longhaul fiber-optic systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 1439-1453 (1990).

1989

P. P. Vaidyanathan, Z. Doganata, "The role of lossless systems in modern digital signal processing: A tutorial," IEEE Trans. Educat. 32, 181-197 (1989).

1986

C. D. Poole, R. E. Wagner, "Phenomenological approach to polarization dispersion in long single mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 22, 1029-1030 (1986).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

N. Kaneda, A. Leven, "Coherent polarization-division-multiplexed qpsk receiver with fractionally spaced cma for PMD compensation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 203-205 (2009).

Appl. Opt.

Electron. Lett.

Y. Han, G. Li, "Experimental demonstration of direct-detection quaternary differential polarisation-phase-shift keying with electrical multilevel decision," Electron. Lett. 42, 109-111 (2006).

C. D. Poole, R. E. Wagner, "Phenomenological approach to polarization dispersion in long single mode fibers," Electron. Lett. 22, 1029-1030 (1986).

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

M. Bohn, W. Rosenkranz, P. M. Krummrich, "Adaptive distortion compensation with integrated optical finite impulse response filters in high bitrate optical communication systems," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 10, 273-280 (2004).

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits

H. Wu, J. A. Tierno, P. Pepeljugoski, J. Schaub, S. Gowda, J. A. Kash, A. Hajimiri, "Integrated transversal equalizers in high-speed fiberoptic systems," IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 38, 2131-2137 (2003).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

P. M. Watts, V. Mikhailov, S. Savory, P. Bayvel, M. Glick, M. Lobel, B. C. an Peter Kirkpatrick, S. Shang, R. I. Killey, "Performance of single-mode fiber links using electronic feed-forward and decision feedback equalizers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2206-2208 (2005).

M. Secondini, E. Forestieri, G. Prati, "Plc optical equalizer for chromatic and polarization-mode dispersion compensation based on mse control," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1173-1175 (2004).

A. J. Weiss, "On the performance of electrical equalization in optical fiber transmission systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 1225-1227 (2003).

V. Curri, R. Gaudino, A. Napoli, P. Poggiolini, "Electronic equalization for advanced modulation formats in dispersion-limited systems," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2556-2558 (2004).

A. O. Lima, I. T. Lima, T. Adali, C. R. Menyuk, "A novel polarization diversity receiver for PMD mitigation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 465-467 (2002).

T. Hirooka, M. Nakazawa, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, "A new adaptive equalization scheme for a 160-gb/s transmitted signal using time-domain optical Fourier transformation," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2371-2373 (2004).

A. Chraplyvy, A. Gnauck, R. W. Tkach, J. L. Zyskind, J. W. Sulhoff, A. J. Lucero, Y. Sun, R. M. Jopson, F. Forghieri, R. M. Derosier, C. Wolf, A. McCormick, "1-Tb/s transmission experiment," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1264-1266 (1996).

M. I. Hayee, M. C. Cardakli, A. Sahin, A. E. Willner, "Doubling of bandwidth utilization using two orthogonal polarizationss and power unbalancing in a polarization-division-multiplexing scheme," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 881-883 (2001).

IEEE Trans. Circuits System. I, Fundam. Theory Appl.

Y. Inouye, R.-W. Liu, "A system-theoretic foundation for blind equalization of an FIR MIMO channel system," IEEE Trans. Circuits System. I, Fundam. Theory Appl. 49, 425-436 (2002).

IEEE Trans. Commun.

J. Winters, R. Gitlin, "Electrical signal processing techniques in longhaul fiber-optic systems," IEEE Trans. Commun. 38, 1439-1453 (1990).

IEEE Trans. Educat.

P. P. Vaidyanathan, Z. Doganata, "The role of lossless systems in modern digital signal processing: A tutorial," IEEE Trans. Educat. 32, 181-197 (1989).

IEEE Trans. Signal Processing

A. T. Erdogan, "A simple geometric blind source separation method for bounded magnitude sources," IEEE Trans. Signal Processing 54, 438-449 (2006).

J. Lightw. Technol.

H. Sunnerud, C. Xie, M. Karlsson, R. Samuelsson, P. A. Andrekson, "A comparison between different PMD compensation techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 368-378 (2002).

D. Marcuse, C. Menyuk, P. K. A. Wai, "Application of the manakov PMD equation to studies of signal propagation in optical fibers with randomly varying birefringence," J. Lightw. Technol. 15, 1735-1746 (1997).

H. F. Haunstein, W. Sauer-Greff, A. Dittrich, K. Sticht, R. Urbansky, "Principles for electronic equalization of polarization-mode dispersion," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1169-1182 (2004).

O. E. Agazzi, M. R. Hueda, H. S. Carrer, D. E. Crivelli, "Maximumlikelihood sequence estimation in dispersive optical channels," J. Lightw. Technol. 23, 749-763 (2005).

T. Hirooka, M. Nakazawa, "Optical adaptive equalization of highspeed signals using time-domain optical Fourier transformation," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 2530-2540 (2006).

F. Buchali, H. Bulow, "Adaptive PMD compensation by electrical and optical techniques," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 1116-1126 (2004).

C. R. Doerr, S. Chandrasekhar, P. J. Winzer, A. R. Chraplyvy, A. H. Gnauck, L. W. Stulz, R. Pafchek, E. Burrows, "Simple multichannel optical equalizer mitigating intersymbol interference for 40-gb/s nonreturn-to-zero signals," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 249-257 (2004).

Y. Mochida, N. Yamaguchi, G. Ishikawa, "Technology-oriented review and vision of 40-gb/s-based optical transport networks," J. Lightw. Technol. 20, 2272-2281 (2002).

C. Fludger, T. Duthel, D. van den Borne, C. Schulien, E.-D. Schmidt, T. Wuth, J. Geyer, E. De Man, K. Giok-Djan, H. de Waardt, "Coherent equalization and polmux-rz-dqpsk for robust 100-ge transmission," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 64-72 (2008).

C. Laperle, B. Villeneuve, Z. Zhang, D. McGhan, H. Sun, M. O'Sullivan, "Wdm performance and PMD tolerance of a coherent 40-gbit/s dual-polarization qpsk transceiver," J. Lightw. Technol. 26, 168-175 (2008).

T. M. Oktem, A. T. Erdogan, A. Demir, "Adaptive receiver structures for fiber communication systems employing polarization division multiplexing," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 5394-5404 (2009).

J. Lightw.Technol.

M. T. Core, "Cross polarization interference cancellation for fiber optic systems," J. Lightw.Technol. 24, 305-312 (2006).

S. G. Evangelides, L. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, N. S. Bergano, "Polarization multiplexing with solitons," J. Lightw.Technol. 10, 28-35 (1992).

A. T. Erdogan, A. Demir, T. M. Oktem, "Automatic PMD compensation by unsupervised polarization diversity combining coherent receivers," J. Lightw.Technol. 26, 1823-1834 (2008).

D. S. R. Noe, S. Hinz, F. Wust, "Crosstalk detection schemes for polarization division multiplex transmission," J. Lightw.Technol. 19, 1469-1475 (2001).

A. Demir, A. T. Erdogan, "Emulation and inversion of polariation mode dispersion: A lossless system and reduced-order modeling perspective," J. Lightw.Technol. 26, 3071-3089 (2008).

Opt. Commun.

T. Merker, N. Hahnenkamp, P. Meissner, "Comparison of PMD compensation techniques at 10 gbit/s using an optical first-order compensator and electrical tranversal filter," Opt. Commun. 135-141 (2000).

Opt. Exp.

X. S. Yao, L.-S. Yan, B. Zhang, A. Willner, J. Jiang, "All-optic scheme for automatic polarization division multiplexing," Opt. Exp. 15, 7407-7414 (2007).

PNAS

J. P. Gordon, H. Kogelnik, "PMD fundamentals: Polarization mode dispersion in optical fibers," PNAS 97, 4541-4550 (2000).

Proc. ICASSP

A. T. Erdogan, "An adaptive paraunitary approach for blind equalization of all equalizable mimo channels," Proc. ICASSP 5, 785-788 (2006).

Proc. IEEE Commun. Soc. Globecom

D. E. Crivelli, H. S. Carrer, M. R. Hueda, "Adaptive digital equalization in the presence of chromatic dispersion, PMD, and phase noise in coherent fiber optic systems," Proc. IEEE Commun. Soc. Globecom 2545-2551 (2004).

Other

W. Weiershausen, R. Leppla, F. Kuppers, H. Scholl, "Polarization-mode dispersion in fibre transmission: Theoretical approach, impact on systems, and suppression of signal-degradation effects," Proc. ECOC99 (1999) pp. 130-132.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley-Interscience, 2002).

S. Savory, G. Gavioli, R. Killey, P. Bayvel, "Transmission of 42.8 gbit/s polarization multiplexed nrz-qpsk over 6400 km of standard fiber with no optical dispersion compensation," Proc. OFC/NFOEC (2007) pp. 1-3.

S. Boehm, K. Schumacher, D. Goelz, P. Meissner, "PMD compensation with coherent reception and digital signal processing," Proc. CLEO 2007 (2007) pp. 1-2.

F. F. Dai, S. Wei, R. Jaeger, "Integrated blind electronic equalizer for fiber dispersion compensation," Proc. ISCAS 2005 (2005) pp. 5750-5753.

P. P. Vaidyanathan, Multirate Systems and Filter Banks (Prentice Hall, 1993).

A. Hyvärinen, J. Karhunen, E. Oja, Independent Component Analysis (Wiley, 2001).

T. Kailath, Linear Systems (Prentice Hall, 1980).

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