Abstract

High-temperature annealing behaviors of long-period fiber grating (LPFG) induced by high-frequency CO$_{2}$ laser pulse in an endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber (ESM-PCF) are investigated in this paper. We find that the change difference of effective refractive index between the air holes cladding and the solid core of the ESM-PCF both in grating fabricating and in annealing processes with different mechanisms would cause resonant wavelength red shift. Through annealing the gratings under high temperature at 600 $^{\circ}$C–650 $^{\circ}$C, its stability, linearity, and repeatability to temperature and tensile strain responses under high temperature condition can be greatly enhanced. Our study shows that the changes in fiber glass structure would have significant influence on the optical properties of ESM-PCF LPFG and thus will help understanding of the forming mechanisms and physical characteristics of ESM-PCF LPFG. In addition, ESM-PCF LPFGs can be used as temperature or strain sensors after annealing at high temperature of 600 $^{\circ}$C–650 $^{\circ}$C.

© 2010 IEEE

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2009

H. Lee, K. Chiang, "CO$_{2}$ laser writing of long-period fiber grating in photonic crystal fiber under tension," Opt. Exp. 17, 4533-4539 (2009).

Y. Liu, H. W. Lee, K. S. Chiang, T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, "Glass structure changes in CO$_{2}$ laser writing of long-period gratings in boron-doped single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 857-863 (2009).

2008

Y. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. Xiao, D. Wang, "Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 6, 2784-2790 (2008).

D. Nodop, S. Linke, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Long period gratings written in large-mode area photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B: Laser Opt. 92, 509-512 (2008).

Y. Zhu, Z. He, H. Du, "Detection of external refractive index change with high sensitivity using long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber," Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 131, 265-269 (2008).

L. Rindorf, O. Bang, "Sensitivity of photonic crystal fiber grating sensors: Biosensing, refractive index, strain, and temperature sensing," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 25, 310-324 (2008).

L. Rindorf, O. Bang, "Highly sensitive refractometer with a photonic-crystal-fiber long-period grating," Opt. Lett. 33, 563-565 (2008).

2007

C. Zhao, M. Demokana, W. Jin, L. Xiao, "A cheap and practical FBG temperature sensor utilizing a long-period grating in a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 276, 242-245 (2007).

2006

X. Cheng, J. Xu, "Thermal and thermal-optical effects in high-power photonic crystal fiber lasers," Opt. Eng. 45, 124204-1-124204-5 (2006).

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Hoiby, O. Bang, "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Exp. 14, 8224-8231 (2006).

P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).

Y. Wang, L. Xiao, D. Wang, W. Jin, "Highly sensitive long-period fiber-grating strain sensor with low temperature sensitivity," Opt. Lett. 31, 3414-3416 (2006).

2005

2004

K. Morishita, Y. Miyake, "Fabrication and resonance wavelengths of long period grating written in a pure silica photonic crystal fiber by the glass structure change," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 625-630 (2004).

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, M. E. Lines, "Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19-21 (2004).

Y. J. Rao, T. Zhu, Z. L. Ran, Y. P. Wang, J. Jiang, A. Z. Hu, "Novel long-period fibre gratings written by high-frequency CO$_{2}$ laser pulses and applications in optical fibre communication," Opti. Commun. 229, 209-221 (2004).

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, "Characterizations at high temperatures of long-period gratings written in germanium-free air silica microstructure fiber," Opt. Lett. 29, 38-40 (2004).

2003

Y. Rao, Y. Wang, Z. Ran, T. Zhu, "Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO$_2$ laser pulses," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1320-1325 (2003).

2000

A. H. Rose, "Annealing optical fiber: Applications and properties," Amer. Ceramic Soc. Bull. 79, 40-43 (2000).

1997

1996

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).

Amer. Ceramic Soc. Bull.

A. H. Rose, "Annealing optical fiber: Applications and properties," Amer. Ceramic Soc. Bull. 79, 40-43 (2000).

Appl. Phys. B: Laser Opt.

D. Nodop, S. Linke, F. Jansen, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, "Long period gratings written in large-mode area photonic crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B: Laser Opt. 92, 509-512 (2008).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. D. Yablon, M. F. Yan, P. Wisk, F. V. DiMarcello, J. W. Fleming, W. A. Reed, E. M. Monberg, D. J. DiGiovanni, J. Jasapara, M. E. Lines, "Refractive index perturbations in optical fibers resulting from frozen-in viscoelasticity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 19-21 (2004).

J. Lightw. Technol.

K. Morishita, Y. Miyake, "Fabrication and resonance wavelengths of long period grating written in a pure silica photonic crystal fiber by the glass structure change," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 625-630 (2004).

P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, J. E. Sipe, "Long-period fiber gratings as band-rejection filters," J. Lightw. Technol. 14, 58-65 (1996).

Y. Rao, Y. Wang, Z. Ran, T. Zhu, "Novel fiber-optic sensors based on long-period fiber gratings written by high-frequency CO$_2$ laser pulses," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 1320-1325 (2003).

Y. Liu, H. W. Lee, K. S. Chiang, T. Zhu, Y. J. Rao, "Glass structure changes in CO$_{2}$ laser writing of long-period gratings in boron-doped single-mode fibers," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 857-863 (2009).

J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B

L. Rindorf, O. Bang, "Sensitivity of photonic crystal fiber grating sensors: Biosensing, refractive index, strain, and temperature sensing," J. Opt. Soc. Amer. B 25, 310-324 (2008).

Opt. Commun.

C. Zhao, M. Demokana, W. Jin, L. Xiao, "A cheap and practical FBG temperature sensor utilizing a long-period grating in a photonic crystal fiber," Opt. Commun. 276, 242-245 (2007).

Opt. Eng.

X. Cheng, J. Xu, "Thermal and thermal-optical effects in high-power photonic crystal fiber lasers," Opt. Eng. 45, 124204-1-124204-5 (2006).

Opt. Exp.

Y. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. Xiao, D. Wang, "Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Exp. 6, 2784-2790 (2008).

H. Lee, K. Chiang, "CO$_{2}$ laser writing of long-period fiber grating in photonic crystal fiber under tension," Opt. Exp. 17, 4533-4539 (2009).

L. Rindorf, J. B. Jensen, M. Dufva, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Hoiby, O. Bang, "Photonic crystal fiber long-period gratings for biochemical sensing," Opt. Exp. 14, 8224-8231 (2006).

Opt. Lett.

Opti. Commun.

Y. J. Rao, T. Zhu, Z. L. Ran, Y. P. Wang, J. Jiang, A. Z. Hu, "Novel long-period fibre gratings written by high-frequency CO$_{2}$ laser pulses and applications in optical fibre communication," Opti. Commun. 229, 209-221 (2004).

Sens. Actuators B: Chem.

Y. Zhu, Z. He, H. Du, "Detection of external refractive index change with high sensitivity using long-period gratings in photonic crystal fiber," Sens. Actuators B: Chem. 131, 265-269 (2008).

Other

A. K. Varshneya, Fundamentals of Inorganic Glasses (Academic, 1994).

A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements (Butterworth-Heineman, 1998).

T. W. Swaddle, Inorganic Chemistry: An Industrial and Environmental Perspective (Academic, 1997).

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