Abstract

Distortions caused by system components and by fundamental physical phenomena can limit the performance of photonic time-stretch ADCs. Here we use a combination of time-stretch linearization & equalization, DC-offset subtraction, and operation in a linear propagation regime to improve the signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratio by 17 dB for a 2-channel time-stretch ADC testbed and therein obtain noise-limited performance of 6–7 ENOB over a 10-GHz RF input bandwidth. Time-stretch linearization & equalization corrects for dispersion mismatches among testbed components by applying time-shifts calculated from component group delays to output ADC samples. DC-offset subtraction removes static errors due to insertion loss imbalances and Mach–Zehnder modulator bias offsets. If optical power levels are too high, nonlinear fiber propagation lowers the frequencies of dispersion-induced nulls in the RF transfer function and causes higher-order signal distortions. The 2-channel testbed can be directly scaled to a practical continuous-time system with the addition of more sub-aperture wavelength channels (total of 13 channels and 42 nm of optical bandwidth for a 90 MHz laser repetition rate). Adaptive online and fixed pre-calibrated stitching methods are demonstrated for joining data from one wavelength channel to the next.

© 2010 IEEE

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  1. R. H. Walden, Wiley Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Engineering (Wiley, 2008).
  2. B. Jalali, F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, "Time-stretch preprocessing overcomes ADC limitations," Microw. RF Mag. 38, 57-66 (1999).
  3. Y. Han, B. Jalali, "Photonic time-stretched analog-to-digital converter: Fundamental concepts and practical considerations," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3085-3103 (2003).
  4. Y. Han, O. Boyraz, B. Jalali, "Tera-sample per second real-time waveform digitizer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241116-241116-3 (2005).
  5. J. Chou, J. A. Conway, G. A. Sefler, G. C. Valley, B. Jalali, "150 GS/s real-time oscilloscope using a photonic front end," Dig. Tech. Papers Microw. Photon. (2008) pp. 35-38.
  6. J. Chou, G. A. Sefler, J. Conway, G. C. Valley, B. Jalali, "4-channel continuous-time 77 GSa/s ADC using photonic bandwidth compression," Dig. Tech. Papers Microw. Photon. (2007) pp. 54-57.
  7. P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O'Donnell, K. G. Ray, R. C. Williamson, "Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1840-1853 (2001).
  8. K. Poulton, R. Neff, B. Setterberg, B. Wuppermann, T. Kopley, R. Jewett, J. Pernillo, C. Tan, A. Montijo, "A 20 GS/s 8 b ADC with a 1 MB memory in 0.18 $\mu$m CMOS," Proc. Dig. Tech. Papers IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (2003) pp. 318-496.
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  15. H. Schmuck, "Comparison of optical millimeter-wave system concepts with regard to chromatic dispersion," Electron. Lett. 31, 1848-1849 (1995).
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  27. A. Ruhl, D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, "High power all-fiber mode-locked femtosecond erbium oscillator at 1520 nm with a repetition rate of 108 MHz," Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. Europe (2005) pp. 520.

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

S. Gupta, G. C. Valley, B. Jalali, "Distortion cancellation in time-stretch analog-to-digital converter," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3716-3721 (2007).

2005 (2)

Y. Han, O. Boyraz, B. Jalali, "Tera-sample per second real-time waveform digitizer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241116-241116-3 (2005).

Y. Han, O. Boyraz, B. Jalali, "Ultrawide-band photonic time-stretch A/D converter employing phase diversity," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53, 1404-1408 (2005).

2003 (2)

Y. Han, B. Jalali, "Time-bandwidth product of the photonic time-stretched analog-to-digital converter," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 51, 1886-1892 (2003).

Y. Han, B. Jalali, "Photonic time-stretched analog-to-digital converter: Fundamental concepts and practical considerations," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3085-3103 (2003).

2001 (1)

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O'Donnell, K. G. Ray, R. C. Williamson, "Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1840-1853 (2001).

2000 (1)

J. C. Twichell, R. Helkey, "Phase-encoded optical sampling for analog-to-digital converters," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1237-1239 (2000).

1999 (2)

R. H. Walden, "Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539-550 (1999).

B. Jalali, F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, "Time-stretch preprocessing overcomes ADC limitations," Microw. RF Mag. 38, 57-66 (1999).

1995 (1)

H. Schmuck, "Comparison of optical millimeter-wave system concepts with regard to chromatic dispersion," Electron. Lett. 31, 1848-1849 (1995).

1993 (1)

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, L. E. Nelson, "77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser," Opt. Lett 18, 1080-1082 (1993).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Han, O. Boyraz, B. Jalali, "Tera-sample per second real-time waveform digitizer," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241116-241116-3 (2005).

Electron. Lett. (1)

H. Schmuck, "Comparison of optical millimeter-wave system concepts with regard to chromatic dispersion," Electron. Lett. 31, 1848-1849 (1995).

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

R. H. Walden, "Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis," IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 17, 539-550 (1999).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

J. C. Twichell, R. Helkey, "Phase-encoded optical sampling for analog-to-digital converters," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 12, 1237-1239 (2000).

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (3)

Y. Han, B. Jalali, "Time-bandwidth product of the photonic time-stretched analog-to-digital converter," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 51, 1886-1892 (2003).

Y. Han, O. Boyraz, B. Jalali, "Ultrawide-band photonic time-stretch A/D converter employing phase diversity," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 53, 1404-1408 (2005).

P. W. Juodawlkis, J. C. Twichell, G. E. Betts, J. J. Hargreaves, R. D. Younger, J. L. Wasserman, F. J. O'Donnell, K. G. Ray, R. C. Williamson, "Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters," IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 49, 1840-1853 (2001).

J. Lightw. Technol. (2)

S. Gupta, G. C. Valley, B. Jalali, "Distortion cancellation in time-stretch analog-to-digital converter," J. Lightw. Technol. 25, 3716-3721 (2007).

Y. Han, B. Jalali, "Photonic time-stretched analog-to-digital converter: Fundamental concepts and practical considerations," J. Lightw. Technol. 21, 3085-3103 (2003).

Microw. RF Mag. (1)

B. Jalali, F. Coppinger, A. S. Bhushan, "Time-stretch preprocessing overcomes ADC limitations," Microw. RF Mag. 38, 57-66 (1999).

Opt. Lett (1)

K. Tamura, E. P. Ippen, H. A. Haus, L. E. Nelson, "77-fs pulse generation from a stretched-pulse mode-locked all-fiber ring laser," Opt. Lett 18, 1080-1082 (1993).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (15)

A. Ruhl, M. Engelbrecht, H. Hundertmark, P. Wessels, D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, "1 nJ all-fiber 108 MHz mode-locked erbium oscillator at 1.56 $\mu$m," Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. (2005) pp. 1429-1431.

A. Ruhl, D. Wandt, C. Fallnich, "High power all-fiber mode-locked femtosecond erbium oscillator at 1520 nm with a repetition rate of 108 MHz," Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. Europe (2005) pp. 520.

Y. Han, B. Jalali, "Differential photonic time-stretch analog-to-digital converter," Proc. Conf. Lasers Electro-Opt. (2003) pp. 1224-1225.

R. H. Walden, Wiley Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Engineering (Wiley, 2008).

J. Chou, J. A. Conway, G. A. Sefler, G. C. Valley, B. Jalali, "150 GS/s real-time oscilloscope using a photonic front end," Dig. Tech. Papers Microw. Photon. (2008) pp. 35-38.

J. Chou, G. A. Sefler, J. Conway, G. C. Valley, B. Jalali, "4-channel continuous-time 77 GSa/s ADC using photonic bandwidth compression," Dig. Tech. Papers Microw. Photon. (2007) pp. 54-57.

S. Gupta, B. Jalali, J. Stigwall, S. Galt, "Demonstration of distortion suppression in photonic time-stretch ADC using back propagation method," Dig. Tech. Papers Microw. Photon. (2007) pp. 141-144.

K. Poulton, R. Neff, B. Setterberg, B. Wuppermann, T. Kopley, R. Jewett, J. Pernillo, C. Tan, A. Montijo, "A 20 GS/s 8 b ADC with a 1 MB memory in 0.18 $\mu$m CMOS," Proc. Dig. Tech. Papers IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf. (2003) pp. 318-496.

S. Gupta, B. Jalali, "Time warps in photonic time stretch ADC and their mitigation," Dig. Tech. Papers Microw. Photon. (2008) pp. 43-46.

S. Gupta, B. Jalali, "2nd order distortion cancellation in photonic time stretch analog-to-digital converter," Proc. IEEE MTTS Int. Microw. Symp. (2007) pp. 229-232.

P. Hernday, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice-Hall, 1998) pp. 479-487.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 1992) pp. 155-159.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 1992) pp. 374-377.

Y. Han, B. Rezaei, V. P. Roychowdhury, B. Jalali, "Adaptive online calibration in time stretched ADC arrays," Proc. Instrum. Meas. Technol. Conf. (2003) pp. 1212-1216.

G. C. Valley, G. A. Sefler, J. Chou, B. Jalali, "Continuous time realization of time-stretch ADC," Dig. Tech. Papers Microw. Photon. (2006) pp. 1-3.

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