Abstract

We present an approximate step-index waveguide model for the study of lithium-niobate (LiNbO$_{3}$) electrooptic (EO) long-period waveguide grating filters. The model takes into account the non-uniform spatial distributions of the EO coefficient and the applied electric field. Using this model, we analyze in detail the effects of the grating and waveguide parameters on the performance of the filter with the objective of identifying a set of optimal design parameters for the realization of an efficient filter. Guided by the results from the analysis, we fabricated a 12-mm-long EO grating, which produced a 24-dB rejection band at a driving voltage of 49 V.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. L. Arizmendi, "Photonic applications of lithium niobate crystals," Phys. Stat. Sol. A 201, 253-283 (2004).
  2. E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maak, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).
  3. W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, K. P. Lor, "Lithium-niobate channel waveguide for the realization of long-period gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1258-1260 (2008).
  4. W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, "Electro-optic long-period waveguide gratings in lithium niobate," Opt. Exp. 16, 20409-20417 (2008).
  5. V. Rastogi, K. S. Chiang, "Long-period gratings in planar optical waveguides," Appl. Opt. 41, 6351-6355 (2002).
  6. Y. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, "Dependences of the refractive indexes on the proton concentration in H: LiNbO$_{3}$ waveguides," Tech. Phys. 44, 307-316 (1999).
  7. A. Mendez, G. de la Paliza, A. Garcia-Cabanes, J. M. Cabrera, "Comparison of the electro-optic coefficient $r(33)$ in well-defined phases of proton exchanged LiNbO$_{3}$ waveguides," Appl. Phys. B 73, 485-488 (2001).
  8. G. de la Paliza, A. Garcia-Cabanes, J. M. Cabrera, "Electro-optic behaviour of reverse proton exchanged LiNbO$_{3}$ waveguides," Phys. Stat. Sol. A—Appl. Res. 193, R7-R9 (2002).
  9. J. L. Jackel, J. J. Johnson, "Reverse exchange method for burying proton exchanged wave-guides," Electron. Lett. 27, 1360-1361 (1991).
  10. N. G. Alexopoulos, "Integrated-circuit structures on anisotropic substrates," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-33, 847-881 (1985).
  11. K. S. Chiang, "Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 385-391 (1985).
  12. K. S. Chiang, S. Y. Cheng, "A technique of applying the prism-coupler method for accurate measurement of the effective indexes of channel waveguides," Opt. Eng. 47, 034601(1)-(4) (2008).
  13. W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, "Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1529-1533 (1993).
  14. M. Lawrence, "Lithium niobate integrated optics," Rep. Prog. Phys. 56, 363-429 (1993).

2008 (3)

K. S. Chiang, S. Y. Cheng, "A technique of applying the prism-coupler method for accurate measurement of the effective indexes of channel waveguides," Opt. Eng. 47, 034601(1)-(4) (2008).

W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, K. P. Lor, "Lithium-niobate channel waveguide for the realization of long-period gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1258-1260 (2008).

W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, "Electro-optic long-period waveguide gratings in lithium niobate," Opt. Exp. 16, 20409-20417 (2008).

2004 (1)

L. Arizmendi, "Photonic applications of lithium niobate crystals," Phys. Stat. Sol. A 201, 253-283 (2004).

2002 (2)

V. Rastogi, K. S. Chiang, "Long-period gratings in planar optical waveguides," Appl. Opt. 41, 6351-6355 (2002).

G. de la Paliza, A. Garcia-Cabanes, J. M. Cabrera, "Electro-optic behaviour of reverse proton exchanged LiNbO$_{3}$ waveguides," Phys. Stat. Sol. A—Appl. Res. 193, R7-R9 (2002).

2001 (1)

A. Mendez, G. de la Paliza, A. Garcia-Cabanes, J. M. Cabrera, "Comparison of the electro-optic coefficient $r(33)$ in well-defined phases of proton exchanged LiNbO$_{3}$ waveguides," Appl. Phys. B 73, 485-488 (2001).

2000 (1)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maak, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).

1999 (1)

Y. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, "Dependences of the refractive indexes on the proton concentration in H: LiNbO$_{3}$ waveguides," Tech. Phys. 44, 307-316 (1999).

1993 (2)

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, "Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1529-1533 (1993).

M. Lawrence, "Lithium niobate integrated optics," Rep. Prog. Phys. 56, 363-429 (1993).

1991 (1)

J. L. Jackel, J. J. Johnson, "Reverse exchange method for burying proton exchanged wave-guides," Electron. Lett. 27, 1360-1361 (1991).

1985 (2)

N. G. Alexopoulos, "Integrated-circuit structures on anisotropic substrates," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-33, 847-881 (1985).

K. S. Chiang, "Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 385-391 (1985).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Mendez, G. de la Paliza, A. Garcia-Cabanes, J. M. Cabrera, "Comparison of the electro-optic coefficient $r(33)$ in well-defined phases of proton exchanged LiNbO$_{3}$ waveguides," Appl. Phys. B 73, 485-488 (2001).

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. L. Jackel, J. J. Johnson, "Reverse exchange method for burying proton exchanged wave-guides," Electron. Lett. 27, 1360-1361 (1991).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maak, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, D. E. Bossi, "A review of lithium niobate modulators for fiber-optic communications systems," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69-82 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, C. K. Chow, H. P. Chan, K. P. Lor, "Lithium-niobate channel waveguide for the realization of long-period gratings," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1258-1260 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

N. G. Alexopoulos, "Integrated-circuit structures on anisotropic substrates," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. MTT-33, 847-881 (1985).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, "Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1529-1533 (1993).

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

K. S. Chiang, "Construction of refractive-index profiles of planar dielectric waveguides from the distribution of effective indexes," J. Lightw. Technol. LT-3, 385-391 (1985).

Opt. Eng. (1)

K. S. Chiang, S. Y. Cheng, "A technique of applying the prism-coupler method for accurate measurement of the effective indexes of channel waveguides," Opt. Eng. 47, 034601(1)-(4) (2008).

Opt. Exp. (1)

W. Jin, K. S. Chiang, Q. Liu, "Electro-optic long-period waveguide gratings in lithium niobate," Opt. Exp. 16, 20409-20417 (2008).

Phys. Stat. Sol. A (1)

L. Arizmendi, "Photonic applications of lithium niobate crystals," Phys. Stat. Sol. A 201, 253-283 (2004).

Phys. Stat. Sol. A—Appl. Res. (1)

G. de la Paliza, A. Garcia-Cabanes, J. M. Cabrera, "Electro-optic behaviour of reverse proton exchanged LiNbO$_{3}$ waveguides," Phys. Stat. Sol. A—Appl. Res. 193, R7-R9 (2002).

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

M. Lawrence, "Lithium niobate integrated optics," Rep. Prog. Phys. 56, 363-429 (1993).

Tech. Phys. (1)

Y. N. Korkishko, V. A. Fedorov, "Dependences of the refractive indexes on the proton concentration in H: LiNbO$_{3}$ waveguides," Tech. Phys. 44, 307-316 (1999).

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