Abstract

In this paper, the authors investigate analytically the transformation from the initial guided mode distribution to the stationary state and the effects of the bidimensional roughness profile, in multimode polymeric buried waveguides. In these structures, due to the geometrical dimensions and the operating wavelength, about a thousands of guided modes can propagate, even for weak core/cladding dielectric contrast. The coupling coefficients are computed by exploiting the geometrical features of the optical channels, such as the waveguide dimensions and the roughness surface statistics. The analysis gives insight on the guided/guided and guided/radiated mode interaction, and higher order solution is proposed, in the case of a great number of modes interacting over distances that are extremely long as compared to the signal wavelength and the roughness correlation length. Experimental results are valuated by means of semicontact atomic force microscopy as well as compared with existing numerical models.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. K. B. Yoon, C. In-Kui, A. Seung-Ho, "10-Gb/s data transmission experiments over polymeric waveguides with 850-nm wavelength multimode VCSEL array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2147-2149 (2004).
  2. C. H. Seo, R. B. Sup, K. Saekyoung, C. Mu Hee, P. Hyo-Hoon, S. Kyoung-Up, H. Sang-Won, R. Byoung-Ho, K. Dong-Su, J. S. Tea, K. Taeil, "Demonstration of 2.5 Gb/s optical interconnection using 45/spl deg/-ended connection blocks in fiber- and waveguide-embedded PCBs," Proc. 54th Conf. Electron. Compon. Technol. (2004) pp. 1547-1551.
  3. C. Choi, L. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Choi, L. Wang, D. Haas, J. Magera, R. T. Chen, "Flexible optical waveguide film fabrications and optoelectronic devices integration for fully embedded board-level optical interconnects," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2168-2176 (2004).
  4. J. V. DeGroot, S. O. Glover, M. J. Dyer, W. K. Bischel, "Polymeric optical interconnect for chip-to-chip communication," Technical Digest OFC/NFOEC AnaheimCA5 (2005).
  5. L. El-Hang, L. Seung Gol, O. Beom Hoan, P. Se Geun, "Optical printed circuit board (O-PCB): A new platform toward VLSI microphotonics?," Proc. Dig. LEOS Summer Top. Meetings Biophoton./Opt. Interconnects VLSI Photon./WBM Microcavities (2004) pp. 2.
  6. D. Marcuse, "Mode conversion caused by surface imperfections of a dielectric slab waveguide," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3187-3215 (1969).
  7. D. Marcuse, "Power distribution and radiation losses in multimode dielectric waveguides," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 429-454 (1972).
  8. D. W. Kim, D. M. Lim, M. H. Cho, M. Kang, H. H. Park, "Ray trace analysis in optical PCB systems using micro-optic connectors for 90$^{\circ}$ deflection of light beams," Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Adv. Commun. Technol. (2007) pp. 1402-1406.
  9. I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernández, "Transition, radiation and propagation loss in polymer multimode waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 669-679 (2007).
  10. T. Rozzi, G. Cerri, F. Chiaraluce, R. De Leo, R. F. Ormondroyd, "Finite curvature and corrugations in dielectric ridge waveguide," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-36, 68-79 (1988).
  11. C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, "Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index—contrast waveguides," IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 12, 1306-1321 (2006).
  12. E. Griese, "Modeling of highly multimode waveguides for time-domain simulation," IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 9, 433-442 (2003).
  13. D. Lenz, D. Erni, W. Bächtold, "Modal power loss coefficients for highly overmoded rectangular dielectric waveguides based on free space modes," Opt. Exp. 12, 1150-1156 (2004).
  14. D. L. Lee, Electromagnetic Principles of Integrated Optics (Wiley, 1986).
  15. T. Rozzi, M. Mongiardo, Open Electromagnetic Waveguides (Electromagnetic Wave Series) (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1997).
  16. E. S. Ventsel, Teoria Delle Probabilità (Mir, 1983).
  17. V. I. Smirnov, A Course of Higher Mathematics (Pergamon/Oxford, 1964).
  18. T. Bierhoff, T. Bierhoff, Y. Sonmez, J. Schrage, A. Himmler, E. Griese, G. Mrozynski, "Influence of the cross-sectional shape of board-integrated optical waveguides on the propagation characteristics," Proc. IEEE Proc. (2002) pp. 47-50.
  19. K. Halbe, E. Griese, "A modal approach to model integrated optical waveguides with rough core-cladding interfaces," Proc. IEEE Workshop Signal Propag. Interconnects (2006) pp. 133-136.
  20. D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Academic, 1974).
  21. I. Papakonstantinou, R. James, D. R. Selviah, "Radiation and bound mode propagation in rectangular multimode dielectric channel waveguides with sidewall roughness," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4151-4163 (2009).

2009 (1)

I. Papakonstantinou, R. James, D. R. Selviah, "Radiation and bound mode propagation in rectangular multimode dielectric channel waveguides with sidewall roughness," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4151-4163 (2009).

2007 (1)

I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernández, "Transition, radiation and propagation loss in polymer multimode waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 669-679 (2007).

2006 (1)

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, "Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index—contrast waveguides," IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 12, 1306-1321 (2006).

2004 (3)

D. Lenz, D. Erni, W. Bächtold, "Modal power loss coefficients for highly overmoded rectangular dielectric waveguides based on free space modes," Opt. Exp. 12, 1150-1156 (2004).

K. B. Yoon, C. In-Kui, A. Seung-Ho, "10-Gb/s data transmission experiments over polymeric waveguides with 850-nm wavelength multimode VCSEL array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2147-2149 (2004).

C. Choi, L. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Choi, L. Wang, D. Haas, J. Magera, R. T. Chen, "Flexible optical waveguide film fabrications and optoelectronic devices integration for fully embedded board-level optical interconnects," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2168-2176 (2004).

2003 (1)

E. Griese, "Modeling of highly multimode waveguides for time-domain simulation," IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 9, 433-442 (2003).

1988 (1)

T. Rozzi, G. Cerri, F. Chiaraluce, R. De Leo, R. F. Ormondroyd, "Finite curvature and corrugations in dielectric ridge waveguide," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-36, 68-79 (1988).

1972 (1)

D. Marcuse, "Power distribution and radiation losses in multimode dielectric waveguides," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 429-454 (1972).

1969 (1)

D. Marcuse, "Mode conversion caused by surface imperfections of a dielectric slab waveguide," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3187-3215 (1969).

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (2)

D. Marcuse, "Mode conversion caused by surface imperfections of a dielectric slab waveguide," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3187-3215 (1969).

D. Marcuse, "Power distribution and radiation losses in multimode dielectric waveguides," Bell Syst. Tech. J. 51, 429-454 (1972).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. B. Yoon, C. In-Kui, A. Seung-Ho, "10-Gb/s data transmission experiments over polymeric waveguides with 850-nm wavelength multimode VCSEL array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2147-2149 (2004).

IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron (2)

C. G. Poulton, C. Koos, M. Fujii, A. Pfrang, T. Schimmel, J. Leuthold, W. Freude, "Radiation modes and roughness loss in high index—contrast waveguides," IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 12, 1306-1321 (2006).

E. Griese, "Modeling of highly multimode waveguides for time-domain simulation," IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 9, 433-442 (2003).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

T. Rozzi, G. Cerri, F. Chiaraluce, R. De Leo, R. F. Ormondroyd, "Finite curvature and corrugations in dielectric ridge waveguide," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-36, 68-79 (1988).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

C. Choi, L. Lin, Y. Liu, J. Choi, L. Wang, D. Haas, J. Magera, R. T. Chen, "Flexible optical waveguide film fabrications and optoelectronic devices integration for fully embedded board-level optical interconnects," J. Lightw. Technol. 22, 2168-2176 (2004).

I. Papakonstantinou, R. James, D. R. Selviah, "Radiation and bound mode propagation in rectangular multimode dielectric channel waveguides with sidewall roughness," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 4151-4163 (2009).

Opt. Exp. (2)

I. Papakonstantinou, K. Wang, D. R. Selviah, F. A. Fernández, "Transition, radiation and propagation loss in polymer multimode waveguide," Opt. Exp. 15, 669-679 (2007).

D. Lenz, D. Erni, W. Bächtold, "Modal power loss coefficients for highly overmoded rectangular dielectric waveguides based on free space modes," Opt. Exp. 12, 1150-1156 (2004).

Other (11)

D. L. Lee, Electromagnetic Principles of Integrated Optics (Wiley, 1986).

T. Rozzi, M. Mongiardo, Open Electromagnetic Waveguides (Electromagnetic Wave Series) (Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1997).

E. S. Ventsel, Teoria Delle Probabilità (Mir, 1983).

V. I. Smirnov, A Course of Higher Mathematics (Pergamon/Oxford, 1964).

T. Bierhoff, T. Bierhoff, Y. Sonmez, J. Schrage, A. Himmler, E. Griese, G. Mrozynski, "Influence of the cross-sectional shape of board-integrated optical waveguides on the propagation characteristics," Proc. IEEE Proc. (2002) pp. 47-50.

K. Halbe, E. Griese, "A modal approach to model integrated optical waveguides with rough core-cladding interfaces," Proc. IEEE Workshop Signal Propag. Interconnects (2006) pp. 133-136.

D. Marcuse, Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Academic, 1974).

D. W. Kim, D. M. Lim, M. H. Cho, M. Kang, H. H. Park, "Ray trace analysis in optical PCB systems using micro-optic connectors for 90$^{\circ}$ deflection of light beams," Proc. 9th Int. Conf. Adv. Commun. Technol. (2007) pp. 1402-1406.

J. V. DeGroot, S. O. Glover, M. J. Dyer, W. K. Bischel, "Polymeric optical interconnect for chip-to-chip communication," Technical Digest OFC/NFOEC AnaheimCA5 (2005).

L. El-Hang, L. Seung Gol, O. Beom Hoan, P. Se Geun, "Optical printed circuit board (O-PCB): A new platform toward VLSI microphotonics?," Proc. Dig. LEOS Summer Top. Meetings Biophoton./Opt. Interconnects VLSI Photon./WBM Microcavities (2004) pp. 2.

C. H. Seo, R. B. Sup, K. Saekyoung, C. Mu Hee, P. Hyo-Hoon, S. Kyoung-Up, H. Sang-Won, R. Byoung-Ho, K. Dong-Su, J. S. Tea, K. Taeil, "Demonstration of 2.5 Gb/s optical interconnection using 45/spl deg/-ended connection blocks in fiber- and waveguide-embedded PCBs," Proc. 54th Conf. Electron. Compon. Technol. (2004) pp. 1547-1551.

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